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HANDBOOK OF PORT ANDHARBOR ENGINEERINGGEOTECHNCAL AND STRUCTURAL ASPECTSGregory P. Tsinker, Ph.D., RE.E3CHAPMAN & HALLInternational Thomson PublishingNew \ork Albany Bonn Boston Cincinnati Detroit London Madrid MelbourneMexico City Pacific Grove Pari? San Francisco Singapore Tokyo Toronto Washing!n

butorsxxxvii1 THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON PORT DESIGNAND CONSTRUCTION1.1 Introduction111.1.1 General 11:1.2 Seawater and Fouling1.2 Water-level Variations481.3 Weather Factors101.4 Wind121.4.1 General12

viiiContents1.4.2 Wind Parameters141.5 Currents161.6 Waves191. 19The Sea State ParametersWave Theories 31Design Wave 33261.7 Ice1. 38Ice Covers 39Effects of Ice on Port Operations 47Cold Temperature and Ice Effects on Marine Structures Design54References61PORT (HARBOR) ELEMENTS: DESIGN PRINCIPLESAND CONSIDERATIONS692.1 General692.1.1 Port Classification 702.1.2 Port Details and Definitions712.2 Ships and their Influence on Port Design732.2.1 Ships 732.2.2 Ship Influence on Port Design 742.3 Access (Navigation) Channel2. 78Navigational and Operational Parameters 79Environmental Parameters 81Layout 82Channel Cross Section 84Economic Considerations 9678

Contents2.4 Port (Harbor) Entranceix982.5 Port Water Area (Harbor)1062.5.1 Basin Sizes 1072.6 Location, Orientation, Size, and Shape of the Port2.6.1 Selection of Port Location 1122.6.2 Size and Orientation of Marine Facilities2.6.3 Harbor Area Requirements 1151121152.7 Quay Basin1192.8 Offshore Installations1212.8.1 Offshore Bottom-Fixed Marine Facilities 1212.8.2 Single-Point Offshore Moorings 1232.9 Port-Related Marine Structures2. Requirements 124Dust and Noise Control 127Berth Requirements 128Structures 130Selection of the Most Cost Effective Structure for Dock Construction 151Constructability 1532.10 Structural Materials2. Concrete 155Underwater Concreting 172Precast Concrete 178Structural Steel in Port EngineeringStructural Timber 1951541802.11 Breakwaters1982.12 In-Harbor Slope Protection2032.13 Aids to Navigation2042.14 Mooring Accessories205

Contents2.15 Fender 06Timber Fenders 208Solid Rubber Fenders 210Pneumatic Fenders 216Foam-Filled Fenders 222Other Fender Systems 222Fenders Failure 226General Principles i n Fender System Selection a n d Design226References232D E S I G N LOADS2433.1General2433.2Environmental Loads2443. 245Currents 248Waves 251 3.3 Mooring Loads3. Lines A r r a n g e m e n t 261Mooring Line Materials 262Mooring Forces 262Loads From Cargo Handling a n d Hauling E q u i p m e n t a n d UniformDistributed Loads3. Considerations 267Design Load Assumptions 269 Uniform Distributed Cargo Loads and Miscellaneous Live LoadsRubber Tire and Crawler Track Mounted Equipment 272Rail-Mounted Cargo 279Fixed-Base Equipment 2822672713.5Ship Impact (by M. Shiono in collaboration with G. Tsinker)2833.6Ice Loads2933. 293Environmental Driving Forces 294Ice-Crushing Load 295Loads Due to Ice Bending Mode of Failure297

Contents3. Due to Ice Sheet Adfreeze to the Structure 299Vertical Loads on Piles or Piers Due to Changes in Water LevelIce Load of Thermal Origin 301Other Ice-Induced Loads 3023003.7 Seismic Loads (by W. S. Dunbar)3.7.1 Seismic Ground Motion 3033.7.2 Descriptions of Ground Motion 3073.7.3 Design Ground Motion Estimation 3123.7.4 Design Loads 3183023.8 Load Combinations319References3204 GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTIONDESIGN CONSIDERATIONS3314.1 General3314.2 Subsurface Investigation3334.3 Soil Liquefaction and Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential (by G. Tsinkerand W. S. Dunbar). 34.4 Basic Design and Construction Considerations4. Trends 342Bottom-Fixed Structures 343Safety Considerations 345Construction Procedure 3474.5 Soils and Bedrock3484.5.1 Gravel and Sand 3484.5.2 Silt and Clay 3494.5.3 Bedrock 3504.6 Properties and Characteristics of Soils4.6.1 Shear Strength 3544.6.2 Compressibility (Consolidation)4.6.3 Permeability 357352356

