Religion - West Linn-Wilsonville School District

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ReligionUNIT 5

Key Question:What is Religion and WhatRole does it Play in Culture?

Religion: A system of beliefs and practicesthat attempts to order life in terms ofculturally perceived ultimate priorities.Perceived ultimate priorities often translateinto a list of things a follower “should” doand ways a follower “should” behave.

Classifications of Religions Monotheisticreligions – worship asingle deity.

Polytheistic religions– worship more thanone deity, eventhousands.

Animistic religions – belief that inanimateobjects posses spirits and should be revered

Universalizing religions – religions thatactively seek converts because membersbelieve they offer belief systems of universalappropriateness and appeal.

Ethnic religions – religions whose adherentsare born into the faith and whose membersdo not actively seek converts.

Indigenous Religions Belief systems and philosophies practicedand passed from generation to generationamong peoples within an indigenous tribeor group.– Indigenous produced, growing, living, oroccurring naturally in a particular regionor environment.

Shamanism Community faithin traditionalsocieties in whichpeople follow ashaman. Theshaman is areligious leader,teacher, healerand visionary.

Rise of Secularism Secularism – Indifference to or rejection oforganized religious affiliations and ideas.- Where is secularism on the rise and why?

Sacred Sites: Places or spaces people infuse withreligious meaning.

Pilgrimage: Purposeful travel to a religious site to payrespects or participate in a ritual at the site.

Buddhist Stupas -72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditationwere built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.

BuddhismOriginated:Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in aregion from Nepal south to the Ganges River area.Core Beliefs:Anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenmentFounder:Siddartha (the Buddha)Sacred Sites:StupasDiffusion:Most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia

HinduismOriginated:In Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago.Core Beliefs:Ritual bathing, karma, reincarnationSacred Text:VedasSacred Sites:Ganges RiverDiffusion:Through South Asia and into Southeast Asia

TaoismOriginated:In China more than 2500 years agoCore Beliefs:Oneness of humanity and natureFounder:Lao-TsuSacred Text:“Book of the Way”Diffusion:East Asia

ConfucianismOriginated:In China about 2500 years agoCore Belief:Real meaning of life lays in the presentFounder:ConfuciusSacred Text:“Confucian Classics”Diffusion:East Asia, Southeast Asia

IslamOriginated:On Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago.Core Beliefs:Monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammadreceived from Allah, Five Pillars.Sacred Text:Qu’ranFounder:MuhammadSacred Sites:Mecca, Medina, JerusalemDiffusion:Across Arabian peninsula, across NorthAfrica, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia

JudaismOriginated:In Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago.Core Beliefs:First major monotheistic religion, covenant betweenGod (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people)Sacred Text:TorahFounder:AbrahamSacred Sites:Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean andthe Jordan RiverDiffusion:Into European cities during the Diaspora,into N. America during WWII,into Israel over last 50 years

ChristianityOriginated:In Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago.Core Beliefs:Monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus toachieve eternal lifeSacred text:BibleFounder:Jesus (son of God)Sacred Sites:Bethlehem, JerusalemDiffusion:Into Western Europe, and then world wide duringcolonialism and after.

Religion and Cultural Landscape

Western Wall, Jerusalem

Sacred Sites of JerusalemJerusalem is sacred to three major religions:Judaism (Western Wall)Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre)Islam (Dome of the Rock)

Hindu Burial Ceremonies Cremation People who arebeing cremated arewashed in waterdrawn from Gangesriver. The body isthen carried to thecremation groundas prayers arechanted to Yama(God). A burial is reservedfor children andpeople with certaindiseases.

Buddhist Burial Practices In Buddhist practice, the deceased is cremated. A Buddhist funeral is a simple, solemn and dignifiedceremony. Buddhists believe that when a person dies, rebirth willtake place somewhere else according to his good or badactions.

Islamic Burial Practice Muslimspractice naturalburial, with thedeceased'sbody covered inshroud andwith the facefacing Mecca,the holiest cityin Islam

Jewish Burial Practices– The body of the deceased iswashed thoroughly– embalming is not permitted,the coffins are constructed sothat the body will be returnedto the Earth as soon as possible.– coffins are made of pine wood, andhave no metal parts at all (woodenpegs are used in the place of nailsceased is buried in a simple pine coffin)-mourning for 3 days

Christian Burial Practices Buried Headstones may includecrosses or verses from theBible. Historically, the headshould be placed at thewestern end of the grave,this mirrors the layout ofChristian churches and forthe same reason, to viewthe coming of Christ

ReligiousFundamentalism and Extremism Religious fundamentalism: A return to thebasics of their faith found in Christianity,Judaism, and Islam.

Religious extremism: Fundamentalismcarried to the point of violence. Found inChristianity, Judaism, and Islam.

Jihad Translates as "to struggle in the way ofAllah.” There are two commonly acceptedmeanings of jihad– An inner spiritual struggle by a believerto fulfill his religious duties.– Jihad also includes the idea of anarmed struggle against persecutionand oppression.Islamic extremists have declared anIslamic holy war against the West

Intrafaith Boundaries: Boundaries within asingle major faith.

