BiologyUnit 2Matter, Energy, and Life2:1 Matter and EnergyMATTER: anything that has mass and takes up spaceThree States (phases) of Matter1. SOLID: matter with definitevolume and shape2. LIQUID: matter with definitevolume but no definite shape3. GAS: matter with no definitevolume nor shapeHow does Matter Change? PHYSICAL CHANGE: change in size,shape, or state of mattere.g. changing wood boards into a chair CHEMICAL CHANGE: change from onesubstance to anothere.g. wood burningELEMENT: substance that cannot be broken down tosimpler substances by ordinary meansATOM: smallest unit of an element with all the properties ofthat elementSYMBOL: shorthand way to represent one atom of anelemente.g. Hydrogen – HSodium – NaOxygen – OIron – FeCarbon – CNitrogen – N
2:2 Structure of the AtomAreas in an Atom1. NUCLEUS: positively chargedcenter of an atom containingalmost all the atomic mass2. ELECTRON CLOUD: negativelycharged area around the nucleuswith almost no massAtomic Particles1. PROTON: positively charged particle in the nucleus, hasmass (1 AMU)*2. ELECTRON: negatively charged particle in the electroncloud, no mass3. NEUTRON: neutral (no charge) particle in the nucleus,has mass (1 AMU)**AMU: Atomic Mass UnitThe charge of a proton (p ) is EQUAL and OPPOSITE to thecharge of an electron (e-).In ALL ATOMS the number of protons equals the number ofelectrons. ATOMS HAVE NO OVERALL ELECTRICALCHARGE.Elements are different because they have different numbersof protons and electrons than other elements.ATOMIC NUMBER: the number of protons (or electrons) inone atom of an elementAtomic Number # p #eATOMIC MASS NUMBER: the number of protons PLUS thenumber of neutrons in an atom of an element
Atomic Mass Number # p # n# n Atomic Mass Number - # p Always round the Atomic Mass to thenearest whole number.ISOTOPES: atoms of the same element (same atomic #)with different numbers of neutrons (different atomic mass)ATOMIC MASS UNIT: (AMU) unit used to measure mass ofatoms and atomic particles1 AMU mass of 1 p mass of 1 nENERGY LEVELS: paths that electrons follow around thenucleus1st EL- holds 2 e- or 1 pair2nd EL- holds 8 e- or 4 pairs3rd EL – holds 8 e- or 4 pairsInner ELs must be full before next EL begins to fill. All atomswant full OEL(outer energy level). 2 in 1st 8 in 2nd 8 in 3rd
2:3 CompoundsCOMPOUND: substance in which two or more elements arecombined chemicallyMOLECULE: smallest unit of a compound with all theproperties of the compoundFORMULA: shorthand way to represent one molecule of acompoundSUBSCRIPT: number representing the number of atoms ofan element in one molecule of a compoundexampleH2O 2 atoms of Hydrogen1 atom of Oxygenformula for 1 molecule of waterFacts About Making Compounds1. Under certain conditions, most elements will chemicallycombine with other elements.CHEMICALLY ACTIVE: elements that will chemicallycombineINERT: elements with almost no chemical activity due tofull outer energy levels2. Each element has its own combining capacity.3. In forming compounds, elements combine in definiteproportions
4. A compound has different properties than the element ofwhich it is made.2:4 EnergyENERGY: the ability to do work or cause changeTwo Types of Energy1. KINETIC ENERGY: energy of motion, energy actuallydoing work or causing change2. POTENTIAL ENERGY: energy of position, stored orchemical energyEnergy may change from one form to another.ACTIVATION ENERGY: energy needed to begin the changefrom potential energy to kinetic energyLAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND ENERGY:matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed but maybe changed from one form to anotherCATALYST: chemical substance that can reduce the amountof activation energy needed to start a reaction
2:5 Chemical BondingCHEMICAL BOND: force holding elements (atoms) togetherto form compounds (molecules)Elements form bonds to fill their Outer Energy Levels.Two Types of Chemical Bonds1. COVALENT BOND: bond formed whentwo atoms share electrons in their OEL,electrons orbit nuclei of both atoms2. IONIC BOND: bond due to electricalattraction of two atoms which havetransferred electrons from one to the otherION: atoms which carry or – electrical chargedue to loss or gain of electronsexampleNa e- donor Na Cl e- acceptor ClNaCl salt held together by IONICBOND the attraction of oppositely chargedionsDIATOMIC MOLECULE: compound formed whentwo atoms of the same element covalently bondexamples H2 O2 N2 Cl2