Contents4.7 Lateral Soil 8Active Earth Pressure 359Effects of Wall Movement 368Effects of Time-Dependent Changes in Soil 374Effect of Ambient Temperature on Earth PressuresEffects of Backfill Freezing 376Passive Earth Pressure 376Earth Pressure at Rest 380Compaction-Induced Pressure 3813764.8 Friction Forces on Walls3814.9 Dynamic Soil be-Okabe Formulation 383Effect of Saturated Backfill 385Hydrodynamic Pressures 385Effect of Wall Inertia 386Selection of Ground Motions 387Effect of Wall Movements 387References3885 GRAVITY-TYPE QUAY WALLS3975.1 General3975.2 Basic Structural Blockwork Structures 403Quay Walls Composed of Floated-in Concrete Caissons 409" Quay Walls Composed of Large-Diameter Cylinders 428Cribwork Quay Walls 435Steel Sheet-Pile Cell Bulkheads 439Quay Walls 446Gravity-Type Walls 4525.3 Basic Design Considerations4615.3.1 Loads and Forces Load Combinations5.3.2 Basic Static Principles 4645.4 Design of Blockwork Quay Walls5.4.1 Basic Design Principles461478478

gnPhasePhasePhasePhase12344804834844845.5 Design of Quay Walls Comprised of Floated-in Concrete Caissons5. Design Principles 485Buoyancy and Buoyant Stability of a Caisson 485Buoyancy and Stability of a Damaged Caisson 489Caisson Launch 490Towing and Sinking 496Structural Design 4975.6 Design of Quay Walls Composed of Large-Diameter Cylinders5005.7 Design of L-Shaped Walls5045. Requirements 504Design of Cantilever WallsDesign of Counterfort WallDesign of Wall ConstructedInternal Anchorage 5085.7.5 Design of Wall ConstructedExternal Anchorage 508506507from Prefabricated Components withfrom Prefabricated Components with5.8 Design of Cellular-type Steel Sheet-pile duction 511Conventional Design Method 512Horizontal Shear (Cummings') Method 518Brinch Hansen Method 519Seismic Design of Cellular Bulkheads 519Deflection of Cellular Bulkhead 520Effects of Concentrated Horizontal Loads on Sheet-Pile Cell5115225.9 Design of Cribwork-type Quay Walls5225.10 Reinforced Earth Quay (by D. Weinreb and P. Wu)5245.10.1 General Concept 5245.10.2 Design of Reinforced Earth Marine Structures 5325.10.3 Construction of Reinforced Earth Walls Underwater 536References542

xiv6ContentsSHEET-PILE BULKHEADS5496.1 Introduction5496.1.1 Sheet-Piling—Background 5496.1.2 Anchoring Systems 5526.1.3 Sequence of Construction 5556.2 Sheet-Piling—Structural and Driving Aspects6. Sheet Piles 556Steel Sheet Piles 558Concrete Sheet Piles 561Selection of Sheet-Pile Section5555706.3 Anchor Systems6.3.1 Anchor System Comprised of Tie-Rods and Anchorages6.3.2 Anchor System Comprised of Raked Piles 5766.3.3 Ground (Rock) Anchors 5835715726.4 Wall Capping5896.5 Construction Methods5916. Sequence 591Sheet-Pile Driving 592Pile Jetting 596Earthwork 6026.6 Earth Pressures on Flexible Walls: State-of-the-Art Review6066.7 Design of Sheet-pile gnCriteria 623of Cantilever Walls 625of Anchored Bulkheads 630of Sheet-Pile Bulkheads Anchored by Raked Piles6.8 Sheet-Pile Bulkheads Built on Creep Soils6436536.8.1 Cantilever Sheet-Pile Bulkhead 6556.8.2 Single-Anchor Sheet-Pile Bulkhead 6576.8.3 Multianchor Sheet-Pile Bulkhead 6616.9 Anchorage Design665

