STM32L Series Ultra‑low‑power 32‑bit MCUs Releasing Your .

3y ago
124 Views
2 Downloads
3.64 MB
11 Pages
Last View : 10d ago
Last Download : 5m ago
Upload by : Matteo Vollmer
Transcription

STM32L seriesUltra‑low‑power 32‑bit MCUsReleasing your creativitySTM32 L1

ContentSTM32 and ultra‑low‑power. 49 product series – more than 40 product lines. 4STM32L: Ultra‑low‑power 32‑bit MCU series. 5STM32 ULP series. 63 product series – 11 product lines: a unique offer. 6More memory, performance, peripherals and packages . 6STM32L4 series. 10STM32L4 Product lines. 10STM32L4 Ultra‑low‑power. 10A wide portfolio in full production. 11STM32L4 devices offer the lowest power consumption valueson the market (25 C). 11STM32L4 On-line training. 11STM32L1 series. 12STM32L1 Product lines. 12STM32L1 Ultra‑low‑power. 12A wide, fully‑deployed portfolio. 13STM32L0 series. 14STM32L0 Product lines. 14STM32L0 Ultra‑low‑power. 14STM32L0 ‑ World champion at high temperature (125 C). 14A wide portfolio in full production. 15STM32L ecosystem. 16Various types of development boards enable you to get startedwith STM32L products. 16STM32 Nucleo. 17STM32 Nucleo expansion boards. 17STM32L Wireless connectivity solutions: LoRaWAN . 17Specific focus on STM32L series. 18Specific offers for STM32L series. 19User recommendations. 19

STM32L: ULTRA‑LOW‑POWER 32‑BIT MCU SERIESSTM32 and ultra‑low‑powerBy choosing an STM32 microcontroller for your embedded application,you gain from our market‑leading expertise in MCU architecture,technology, multi‑source manufacturing and long‑term supply.9 PRODUCT SERIES – MORE THAN 40 PRODUCT LINESThe STM32 portfolio offers an extraordinary variety of options including ARM Cortex ‑M cores (M0, M0 , M3, M4, and M7), giving developersflexibility to find the perfect match for their application. Particular attention is paid to make it easy to switch from one device to another. Thecompatibility of binaries combined with the similar pinout assignment, proliferation of hardware IPs and higher‑level programming languagesgreatly facilitates the work of developers.High‑performanceSTM32 F2STM32 F4STM32 F7ST’s ultra‑low‑power MCU platform isbased on a proprietary ultra‑low‑leakagetechnology.STM32L0 (ARM Cortex ‑M0 ), STM32L1(Cortex‑M3), STM32L4 (Cortex‑M4) andSTM8L (8‑bit proprietary core) seriesrepresent a large range of microcontrollersaddressing devices supplied from batteries orthrough energy harvesting and help ensurean optimized cost/performance ratio for allkinds of low‑power applications.With the industry’s lowest currentvariation between ‑40 and 125 C, thisultra‑low‑power platform has outstandinglylow current consumption at elevatedtemperatures.The MCUs reach the industry’s lowest powerconsumption of 350 nA in Stop mode (withSRAM retention), while maintaining a wakeuptime as low as 3.5 µs.The new STM32L4 series is the convergenceof ultra‑low power consumption and highperformance providing 273 CoreMark /217 ULPBench with FPU and DSPinstructions, more memory (up to 1 Mbyte ofFlash memory) and innovative features.www.st.com/stm32lSTM32 selector guideFree mobile and desktop application to find the right STM32 MCU.www.st.com/stmcufinderSTM32 H745MainstreamUltra‑low‑powerSTM32 F0STM32 F1STM32 F3STM32 L0STM32 L1STM32 L4Cortex‑M0 &M0 Cortex‑M3Cortex‑M4Cortex‑M7macOS