2:6 Water and SolutionsWater is a polar molecule.POLAR: uneven distribution of chargeThey do not share electrons equally, soHydrogen and Oxygen have chargedpoles. H is slightly positive and O is slightlynegative.PROPERTIES OF WATER:1. COHESION: water molecules stick to each other as aresult of attractive forces between hydrogen bondsa. Example: how water has the ability to travel fromroots to the leaves2. ADHESION: attractive forcesbetween two particles ofdifferent substances, such aswater and glassa. Example: Insects on thesurface of water3. HIGH HEAT CAPACITY:absorb and release largeamounts of energy without change intemperaturea. Example: Earth’s oceansstabilize global temperaturesenough to allow life to exist
4. SOLVENT: fluid that dissolves solutesa. Example: Because water is polar it has the ability todissolve a large number of substances (proteins,sugars, etc)b. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide dissolve in water in theblood and then carry to different parts of the body5. DENSITY OF ICE-solid water is less dense than liquidwatera. EXTREMELY IMPORTANT! Bodies of water freezefrom the top down and not the bottom up.Write 1-2 sentences explaining what the effect would be ifwater froze from the bottom up.Water has CAPILLARITY: attraction of molecules that resultsin the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with asolid (straws, plant roots)SolutionsSOLUTION: mixture in which one or more substances areuniformly distributed in another substanceSOLUTE: substance being dissolvedSOLVENT: substance that dissolves the soluteCONCENTRATION: amount of solute dissolved in a fixedamount of the solution
Using a lot of Kool-Aid mix will make your Kool-Aid tastestronger because it would be highly concentrated.2:7 Acids, Bases, and the pH ScaleACIDS: ionic compounds that break apart in water to formpositively charged hydrogen ions (H )Examples – Vinegar, CitrusFruits, Stomach Acid(Hydrochloric Acid) The strength of an acid isdetermined by the concentrationof hydrogen ions (H ) in thesolution. The more H ions the strongerthe acid.Characteristics of Acids: Acids taste sour Acids react strongly with metals (Zn HCl) Strong Acids are dangerous and can burn your skin
BASES: ionic compounds that break apart in water to formnegatively charged hydroxide ions(OH-)Examples – Ammonia, Lye(Sodium Hydroxide) The strength of a base is determinedby the concentration of Hydroxideions (OH-) in the solution. The more OH- ions the stronger the base. Solutions containing bases are often called alkaline.Characteristics of Bases Bases taste bitter and feel slippery Strong bases are very dangerous and can burn your skinpH SCALE: a scale that measures the strength of an acid orbase in a solution The pH scale is a measure of the hydrogen ionconcentration. It spans from 0 to 14 with the middle point pH 7 beingneutral, neither acidic nor basic. pH number GREATER than 7 base pH number LESS than 7 acid 0 is the strongest acid and 14 is the strongest base.
INDICATOR: a special type of compound that changes coloras the pH of a solution changes, thus indicating the pH of thesolutionBUFFER: chemical substances that neutralize smallamounts of acids or bases (bringing the pH closer to 7)2:8 Inorganic versus OrganicORGANIC : from lifeINORGANIC: not from life
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: compound not a product ofliving organismsImportant Inorganic Compounds1. OXYGEN(O2): needed to release energy from foodthrough cellular respiration2. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2): needed for photosynthesis,supplies carbon to living thingsa. **exception: this inorganic compound contains acarbon atom**3. WATER (H2O): most abundant inorganiccompound, most abundant of all compounds inliving things.ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: carbon containing compoundsmanufactured by living thingsOrganic compounds may be represented by Molecular formula CH4 Structural formula HHCHHFUNCTIONAL GROUPS: the portion of a molecule that isactive in a chemical reaction and that determines theproperties of many organic compounds
Common Functional Groups:Functional teExample
STRUCTURAL FORMULA: map of the atoms and bonds ina molecule Symbols represent atoms Lines represent bonds– single bond – 1 pair e- shared double bond – 2 pairs e- shared triple bond – 3 pairs e- sharedSTRUCTURAL FORMULAS ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSEmany organic compounds have the same molecular formulaand different structures.BIOSYNTHESIS: manufacture of organic compounds byliving things2:9 Types of Large Carbon MoleculesMONOMERS: small, simple moleculesPOLYMERS: monomers combined together to create morecomplex moleculesMACROMOLECULES: large polymers1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic AcidsOrder smallest to largest:Monomers Polymers Macromolecules
