Technical Design & Installation Guide - PGH Bricks

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2contents01 VersaLiner – Product Description and Specifications3A. Material Specifications3B. Brick Sizes and Bonds3C. Sheet Indexing – for Easy Installation3D. Re-use4E. VersaLiner Storage4F. Brick Coursing – Liner Properties and Coursing4G. Easy Liner Removal4H. Corner Methodology402 Brick Tiles – Thin Brick5A. Brick Tile Color5B. Storage of Brick Tile603 Engineering and Designing the Brick PanelA. Shop Drawings66B. Engineering ConsiderationsPullout tests; Pre-stress or post tensioning;Module openings, corners & quirk joints7C. Designing with Brick8D. Recesses8E. Brick Arches8F. Bounding Rustications804 Preparing Thin Brick for Installation9A. Blending Brick9B. Cutting Brick9C. Brick Protective Coating9D. Adhesive Coatings10E. Undersized Brick1005 Installation11A. Trimming Liners11B. Preparing the Form11C. Applying VersaLiner Liner12D. Installing Brick Tiles12 E. Placing ConcreteConcrete placement; Self consolidating concrete;Vibration; Slump of concreteF. Cleaning the Bricked Panel1414

301 VersaLiner –Product Description and Specifications VersaLiner is a patented single use liner that enables precast and sitecast contractorsto create the closest look to masonry available on a concrete panel. Its unique,seamless joint design provides a realistic coved joint and fully embeds the brick tile forsuperior bonding and weatherproofing. Each liner is designed with a unique indexingfeature that makes setting up the panel easy.VersaLiner ’s single use design enhances bed utilisation and lowers costs.A. Material SpecificationsVersaLiner sheets are made of high impact polystyrene – arigid, yet flexible material optimally suited for easy setup andteardown.Thermo Form High Impact Polystyrene recyclable materialnumber 6 PSU.S. Patent No.D479614Thickness0.6mmWeight0.006 kg per square metreTensile4080 psi at yieldIzod Impact3.3 @ 23ºCVicat Softening104ºCColourWhite-primary; can varyB. Brick Sizes and BondsVersaLiner can be ordered to accommodate a varietyof brick sizes. All common bonds are available, includingstacked, stretcher, soldier and Flemish. Special bonds areavailable on a custom order basis.VersaLiner brick tile cross sectionC. Sheet Indexing – for easy installationEach sheet of stacked bond VersaLiner has embossedmarkings [plus ( ) and minus (-) signs] around its perimeter.These refer to the slight size distinction between the moldedmortar joints that form the perimeter of each sheet. Thejoints near the minus signs are slightly smaller in order tofit properly underneath the larger joints. The differenceis 0.2mm and is hardly visible to the eye. The difference,however, provides proper overlapping of each adjoining linerfor enhanced stability and performance.

4D. Re-useVersaLiner liners are a balanced combination of durabilityand economy. They are designed to be applicable to avariety of creative panel designs and to assure they will holdup, even under the most extreme conditions for a singlecast. However, considering the designed-in safety factor,some contractors may find the sheets to be useable morethan once. PGH Bricks & Pavers warrants only a single useof each VersaLiner sheet.E. VersaLiner StorageVersaLiner is relatively impervious to hot and cold weatherconditions. However, prolonged exposure to direct sunlightwill damage the liners. It is recommended to store them inthe packaging provided until they are ready for use. Avoidtop-loading, or crushing them in their packages. While theymay remain useable, the resulting distortion may make themmore time consuming to install.F. Brick Coursing – Liner properties and coursingVersaLiner is a flexible plastic that reacts to hot and coldconditions by slightly expanding or contracting. These slightvariations may be compensated for by simply compressing,or stretching, the elastic joints as the bricks are beinginstalled. Once the bricks are nested, their weight will holdthe liner in the position.Thus, one of the most important procedures is to check thecoursing frequently as the brick tile is being installed. Bricktiles may be on course at the top and bottom, but still varyin the center. This can be easily avoided by marking andreferring to story lines on the edges of each form as thebricks are installed. Story poles are useful as well.G. Easy Liner RemovalVersaLiner is made from plastic with an oily microfilm on thesurface. This film resists sticking to concrete so that the linercan be removed extremely easily. Removal is generally doneby hand with the aid of a small screwdriver or chisel for areaswhere concrete may have leaked underneath the liners. Thelabour to strip the VersaLiner is a negligible component ofthe job.H. Corner MethodologyCorner, or return, brickworkcan be easily installed withVersaLiner . Return linersare available as foldablecorner liners; separate,factory cropped sheets; orcan be prepared on sitefrom the standard liners. Itis not necessary to adhereor fasten the vertical liner tothe form’s bulkhead. Oneor more of the mechanicalmethods of holding brickagainst the form willsandwich the liner at the top.A common method for holding brick in place is a temporarybond utilising an adhesive such as PSA adhesive. Thismethod is simple and fast, requiring no hammering orclip materials. PSA works best in moderate temperatures(between 7 and 30 degrees C.) and washes off easily withinthe normal pressure wash process.