More packagesSTM32 ULP seriesWLCSPWLCSP25 ( 2x2 mm)WLCSP36 ( 2x3 mm)WLCSP49 ( 3x3 mm)WLCSP63 ( 3x4 mm)WLCSP64 ( 4x5 mm)WLCSP72 ( 3x4 mm)WLCSP81 ( 3x4 mm)WLCSP100 ( 4x4 mm)WLCSP104 ( 4x5 mm)From cost smart up to high performance, there is an STM32L series tomatch all your memory, analog or peripheral needs.3 PRODUCT SERIES – 11 PRODUCT LINES: A UNIQUE OFFERQFNQFN20 (3x3 mm)QFN28 (4x4 mm)QFN32 (5x5 mm)QFN48 (7x7 mm)BGABGA64 (5x5 mm)BGA100 (7x7 mm)BGA132 (7x7 mm)BGA169 (7x7 mm)TSSOPTSSOP14 (4.4x4.1 mm)TSSOP20 (4.4x6.6 mm)LQFPLQFP32 (7x7 mm)LQFP48 (7X7 mm)LQFP64 (10X10 mm)LQFP100 (14X14 mm)LQFP144 (20x20 mm)Form factorSTM32 L06COST-SMARTULP CHAMPIONSTM32 L1BROAD-RANGEFOUNDATIONHIGH-PERFORMANCEADVANCED ANALOGSTM32 L4Cortex‑M0 at 32 MHz1.65 to 3.6 V8/16‑bit applicationsWide range of pin‑countsCortex‑M3 at 32 MHz1.65 to 3.6 VWide choice of memory sizesCortex‑M4 w/ FPU at 80 MHz1.71 to 3.6 VHigh‑performance,advanced analog circuits3 product linesCost‑effectivenessSmaller packagesUSB, LCD, Analog, AES8 to 192 Kbytesof Flash memory20 Kbytes of SRAM6 Kbytes of EEPROM3 product linesUSB, LCD, AES,Rich Analog,Dual‑bank Flash memory (RWW)32 to 512 Kbytes of Flash memory80 Kbytes of SRAM16 Kbytes of EEPROM5 product lines5‑MSPS ADC,PGA, Compar.,DAC, Op Amp,USB OTG, LCD, AES128 Kbytes to 1 Mbyteof Flash memory.Up to 320 Kbytes of SRAM7MORE MEMORY, PERFORMANCE, PERIPHERALS AND PACKAGESMore memory sizes and pin‑countsMore performancesFlash memory size (bytes)STM32 L1273Score1M217*STM32 L4512 K161*384 K256 K192 K128 KSTM32 L1103*64 KSTM32 L032 K937516 K8K14STM32 L03236STM32 L1STM32 L44849100144169 Pins323280(*) using external DC/DC converter.ULPBench score without DC/DC converter:135 for STM32L0 series, 81 for STM32L1 series,and 217 for STM32L4 series.MHz

STM32 ULP MCUs are THE answer, whatever the application-40 to 125 ºC temperature range 1.65 to 3.6 V power supply range RTC with anti-tamper at 0.95 ppm Safety with ECC on Flash, CRC, and parity bit on SRAM Independent dual-bank Flash memory and EEPROM (RWW) Internal RC 1% accuracy over temperature and VDD Wide package offer from 14 to 144 pins Full ARM Cortex -M0 /M3/M4 range offer Dynamic Efficiency 36 µA/MHz FSMC for external memories LCD (4x52 or 8x48) for Display control TRNG and 256-bit AES for Security Digital filter for Sigma-Delta modulators VBAT with RTC for Battery backup domain ARM Cortex -M4 at 80 MHz for computational powerPower tools8Down to 450 nA mode with RTC, 16 Kbytes of SRAM LP-UART, Pulse counter, 16-bit LP-Timer 3.5 µs wakeup with 16 wakeup lines Dual-bank Flash memory (up to 1 Mbyte) for firmware upgrade Up to 16 Kbytes of true EEPROM for data login Built-in comparator and Op Amp with PGA PCROP, ECC, CRC, JTAG fuse for security purposes Full ARM Cortex -M0 /M3/M4 range offer Electricitysmart meters 8 nA Shutdown mode to extend battery life 1-Mbyte Flash memory to support advanced algorithms Dynamic Efficiency 36 µA/MHz I²C FM for sensors and HS communication 12-/16-bit ADC Analog sensing and monitoring FS USB host for data transfer device charging Full ARM Cortex -M0 /M3/M4 range offerL23MSTGas/water metersFitness/Healthcare1.4 µA Stop mode with 128 Kbytes of RAM RTC 4 µs wakeup time for fast system response USB 2.0 OTG for fast application processors 320 Kbytes of SRAM (including 64 Kbytes with parity bit) Down to 1.65 V full speed and feature capable I²C FM , Fast SPI, Fast ADC for sensor acquisition ARM Cortex -M4 with FPU 100 DMIPS with ART Accelerator 28 nA Standby mode to extend battery life 4 to 14 µs wakeup time for a better user experience Digital filter for Sigma Delta for MEMS microphone 12-bit ADC at 200 µA / MSPS SAI / I2S for audio peripheral connections ARM Cortex -M4 at 80 MHz with 38 µA/MHz at 100 DMIPSSensor hubMobile phone/GamingAudio andVoice recognition9