2:10 CarbohydratesCARBOHYDRATES: organic compounds made of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen; H and O in a 2:1 ratio; examples:sugars, starches, celluloseSUGARS: carbohydrates made by plants, provide fuel(energy) for living thingsTwo Types of Sugars1. MONOSACCHARIDES: simple sugars containing carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio; C6H12O6 orC5H10O5; examples - glucose, galactose, fructose.2. DISACCHARIDES: two simple sugars combined;C12H22O11; examples - maltose, sucrose, lactose.POLYSACCHARIDES: complex carbohydrates made ofthree or more simple sugars chemically combined; example starches, cellulose.DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS: the formation of a largemolecule by chemically combining 2 small molecules andremoving a water moleculeC6H12O6 C6H12O6 C12H22O11 H2O
HYDROLYSIS: the chemical breakdown of a large moleculeinto small molecules by the addition of a water moleculeC12H22O11 H2O C6H12O6 C6H12O62:11 Lipids and ProteinsLIPIDS: large, nonpolarorganic molecules that storehigh amounts of energy Contain C, H, and O Made up of FATTY ACIDS: unbranched carbon chainsthat make up most lipids examples - fats, oils, waxes
Three classes of lipids important to living things:1. RATED: High melting pointcomposed of Hard at room T saturated fattyacidsUNSATURATED: Soft or liquid atComposed ofroom T unsaturated fattyacids2. PHOSPHOLIPIDS: have two,rather than three, fatty acidsattached to a molecule ofglycerola. Example: Make the cellmembrane3. WAXES: type of structural lipidconsisting of a long fatty-acidchain joined to a long alcohol chaina. Example: ear wax toprevent microorganismsfrom entering the ear canal
Lipids have more bonds than carbohydrates. Breaking bonds releases energy Lipids have high potential energy2:12 Nucleic Acids and ProteinsNUCLEIC ACIDS: complex biological compounds made ofchains of nucleotides, serve as instructions for proteinsynthesis; examples – DNA, RNA Functions: Store hereditary information; Energy storingmolecule (ATP) Monomers-NUCLEOTIDE: made up of a phosphategroup, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shapednitrogenous baseA phosphate groupnitrogen-containing molecule,called a basedeoxyribose (sugar)PROTEINS: organic compoundscomposed mainly of carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenAMINO ACIDS: “building blocks” ofprotein Monomers of Proteins
PEPTIDE BOND: when two amino acids form a covalentbond to make proteins by releasing a water molecule The 20 amino acids are the “alphabet” from which proteinsare formedThe R group is what changes anamino acid and gives proteins verydifferent shapes Different shapes allow proteins tocarry out many different activities inliving things Each organism makes its ownindividual proteins according to the instructions of its DNA You ingest plant or animal protein, break it down intoamino acids (HYDROLYSIS), and use the amino acids tomanufacture your proteins (DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS).2:13 EnzymesCATALYSTS: substance that changes the rate of a chemicalreaction without being affected by the reactionENZYMES: proteins that act as catalysts in living organisms;example - digestive enzymesSUBSTRATE: substance(s) that an enzyme causes to reactACTIVE SITE: area where enzyme and substrate fit togetherduring reaction
How do enzymes work?1. The enzyme and thesubstrate fit together atthe active site formingthe enzyme-substratecomplex.2. Reaction occurs.3. Enzyme is released andmay be re-used.Denaturing Proteins1. Change inTemperature (Fever)2. Change in pH levels3. Introducing an inhibitor(snake venom)Enzymes can work faster if you have an activator. Yourmetabolism can be controlled through enzyme activators.
2:14 Summarize rate Monosaccharide Energysource StructuralmaterialsAmino AcidsProteins Structural Defensive CatalystsLipidsNucleic AcidsExample Glucose Fructose Starch Soy beans Cheese Pumpkinseed Enzymes Oils Fattymeats Storeenergy Make-upcellmembrane Genetic DNAinfo RNA Energy ATPsourceGlycerol andFatty AcidsNucleotide-
2:1 Matter and Energy MATTER: anything that has mass and takes up space Three States (phases) of Matter 1. SOLID: matter with definite volume and shape 2. LIQUID: matter with definite volume but no definite shape 3. GAS: matter with no definite volume nor shape How does Matter Change? PHYSICAL CHANGE: c
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