5For backer rod, use 40mm aluminum nails, and avoidpinning the backer rod directly against the liner’s joints.02 Brick TilesAnother commonly used method is to use a ‘horseshoeclip’. This is a simple ‘u’ type bend in a heavy (approx. 3mm)wire that slips over the form edge and clamps the brick tothe side. These can be fashioned to any width of form anedge or bulkhead, and multiple lengths in order to clamp thecorner brick and intermittent half brick. Once the concretehas been placed and vibrated, and begins its initial set, theclips can be easily removed.THIN BRICKBrick tiles are real, clay fired brick that have all of the durable and timeless characteristicsof genuine face brick.A. Brick Tile ColourPGH Bricks & Pavers (PGH) warrants that the bricksmanufactured and supplied to the Builder/Installer, or to theConsumer, on or after 1 May 2015 for use in a wall claddingapplication (Intended Purpose), which are of the appropriategrade for their intended purpose and are laid in accordancewith the relevant building codes, regulations and Australianstandards, will remain fit for purpose and colourfast (will notfade or change colour / shade), for a period of 25 years fromthe date of this warranty, or if not specified, 25 years fromthe date of purchase. This warranty is subject to the terms,conditions and exclusions set out below. All of the conditionsand requirements stated in this warranty must be met inorder to make a claim under this warranty.

6B. Storage of Brick TileBrick tile is generally packed in cartons, put on pallets andwrapped in protective plastic for transportation. The brickitself is relatively impervious to the elements. However theprotective coatings that are often applied to the face of thebrick may weather or age. In the case of wax coatings,which are recommended for the VersaLiner system, theywill begin to melt and wick into the brick at temperaturesaround 55 degrees C. If this happens, its effectiveness as abond-breaker and release agent is diminished.It is advisable to protect the brick from extreme heat until itis installed and cast. In addition, excessive dust and dirt mayaffect the brick’s ability to bond to the concrete properly.Care should be taken to keep the brick covered andprotected from the sun prior to its installation.Keep brick relatively dry prior to installation. Althoughquality brick tile has low absorption qualities it will becomesaturated if left exposed to water for a prolonged period.Part of the concrete to brick bond depends on concretebeing absorbed into the brick surface. If the brick issaturated with water, the concrete absorption is hindered. Itis best to have relatively dry brick when casting.03 Engineering andDesigning the Brick PanelA. Shop DrawingsProperly detailed shop drawings are vital for successfulbrick projects. Most jobs require a complete set, takinginto account each panel. Brick should be considered as aprimary modeling criteria when sizing panels and openings.This can speed installation immensely.Too often the focus turns to brick after panel sizes havebeen established. Last minute adjustments and changescan cause disruptions on the job and certainly contributeto tension between the design team and installers. Shopdrawings are traditionally the responsibility of the installingcontractor, or general contractor. In some cases theyare prepared by the engineer, or draftsman, responsiblefor panel and reinforcement design. Sometimes thematerial supplier will produce them. In these cases it is theresponsibility of both general contractor and the architect toreview them thoroughly for accuracy and ensure they reflectintent.It is not uncommon when preparing these drawings to offerrecommendations as to dimensional changes of panelsand openings. These changes are usually minor – less than50mm These recommendations should be consideredcarefully as to their impact on other elements. They mustalso be acted upon quickly whenever they affect thestructural element of a project.There are a number of important elements that need to beincluded on each shop drawing:1. Actual brick should be drawn to scale. Avoid inaccuratehatches that may misrepresent the exact intent withregard to brick placement and size.2. Coursing and alignment need to be taken into account.3. Brick should continue in pattern across constructionjoints consistently. Full brick should abut full brick, half tohalf etc. A notation is helpful in directing the installers touse either a full or half brick at one corner of the panel.4. Where cutting or trimming brick is necessary it should beclearly dimensioned to avoid ambiguity.5. Coursing heights are one of the more critical elements ofthe drawings. Dimensions such as bottom of brick (B.O.BRICK), top of brick (T.O. BRICK), or header, sill andpanel heights, can be established from datums set at thefinished floor or bottom of panels. These are easy for theinstaller to interpret and help avoid cumulative errors in