A WIDE PORTFOLIO IN FULL PRODUCTIONFlash memory size / RAM size (bytes)STM32L4 seriesL4A6RGL496RG1 M/320 6JG64‑pinLQFPUFBGA(0.5 mm pitch)72‑pinWLCSP1 M/128 K512 K/320 KSuccessfully meet all challenges512 K/128 KSTM32L4 PRODUCT LINES256 K/128 KARM Cortex -M4 (DSP FPU) – 80 MHz ART Accelerator memory Quad-SPI memory interface(KB) 16- and 32-bit timersRAM(KB)Op AmpComp.USB2.0 FS16-bit HWCrystal-lessUSB2.0OTG FSProduct line SWPSTM32L4x1AccessUp to1024Up to128 STM32L4x2USB FSUp to256Up to64 STM32L4x3USB FS and LCDUp to256Up to64 STM32L4x5USB OTGUp to1024Up to128 STM32L4x6USB OTG and LCDUp to1024Up to320 2x CAN 2x 12-bit DACs Temperature sensor Low voltage 1.71 to 3.6 V VBAT mode Unique ID Capacitive touch sensingSegmentLCD driveroversampling SAI audio PLL AES-256* - SHA-256**10Flash USART, SPI, I²C256 K/64 K12-bit ADC5 Msps128 K/64 433CBL431CB32‑pinQFN48‑pinLQFP/QFN49‑pin WLCSPL476JEL476MGL476ME Down to 450 nA with 32 kHz RTC 16 Kbytes of RAM 0.5 mm pitch)STM32L4 DEVICES OFFER THE LOWEST POWER CONSUMPTION VALUES ON THE MARKET (25 C)VDD rangeTypicalat 25 CUp to 8x40STM32L4 ULTRA‑LOW‑POWER Dynamic run mode at 36 GAUFBGA (0.5 mm pitch)(0.4 mm pitch)Wakeup to Run time at 80 MHz From Stop‑2: 5 µs From Standby: 14 µs From Shutdown: 250 µsNote: * for STM32L486, STM32L443, STM32L442 and STM32L4A6 ** SHA-256 for L4A6 ARM Cortex ‑M4 at 80 MHz with DSP FPU, 100 DMIPSL4A6QGL496QGPin count81‑pinWLCSPLegendWith 128‑/256‑bit AES Hardware EncryptionWithout 128‑/256‑bit AES Hardware EncryptionUp to 8x40L4A6VGL496VG38 µA/MHzRange 1Up to 80 MHz217(with external DC/DC)) Down to 200 nA with 32 kHz RTC or 8 nA without RTC 12‑/16‑bit ADC with 5 MSPS, 200 µA/ MSPS, 1.65 V capable Operates at up to 125 C273www.st.com/stm32l436 µA/MHzRange 2Up to 26 MHzDynamic RunStop‑2from Flash memory with or w/out RTCSTM32 L4STM32 L41.0 µA/1.28 µA200 nA/450 nAStandby 32 Kbytes of RAMwith or w/out RTC28 nA/280 nA8 nA/200 nAStandbywith or w/out RTCShutdownwith or w/out RTCSTM32L4 ON-LINE TRAININGwww.st.com/stm32l4-online-training11