Two Major Splits in Christianity1. Split into Eastern Orthodox and RomanCatholic churches in 10542. Protestant sect split off in 1400s and1500s

First Split in Christianity, 1054 CEWestern Roman empire Roman CatholicismEastern Roman empire Eastern Orthodox o5cr-iWFXNw

The Conflict Political and Religious conflict in NorthernIreland. Lasted from 1966 – 1998. Conflict was between minority Catholics andmajority Protestants. Catholics wanted Northern Ireland to re-unifyunder the Irish government Protestants wanted to remain under thecontrol of the British

Historical Background1542 King Henry VIII declaresEnglish control over all ofIreland. A series of bloody, tragicepisodes, punctuated withperiods of peace would playout over the next 500 years.

1649 -1650 THE IRISH CONQUEST Oliver Cromwell carries out the conquestof Ireland. 660,000 Irish people were killed. Twenty thousand Irish boys and girlswere sold into slavery to the West Indies Executed thousands of Catholic Clergy

1845THE GREAT IRISH FAMINEPeriod of mass starvation,disease and emigrationPotato blight destroyed 2/3of the potato crop1 million deaths –about 20%of the population1 million emigrate

Potato blight wipedout crops all acrossEurope and parts ofthe Americas –So why did Irelandsuffer so much morethan any other area?

Ethnic Cleansing? Food, from 30 to 50 shiploads perday, was removed at gunpoint(from Ireland) by Britishconstables and soldiers. Britain seized tens of millions ofhead of livestock, tens of millionsof tons of flour, grains, meat,poultry and dairy productsenough to sustain 18-millionpersons. Starving victims were offeredfood in return for denouncingtheir Catholic faith andconverting.

1916 EASTER RISINGIrish Nationalists seizekey governmentbuildings in Dublin anddeclare an IrishRepublic

1919 - 1921 WAR OF IRISHINDEPENDENCE– War ends with thecreation of the Irish freestate

The CreationNorthern Ireland Six counties in NorthernIreland, which arepredominantlyProtestant, maintainloyalty to England.

The TroublesBegin Civil Rightsmovement emergesin early 1960’s Minority Catholicsprotestdiscrimination inareas of housing,employment andpolicing

Armed Paramilitary Groups form tofight for each side of the conflict Paramilitary: A group of civilians organized in amilitary fashion, especially to operate in place of orassist regular army troops.

Irish RepublicanArmy Irish Nationalists – wantto reunite with theRepublic of Ireland Catholic minority

Ulster Volunteer Force Loyalist – want tomaintain ties to England Protestant Majority

For the next thirty years the two groupswould carry out a conflict of bombings,riots and assassinations.

Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC – The North Irish Police are pulled intothe conflict and are seen as supportive of theLoyalists.

British Military As conflict escalated British military is sent tostabilize and bring peace. Although “neutral” the IRA and Catholics lostfaith in the military when they arrested hundredsof IRA members

1998 Good Friday Agreement Peace Agreement between British government, Irishgovernment and eight political parties from NorthernIreland. Northern Ireland remains under British control, but ismore independent and a two new legislative bodiesare created to give Irish Catholics morerepresentation in government. IRA and UVF agree to decommission all weapons andaddress concerns through peaceful negotiations.

The Troubles.

Major split in IslamShortly after Muhammad’s death, split into1. Sunni Muslims (the majority)2. Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran)

Interfaith Boundaries: Boundaries betweenthe world’s major faiths.

Interfaith Boundary in Africa

Israel andPalestine

Diaspora – To Disperse Describes the forced or voluntary dispersalof a people from their homeland to a newplace. Originally applied to the dispersal of Jews,but is now applied to any large scalepopulation dispersal.

Jewish Diaspora The original Diaspora occurred after theRoman destruction of Jerusalem in 66-70CE. Jews dispersed north into Central Europeand across North Africa and Spain.

Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people ofthe Diaspora and to establish a nationalhomeland for them in the promised land.– Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity.– Opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies.– Advocated the return of Jews to Israel.– Seeks to protect and defend Jews from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, andpersecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora.

The West Bankwith a the proposedsecurity wall, partsof which the Israeligovernment hasalready built.

Caste System The strict socialsegregation of people onthe basis of ancestry andoccupation. Specifically in India’sHindu society.

Four Main Classes - Varnas

The Untouchables The untouchables were theoutcastes, or people beyondthe caste system. Their jobsor habits involved “pollutingactivities” including: Any job that involvedending a life, such as fishing. Killing or disposing of deadcattle or working with theirhides. Any contact with humanemissions such as sweat,urine, or feces. This includedoccupational groups such assweepers and washermen. People who ate meat.

Diffusion ofIslam intoEuropelarge mosque inParis, France

Religious Landscapes in the United States

QODA. Define Universalizing religionB. Define Ethnic religionC. Give an example of a universalizing religionand three reasons that it is considereduniversalizing.D. Give an example of an ethnic religion andgive three reasons why it is considered anethnic religion.

Jewish neighborhoods in European Citiesthe Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic

A. Define Universalizing religion B. Define Ethnic religion C. Give an example of a universalizing religion and three reasons that it is considered universalizing. D. Give an example of an ethnic religion and give three reasons