7The various grooved and dovetail configurations of somebrick add to their adhesion, as would be expected, butare not necessary in order to achieve satisfactory results.In independent NATA approved testing, resistance hasbeen beyond 1Mpa of embedment strength.establishing coursing heights. It is also useful to includepartitioned dimensions whenever possible. Althoughthis redundancy may clutter the drawing somewhat, theadvantage of being able to establish framing sizes foropenings, bands, etc. much more easily, makes themworthwhile.2. Pre-stress or post-tensioning, (deflectioncriteria)VersaLiner panels as long as 18m have been prestressed with no effect to the brick. Nominal deflectionwill not cause brick to ‘pop’ out, or crack.6. On panels with more than a few courses it is importantto give intermediate coursing height check points.These are helpful to the installer. Without they are left toestablish their own control lines. When course heightsare critical they should be gauged at least every 80mmvertically. Horizontally, a check every 200mm will suffice.The brick will not crack without the concrete structurebehind it failing. We do not recommend taking anyextraordinary precautions in handling large panels otherthan those that would normally be employed.B. Engineering Considerations1. Pullout testsOngoing testing has shown that the embedded bricktile’s performance is far superior to hand laid or postadhered applications. Pullout tests typically generatetensile strengths in excess of the concrete alone.INDENTED CORNER DETAIL3. Module openings, corners & quirk joints.The following drawings show various common detailsused in the VersaLiner system. They are helpful asguidelines when working with the brick module.QUIRK CORNER DETAILConcrete PanelConcreteQUIRK CORNER DETAILConcrete7⅝”Brick4”⅜”Caulking colourto match brick4”⅞”Brick7⅝”½”3⅝”MORTAR JOINT AND REVEAL DETAILSBrick⅜”Caulking colourto match brick8½”WRAPPED CORNER DETAIL¼”Concrete PanelConcretePerimeter Reveal1⅛”Caulking colourto match brick3⅝”Brick7⅝”3⅝”Coved mortar joints7⅝”BrickConcrete7⅝” x 3⅝” x 2¼”CORNER BRICKConcrete PanelSection⅜”Brick

8C. Designing with BrickAvoiding “sliver brick” cutsOccasionally an area to brick is fixed by other factorsand cannot be modified to fit a brick module. The jointsmay be compressed or expanded in order to attain smalladjustments in the brick width. This can be attained byusing the Adjust-A-Liner. Adjust-A-Liner is a liner with onlythe horizontal bed joints in it. The head joints are installedseparately with the brick. This allows for a great deal offlexibility in adjusting for areas that require irregular spacing.While this method takes more time to install, it is anexcellent solution for areas where the brick joints must becompressed in order to fit an area and avoid an unsightly‘sliver-brick cut’. It is recommended that the adjustmentarea be kept to a minimum and that the coursing returnto the standard module as soon as possible. Joints arecommonly compressed to 7mm without being aestheticallyobjectionable. They can be expanded as far as 20mm ifnecessary.D. RecessesRecessed areas can add an element of depth and interest tothe appearance of a wall. They can be combined with colourchanges, or patterns for an even more dramatic set-off.E. Brick ArchesArches are a common feature on brick structures. SpecialVersaLiner liners are available that are customised for aparticular arch design. The liners are similar in material tothe standard VersaLiner . They are used in much the sameway. However, arched liners are more flexible and can bemanipulated and customised.F. Bounding RusticationsTransitions between brick and smooth concrete should beconsidered carefully. There are many advantages to havinga rustication or embossment in the concrete between thebrick and any smooth surfaces. They frame the brick areamuch like window jambs and sills do with windows. Brickending directly into concrete looks awkward and untrimmed.A rustication leaves a sharp crisp line that looks moreprofessional. The bounding rustication also helps contain thebrick prior to casting. Installing a rustication takes less timethan securing the liner to the form and dealing with mortarjoints and uneven brick. It is advisable to completely removethe end joint from the VersaLiner liner, abutting the brickdirectly to the rustication.