Contents6. Anchorages 666Sheet-Pile Anchor Wall 667Individual Vertical Anchor PilesDeadman (Plate) Anchor 670xv6696.10 Waling and Tie-Rod Design6726.11 Ground (Rock) Anchors6736.12 Overall Stability6796.13 Seismic Design of Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls (by W. S. Dunbar)6826. , Failure Modes 682Seismic Design Procedure 683Assumption 683Factor of Safety Against Failure by RotationSize and Location of Anchor Block 684 Balanced Design Procedure 6856836.14 Sheet-Pile Wall Failure686References6887 PILED WATERFRONT STRUCTURES6957.1 Introduction6957.2 General6977.2.1 Structural Schemes and Structural Components7.2.2 Prefabrication 7017.3 Open Pile Structures With Suspended Decks7. Piled Offshore Piers 702Piling 710Suspended Deck Structures for Marginal Wharves 711Basic Design Principles 712Suspended Deck Structures Founded on Large-Diameter Cylindrical Piles7187.3.6 Protection from Ship Impact 722

xviContents7.3.7 Pile Anchoring in Foundation Soil and the Deck Structure 7247.4 Relieving Platforms7257.5 Structural Elements7347.5.1 Pile Foundation 7357.5.2 Superstructure 7767.5.3 Underdeck Slope 7827.6 Pile-Soil Interaction7957.6.1 General 7957.6.2 Piles Under Axial Static Load7.6.3 Pile Settlement 8178037.7 Laterally Loaded Piles'.47.7.5820General 820Conventional Design Methods 822Broms' Method 826Subgrade Reaction Approach 829Laterally Loaded Socketed Piles 8367.8 Piled Marine Structures Design Methods8377.8.1 Design Criteria 8377.8.2 Design Methods 838References8658 OFFSHORE DEEP WATER TERMINALS8.2 Layout8798818.2.1 Dry Bulk Loading/Unloading Facilities 882 .8.2.2 Liquid Bulk Loading/Unloading Terminals 8868.3 Mooring System8.3.1 Basic Structural Concepts8888908.4 Dolphins and Platforms8.4.1 Breasting Dolphins 8938.4.2 Piled Breasting Dolphins 8958.4.3 Gravity-Type Dolphins 896893

Contents8. Jacket-Type Structures 898Fenders 898Mooring Dolphins 898Loading/Unloading Platforms 899Access Trestles and Catwalks 899Structural Design8. Foundation and its Effects on Structural DesignBasic Design Procedures 903901901References9149 MODERNIZATION OF EXISTING MARINE FACILITIES9179.1Introduction9179.2Modernization of Mooring Structures9199. of Gravity-Type Quay Walls 920Modernization of Piled Wharves 925Modernization of Sheet-Pile Bulkheads 925New Wall Construction 929Modernization of Waterfront Structures: Characteristic Examples9. Quay Walls 930Modification of Piled Coal-Loading Pier No. 6 at Norfolk, VirginiaUse of Piled Structures and Sheet-Pile Walls for Modernizationof Existing Structures 942Construction of, Brand New Structures 949References94094910 BREAKWATER DESIGN (by S. Takahashi)95110.1 Historic Development of Breakwaters95210.1.1 Structural Types 95210.1.2 Conditions for Breakwater Selection 95610.1.3 Comparison of Sloping- and Vertical-Type Breakwaters10.1.4 Historical Development of Breakwaters 95710.2Design of Conventional Vertical Breakwaters956977

Contents10. of Conventional Vertical Breakwaters 977Wave Transmission and Reflection by Vertical Walls 978Wave Forces on Vertical Walls 981Design of Rubble-Mound Foundation 1001Rubble-Mound Toe Protection Against Scouring 100510.3 Design of New Types of Vertical Breakwater10.3.1 Perforated Wall Breakwater10.3.2 Inclined Walls 10151006100710.4 Design of Horizontally Composite Breakwaters102010.4.1 Wave Transmission and Reflection 102110.4.2 Wave and Block Load on a Vertical Wall 102210.4.3 Stability of Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks 102310.5 Design of Rubble-Mound Breakwaters10.5.1 Wave Transmission and Reflection 102510.5.2 Design of Armor Layer 102710.5.3 Inner Layers, Core, Toe, and Wave Screen10241034References1036Index1045

PORT (HARBOR) ELEMENTS: DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND CONSIDERATIONS 69 2.1 General 69 2.1.1 Port Classification 70 2.1.2 Port Details and Definitions 71 2.2 Ships and their Influence on Port Design 73 2.2.1 Ships 73 2.2.2 Ship Influence on Port Design 74 2.3 Access (Navigation) Channel 78 2.3.1 General 78 2.3.2 Navigational and Operational Parameters 79

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