A WIDE, FULLY‑DEPLOYED PORTFOLIOSTM32L1 seriesFlash/RAM size (bytes)L152REL151RE512 K / 80 K384 K / 48 KSTM32L1 PRODUCT LINES256 K / 32 KL152CCL151CC Low voltage 1.65 to 3.6 V Dynamic voltage scalingFlashARM Cortex -M3 (32 MHz with MPU) 5 clock sourcesmemory Advanced RTC w/ calibration Multiple USART, SPI, I²C 16- and 32-bit timers - 40 to 85 C oper. temp.Up to 105 C in LP modes 2 ct line32 to2564 to16STM32L151STM32L15232 to51216 to80STM32L162256 to51232 to80Up to8x28264 K / 32 K Brown-out Reset Programmable voltagedetector (PVD)L152CB-AL151CB-A4 to 16 8 to 16SDIOFSMC 12-bit DACUp to8x40Up to8x40 L152C8-AL151C8-A Dynamic run mode: down to 177 μA/MHz Stop with Full RAM retention 435 nA (1.3 μA with RTC) Standby mode RTC: 900 nA with backup registers81(without external DC/DC)103(with external DC/DC)32 K / 16 KL152C6-AL151C6-A32 K / 4 KL100C6-A48‑pinLQFP/QFNLegend: Standby mode: 280 nA with backup registers Dual‑bank Flash memory and True embedded EEPROM Operates at up to 105 CSTM32 L151QCL152ZCL151ZC132‑pinUFBGA(0.6 mm AL152R8-AL151R8-AL152V8-AL151V8-AL100R8-ASTM32L1 ULTRA‑LOW‑POWER ARM Cortex ‑M3 at 32 MHz, 33 DMIPSL152RD**L151RD**L100RB-A64 K / 8 KSDIOFSMC DMA 12-bit ADC, 1 MSPS128 K / 32 KL152ZEL151ZEL100RC256 K / 16 K128 K / 16 KSTM32L100Value line Reset circuitry POR/PDR12RAML152QEL151QEL152VD-XL151VD-X*384 K / 80 KA market-proven A(1.2 mm ‑‑‑63 WLCSP*100‑pinUFBGA(0.6 mm ��104 WLCSP*STM32L100: Value lineSTM32L151: USB 2.0 FS Advanced analog and peripheralsSTM32L152: STM32L151 LCDSTM32L162: STM32L152 128‑bit AESPin count13

A WIDE PORTFOLIO IN FULL PRODUCTIONSTM32L0 seriesFlash/RAM size (bytes)192 K / 20 KA tiny consumption budget for a wide application range128 K / 20 KSTM32L0 PRODUCT BL072CB**L072RBL072VBL071KBL071CB**L071RBL071VB Low voltage 1.65 to 3.6VL073V8 - 40 to 125 C oper. temp.ARM Cortex -M0 (32 MHz with MPU) 14 to 100 pins14 Dynamic voltage scalingSTM32 L0 5 clock sources Advanced RTC w/ calibrationFlash(KB)RAM er12-bitDACTouchsenseTrueRNGUSB 2.0SegmentFSLCDCrystalDriverlessL072V864 K / 20 KL071K8 Multiple 16-bit timersSTM32L0x1Access 5V tolerant I/OsUp to192Up to20Up to 6 64 K / 8 K 2 watchdogs Programmable voltagedetector (PVD)STM32L0x2USB Reset circuitry POR/PDRUp to192Up to20Up to 6 Brown-out ResetSTM32L0x3USB & LCD Temperature sensorUp to192Up to20Up to 6 Up to4x52 or8x48L031F6* AES-128Note 1: Low-power peripherals available in ultra-low-power modesL031F4*STM32L0 ULTRA‑LOW‑POWER Dynamic run mode down to 49 μA/MHz Stop mode with RAM LTC (low‑power time clock): 420 nA Wakeup: 5 μs (Flash memory)16 K / 2 K135(without external DC/DC)161(with external DC/DC)8K/2K 12‑/16‑bit ADC: 1 MSPS, 240 μA, 1.65 V capable Unique ID / 128‑bit AES / Flash Proprietary Stack protection Operates at up to 125 C75www.st.com/stm32l0STM32L0 ‑ WORLD CHAMPION AT HIGH TEMPERATURE (125 C)Typ. current166 µA/MHzDhrystone(32 MHz)Dynamic Runfrom FlashFast Wakeup time: Stop to Run from Flash: 5 µs (3.5 µs from RAM) Standby to Run: 50 µsTypicalat 125 C28 µAFlashLow‑power Runat 32 kHzSTM32 L010 µALow‑power Sleepat 32 kHz5.5 µA1.95 µASTOPwith RTCStandby with RTC( 20 bytes 16 K / 8 K ARM Cortex ‑M0 at 32 MHzL053C8L052K632 K / 8 K ComparatorsL052K8L052T6** DMAL071V8L052T8**Product Multiple USART, SPI, �‑36WLCSP**Pin countLegendSTM32L0x1: Access line128‑bit AES hardware ��49WLCSP**STM32L0x2: USB 2.0 FS Advanced analog and peripherals64‑pin100‑pinLQFPLQFPTFBGAUFBGA(1.2 mm pitch) (0.6 mm pitch)STM32L0x3: STM32L0x2 LCD

