ECE 635 Advanced Semiconductor Devices

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ECE 635Advanced Semiconductor DevicesGong GuCourse website: ggu1/files/GradHome.htmlFall 2017

Why Semiconductors?Sometimes we say “solid state”Image, sound,temperature,pressure, ng(Amps, A/D,processors,tranceivers )Information transmission(wires, busses, cables, optical fibers, or just air!)Informationprocessing(tranceivers,processors, )Displays Brains and muscles of thesystem are made ofsemiconductors Metals & dielectrics are used astransmission media Why?

What’s common for all the core components?Light, sound,temperature,pressure, Voltage,sensor currentVinVin AVoutVoutoutputVoutinputModulation of some physical quantity (output) by some othersSome kind of gain, conversion ratio, sensitivity, etcVin

Example: Field-Effect Transistors (FETs)Semiconductor vs MetalVoutVoutVinVinFET’s are building blocks.GSDSchematic illustration of a FETFor SiO2 dielectric, breakdown field Eb 107 V/cm.No matter how thick it is, the maximum inducedcarrier area density is r 0Eb/q 2 1013 /cm2.(Recall Gauss’s law)For a 1 m thick Si channel,ni 1.45 1010 /cm3,the background carrier area density isni 10 4 cm 1.45 106 /cm2.In principle, the area carrier density, and thereforethe channel conductance, can be modulated by 7orders of mag!!!(Si’s next-door neighbor in the periodic table)For Al, n 1.8 1023 /cm3. Even for 1 nm thin (monolayers!) Al, the background carrierarea density is 1.8 1016 /cm2. The conductance can only be modulated by 0.1%!!!What are semiconductors, anyway?

What are semiconductors, anyway?Crystal structure of Si .html Take Si as example: work horse of the semiconductor industry Regular, periodic Each Si atom are bonded to 4 neighborsSi: Z 14, 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p2, group IV

What are semiconductors? -- Simplified picturesNaClBond s-bond-structure-affect-melting-pointMetal: “electron gas”metalliccovalentionicThis line is fuzzyfilledAllowed statesemptyEnergy of electronsBand r

A Digression: The Vast Field of Electrical onductorprocessingInformation theorySolid- Semiconductor Devicestatephysics ntrol theoryCore knowledge body of the device engineer Different disciplines are different levels of extraction Device engineers are at the junction of many disciplines Follow your passion

A Digression: The Vast Field of Electrical onductorprocessingInformation theorySolid- Semiconductor Devicestatephysics ntrol theoryCore knowledge body of the device engineer But, each small field can consume one’s entire life So, how can one be a good device engineer?

A Digression: The Vast Field of Electrical onductorprocessingInformation theorySolid- Semiconductor Devicestatephysics re knowledge body of the device engineerHow can one be a good device engineer?The big picture!This course is about the big picture.This course is tailored to suit your research interest.Control theory

Let’s get to know each other! Name, year Previous exposure to quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, devicephysics, processing, ckt design (courses hands-on) Advisor Research field, particular topic Like it?Class meeting schedule

SyllabusCourse Objective:To provide students with an understanding of device physics and advancedsemiconductor device concepts.Topics Review of Semiconductor physics- Crystal structure, band structures, band structure modification by alloys,heterostructures, and strain- Carrier statistics- Scattering, defects, phonons, mobility, transport in heterostructures Device concepts- pn junction- MOSFETs, MESFETs, MODFETs, TFTs- Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs)- Semiconductor processing- Photodiodes, LEDs, semiconductor lasers- Introduction to nanoelectronicsThis is the bottom-up approach. We will take a different approach.

Syllabus (Cont’d)Reference books Jasprit Singh, Physics of Semiconductors and Their HeterostructursReads like somebody’s notes. May not be the most elegant or strict from a physics point ofview, but definitely serves semiconductor folks well. Intriguing and stimulating. Jasprit Singh, Semiconductor Devices:Basic PrinciplesBook by the same author on Devices but including semiconductor physics & processing. U. K. Mishra & J. Singh, Semiconductor Device Physics and DesignE-book available on line thru UT Lib. Karl Hess, Advanced Theory of Semiconductor DevicesThin, but covers lots of stuff at advanced levels Ben Streetman, Solid State Electronic DevicesFrom basic physics to device concepts. Oldie goodie. S. M. Sze (施敏), Physics of Semiconductor DevicesThe “Bible” of device engineers. Not for beginners. Keep it in mind or on your shelf; anexcellent reference book for your future career. R. S. Muller & T. I. Kamins, Device Electronics for Integrated CircuitsAn undergrad textbook on Si microelectronics, but good to have. I go back to it quite often. J. D. Plummer, M. D. Deal, P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI technology: fundamentals,practice and modelingBest textbook on processing, by the people who developed many of the models.

Syllabus (Cont’d)Journals IEEE Electron Device Letters IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices Applied Physics Letters Journal of Applied PhysicsWebsites Wikipedia (Are you kidding? No!) Ioffe Physico-Technical properties of many semiconductors.

Syllabus (Cont’d: The Tough Part)Evaluation Classroom participation, performance (15%) Homework / Mini projects – simple (50%) Term paper: Review of a selected specific area, oral presentation on the topic ofthe paper, oral exam (35%) The good news: It’s not that tough- - The population is not big. Any distribution does not have much statisticalmeaning. Which means, you could all get A’s. On the other hand, you could

Back to BusinessWhat are semiconductors, anyway?What answers do you have now?Long way to go to answer this question.

Homework 1Calculate the values given in Slide 4 of this Introduction1.Given a dielectric breakdown field Eb 107 V/cm for a FET, calculate themaximum possible induced areal carrier density. Use Gauss’s law. Give yourrationale; show that this value is independent of the dielectric thickness.2.For Si, the background volume carrier density is ni 1.45 1010 /cm3. What is theareal background carrier density for a 1 m thick slab of Si? Compare your answerto the above maximum induced carrier density. For how many orders of magnitudecan you moderate the carrier density?3.For Al, the volume carrier density n 1.8 1023 /cm3. Assuming you could have 1nm thin Al, what is the background carrier area density? Compare to the abovemaximum induced carrier density, and show that the conductance can only bemodulated by 0.1%.Note: We mostly use the SI units, where the unit for length is m. In semiconductordevice physics, however, we customarily use cm for length. Make sure you get theunit right.No hard deadline. But it’s good to get it done before the semester gets really busy.

Review of Semiconductor PhysicsQuantum mechanics Shrödinger equationThe equation that scared Einstein Stationary states Special case: free space E-k dispersion: light wave vs de Broglie wave The concept of eigenstates Wave packets The uncertainty principleIf we were to take a bottom-up approach, we would start with talking about thesethings, but we take a different approach this semester.

Book by the same author on Devices but including semiconductor physics & processing. U. K. Mishra& J. Singh, Semiconductor Device Physics and Design E-book available on line thru UT Lib. Karl Hess, Advanced Theory of Semiconductor Devices

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