9Most of these rustications are small, 10mm to 26mm wide.They need to be at least 3mm deep, but are usually 10mmto 13mm. Typically they will have a 90 degree edge againstthe brick and a small amount of taper on the outside. Oftena 13mm radius timber dowel is used. This is one of thesimplest types and is readily available at most lumber yards.PGH Bricks & Pavers offers easy-to-use VersaLiner edgeaccessories. These simulate a smooth mortar joint and maybe attached to the form.VersaLiner rustication strips04 Preparing Thin Brickfor InstallationA. Blending brickClay bricks are made from natural materials. Variation in boththe clay and firing process means textures, composition,size and colour can vary from batch to batch. Poorlyblended bricks may show unwanted patches, streaks andbands of colour in the finished masonry. To avoid this: allbrick tiles required for the project, or as many packs as willfit, should be delivered at one time and stored on site; and,brick tiles should be drawn from different pallets or boxesduring the process of laying.B. Cutting brickAlmost every project requires brick that is cut in somefashion. Bricks are easily cut with common masonry sawsthat are readily available. The depth of brick facings to becut is between 13mm-25mm. For optimum efficiency thesaw should be fairly powerful. At least 160cc or 5.5HP. Thiswill cut multiple brick fairly rapidly. A water system is highlyrecommended. While most diamond blades these days arethe ‘wet-dry’ type the dust problem can be severe withoutwater. A closed system is fine (re-circulating water via thepump), however a constant clean water supply will keep thebrick cleaner and reduce wear on the pump parts.The brick usually chips slightly on the edge where the bladeexits. If this presents a problem position the brick so thatthe blade cuts down into its face. This limits most of thechipping to the back edge.Blades with solid cutting edges of diamond impregnatedsteel work fine, but segmented blades have the addedadvantage of dispersing heat more rapidly and generallymake more aggressive cuts.Occasionally it is necessary to shorten a brick tile in order tofit properly into the liner. VersaLiner does accommodateoversize and irregular shaped brick tiles to a degree. Whenbrick tiles must be trimmed it is often less than 3mm. Inthese cases the saw blade will tend to slip off to one sideduring the cut. One solution is to cut multiple brick tilesat once, positioning them alternately on both sides of theblade. This puts pressure on the blade from both sides andreduces the deflection. Six or eight brick tiles can be cut atonce in this manner. It may also be helpful to double-up ortriple the blades, side by side on the arbor. This widens thecut and helps resist deflection. Check to be sure this is not asafety concern on your particular saw.C. Brick protective coatingApplying a concrete bond-breaker or retardant to the bricktile’s face prior to installation is an important step in creatinga successful brick panel job. The retardant will act as abond-breaker against concrete residue that leaks aroundthe joints of the liner and settles underneath the face of thebrick tiles. Without this coating cleaning the brick panel ofthe concrete residue may be difficult, if not impossible. Waxis the most common bond-breaker application.

10A thin layer of wax can be factory applied to the face of thebrick to act as a bond-breaker for concrete residue andleakage. This wax can be removed with hot water. Concreteresidue varies in thickness from 3mm to a thin cloudy stain.The wax in conjunction with high pressure hot water will inalmost all cases remove the latent concrete.PSA is ideal for vertical wall casting applications wherethere is adequate cycle time for the forms to be prepared.In vertical form applications form is first laid horizontally.Next the VersaLiner liner is attached to the form face withstaples, adhesive spray, or tape, and the coated brick isthen placed into it.Wax that has melted prior to concrete placement usuallywicks into the brick. This reduces its effectiveness, but willstill aid greatly in the cleaning. As with any protective coating,the brick should be cleaned as soon as possible.Once cured, the form is raised into vertical position andthe concrete is cast. Removal of the adhesive is relativelysimple if it is attempted soon after the concrete is cured andimmediately after the VersaLiner liners are removed. TheAdhesive continues to strengthen as it dries, making it moredifficult to remove over time.D. Adhesive Coatings (For adhering thin brick units tovertical return form rails)Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is a water base adhesivethat softens with water and can be removed with highpressure hot water. It is designed to aid in placing brick inthe vertical areas of forms and will adhere to the VersaLiner liner and brick. It is an air dry material that acts like a contactadhesive.PSA can be applied in one of the following two ways:1 Apply PSA to brick and liner pocket use a brush(cardboard edge will work as well). Once applied to thebrick, allow adhesive to dry until tacky (approxim

the drawings. Dimensions such as bottom of brick (B.O. BRICK), top of brick (T.O. BRICK), or header, sill and panel heights, can be established from datums set at the finished floor or bottom of panels. These are easy for the installer to interpret and help avoid cumulative errors in Engineering and Designing the Brick Panel 03

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