STM32 NUCLEOSTM32L ecosystem Open platform with 1 MCU and integrated debugger/programmer 2 types of connectors for unlimited expansion capabilities :Arduino Uno Rev3 connectors on Nucleo-64, Arduino Nano on Nucleo-32ST morpho connectors for direct access to all MCU I/Os Support for multiple IDEs and ARM mbed online tools PortfolioSTM32 hardware toolsFlash memory size (bytes)www.st.com/stm32hardwaretoolsVARIOUS TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT BOARDS ENABLE YOU TO GET STARTED WITH STM32L PRODUCTSNUCLEO‑L496ZG1MNUCLEO‑L476RG STM32 Nucleo boards provide an affordable and flexible way for anyone to try out new ideas and build prototypes with a wide choice ofNUCLEO‑L496ZG‑Pspecialized expansion boards. The Discovery kits enable users to seamlessly explore key low‑power features of STM32L products, while the evaluation boards let youevaluate all MCU functions and peripherals. All these development boards include an integrated debugger/programmer as well as a comprehensive software library with examples thathelp developers take advantage of STM32L capabilities.STM32 Nucleo boardsDiscovery kitsEvaluation boards512 K256 KNUCLEO‑L152RENUCLEO‑L432KC*192 KNUCLEO‑L073RZ64 KNUCLEO‑L053R832 KNUCLEO‑L031K616 Nucleo type1617*QFN versionFlexible prototypingCreative demosFull‑feature evaluationLegend:STM32L0 seriesSTM32L1 seriesSTM32L4 seriesAvailable with SMPS versionSTM32 NUCLEO EXPANSION BOARDSwww.st.com/x-nucleoSTM32 Nucleo development boards can easily be expanded through a variety of add-onboards. These expansion boards open the door to any type of application leveraging theappropriate mix of performance/peripherals/power within the comprehensive STM32 family.Each expansion board integrates the necessary components to implement specialized featuresof a chosen application, and comes with complementary STM32 software modules.STM32 Nucleo expansion boards from ST and third partiesSTM32 L1STM32 NUCLEO PACKDISCOVERY KITEXPANSION BOARDP/N: P-NUCLEO-LRWAN1(ST and Semtech)P/N: B-L072Z-LRWAN1(ST and Murata )P/N: I-NUCLEO-LRWAN1(ST and USI )STM32L WIRELESSCONNECTIVITYSOLUTIONS:LoRaWAN www.st.com/stm32-lrwanAs a strong player on LPWAN,ST offers up to 3 affordable andeasy-to-use sets of hardware toolsdedicated to the evaluation anddevelopment of LoRa solutionswhich combined with the LoRaWANsoftware expansion package forSTM32Cube (I-CUBE-LRWAN) is thequickest way to build a LoRaWANend-node device. Check out theSTM32 LoRa Discovery kit(B-L072Z-LRWAN1), the STM32expansion board (I-NUCLEO-LRWAN1)and the STM32 Nucleo pack(P-NUCLEO-LRWAN1).

STM32 software development toolsSTM32 embedded m32embeddedsoftwareSTM32CubeMXPartner IDEsSTMStudioAssistance ConseilSystèmesmacOS Free IDESTM32Cube HAL and middlewareStd LibrariesCMSIS andmbed SDKHigh optimizationlow portabilityAverage optimizationSTM32 portabilityLow optimizationARM portabilityVirtual machinesand modelsLow optimizationlarge portabilityNote : Free full version of Keil MDK-ARM on all STM32L0 and STM32F0*Free full version of Keil MDK-ARM on all STM32L0The ST’s embedded software for the STM32 microcontroller family offers 4 different combinations of portability and optimization criteria: STM32Snippets: a collection of highly optimized code examples using direct register access Standard Peripheral Library: ensures portability at STM32 series level; for example, easy portability within the STM32L1 series STM32Cube embedded software: ensures portability at STM32 family level; facilitating application re‑use from one STM32 MCU to another The HAL hardware abstraction layer, enabling portability between different STM32 devices via standardized API calls The Low-Layer (LL) APIs, a light-weight, optimized, expert oriented set of APIs designed for both performance and runtime efficiency CMSIS Driver and mbed abstraction layer: microcontroller abstraction for any Cortex‑M‑based microcontroller Solutions beyond the microcontroller world: STM32Java, .Net Micro framework, or MATLAB/SimulinkSPECIFIC FOCUS ON STM32L SERIESSPECIFIC OFFERS FOR STM32L SERIESConfigure and generate codeCompile and debugMonitorST proposes a 3‑step approach for standard development in C:1/ Configure the microcontroller using the STM32CubeMX tool and opti

STM32 and ultra‑low‑power. 4 9 product series – more than 40 product lines . proliferation of hardware IPs and higher‑level programming languages greatly facilitates the work of developers. High‑ performance Cortex‑M STM32 F7 Ultra‑ low‑power Mainstream Cortex‑M3 STM32 F2 STM32 L1 STM32 F1 Cortex‑M STM32 F4 STM32 L4 STM32 F3 Cortex‑M M STM32 L0 STM32 F0 STM32 H7 ST .

Related Documents:

behringer ultra-curve pro dsp 24 a/d- d/a dsp ultra-curve pro ultra- curve pro 1.1 behringer ultra-curve pro 24 ad/da 24 dsp ultra-curve pro dsp8024 smd (surface mounted device) iso9000 ultra-curve pro 1.2 ultra-curve pro ultra-curve pro 19 2u 10 ultra-curve pro ultra-curve pro iec . 7 ultra-curve pro dsp8024 .

47 117493 SCREW, mach, hex washer hd 2 48 BOX, control 276868 Ultra 395/495 1 15D313 Ultra 595 1 49 CONTROL, board, 110V 1 246379 Ultra 395/495 1 248179 Ultra 595 1 50 276882 COVER, control 1 51 15K393 LABEL, control, Graco 1 56 CORD, power 1 15J743 Ultra 395/495, Stand 1 15D029 Ultra 595, L

Table 3 summarizes these limitations and their implications on the behavior of the STM32L1xxxx ultra-low-power devices. Table 3. Cortex 1.1 Cortex -M3 limitation description for the STM32L1xxxx ultra-low-power devices Only the limitations described below have an impact, even though minor, on the implementation of STM32L1xxxx ultra-low-power .

TABLE OF CONTENTS: XPRESS ULTRA FIELD TERMINATION CONNECTORS SC Xpress Ultra Fiber Connectors Page 2 LC Xpress Ultra Fiber Connectors Page 3 ST Xpress Ultra Fiber Connectors Page 3 CLEANING & INSPECTION Optical Connector Contamination Pages 5 - 6 Xpress Ultra Cleaner Pages 7 - 8 Xpress Ultra Cleaner Replaceable Cartridge Page 8 Xpress Ultra

ample is Koala, an ultra-low power system for reliable data retrieval. Koala uses FCP to establish reliable network paths for downloading sensor data. To achieve ultra-low duty cy-cles Koala couples FCP with Low Power Probing (LPP), a novel mechanism for waking up the network. Unlike Low Power Listening (LPL), in which receivers periodically poll the channel for long preambles from senders .

SMB_Dual Port, SMB_Cable assembly, Waterproof Cap RF Connector 1.6/5.6 Series,1.0/2.3 Series, 7/16 Series SMA Series, SMB Series, SMC Series, BT43 Series FME Series, MCX Series, MMCX Series, N Series TNC Series, UHF Series, MINI UHF Series SSMB Series, F Series, SMP Series, Reverse Polarity

General Purpose Ultra-low freezer with factory installed chart recorder and two shelves of sliding drawer racks 6 Cardinal Health Ultra-Low Freezers To order, call: 800.964.5227 Options for Ultra-Low Temperature Freezers

Asset management A system that manages and maintains an organization’s assets throughout their lifecycle. Examples of popular systems include spreadsheets and software solutions. Asset management software An application used for the purpose of recording and tracking an asset throughout its lifecycle. In addition, it can provide tools for financial reporting, and often offers the ability to .