A Newsletter From The Center For Nursing Historical Inquiry

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Windows in TimeA Newsletter from The Center for Nursing Historical InquiryVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003October 2003MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTORTHE CENTER FORNURSING HISTORICALINQUIRY STAFFArlene Keeling RN PhDDirectorawk2z@virginia.eduBarbara Brodie RN PhD FAANAssociate Directorbb9w@virginia.eduJohn Kirchgessner RN MSN PNPAssistant Directorjck2r@virginia.eduBetsy Johnson-Whitten MSArchivist(434) 924-0083mej5k@virginia.eduSandra Annan RN MSArchival Assistantsla9a@virginia.eduAurelie Knapik RN MSNVolunteer Archival AssistantE DITORIAL S TAFFBarbara Brodie RN PhD FAANEditor, WINDOWS IN TIMEBetsy Johnson-Whitten MSAssistant EditorWeb index.htmlFor most of the readers of this newsletter, October is not only themonth in which we enjoy crisp autumn weather and the brilliant colorsof changing fall foliage, but also the month in which we are madeaware of society’s commitment to wipe out a destroyer of women andmen -breast cancer. I was again reminded of the seriousness of thedisease when one of our doctoral students selected it to be the topic ofher history paper, and asked where she might find information on therole nurses played in the care of patients with the disease. It was withpleasure I could point to a new collection that has just been added tothe Center’s collection. Since it is "Breast Cancer Awareness month, I’dlike to highlight for our readers the content of the Virginia Derickscollection.Virginia Dericks received her nursing diploma from St. Joseph'sHospital School of Nursing in 1939, and completed both a BA and MAat Teachers College Columbia University by 1947. Her collectioncontains multiple documents on a broad range of medical and surgicalnursing topics, one of which is the care and treatment of women withbreast cancer in the 1950s. These papers provide a fascinatingsnapshot of patients’ mastectomy and rehabilitation experiences. Thecollection includes notes from a nursing research study conducted byDericks, as well as a compilation of her data, lecture notes from herteaching files (1943 to 1962), a mastectomy care plan circa 1950, andminutes of a hospital committee on mastectomy care. In addition, thecollection contains a variety of pamphlets on breast cancer surgery,hospitalization and the recovery and rehabilitation process. Whatbecomes readily apparent, even in this small collection, is theimportance of the nursepatient relationship duringthe patients’ hospitalizationand rehabilitation.According to theintroduction to a "Plan ofCare for Patients UndergoingRadical Mastectomy" at NewYork Hospital, October 1957,written by Dericks and hercommittee:Books and pamphlets on Cancer 1923 to 2003.

Windows in TimeVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003Page 2(Continued from page 1)" because most nurses are women, the help they can givefrom this standpoint, as well as that of [being] the nurse, is an advantage in providing total patient care "Derrick's lecture notes cover, for the most part, informationabout the physical care of the patient in the post-operativeperiod following mastectomy. But in the fine print, the need forpsychological support, understanding and individualization ofcare is apparent. More importantly, nurses are encouragedalways to provide their patients a sense of hope about thedisease. In the introduction to the booklet How to Nurse CancerPatients one finds:The Center for NursingHistorical Inquiry(CNHI), established atthe University ofVirginia in 1991 tosupport historicalscholarship innursing, is dedicatedto the preservationand study of nursinghistory in the UnitedStates. Th e history ofnursing in the South isespecially emphasizedas a focus of inquiry.The goals of the Centerinclude the collection ofmaterials, t h e p r o m o tion of scholarship, andthe dissemination ofhistorical researchfindings."Investigation is going on all the time, and who can saywhen the cause of cancer may be revealed, and when thecause is found a cure will follow " (Barton, 1923, p. xiv).Today, seventy years later, these sentiments persist as scientistsand health care professionals continuetheir search to find a cure for the disease.BARBARA BRODIE NURSING HISTORY FELLOW2004-2005The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry Barbara Brodie NursingHistory Fellowship is open to nurses engaged in historical scholarshipthat advances the field of nursing history. Applications for the 3000award are due, October 15, 2004 and the recepient will be announced inDecember, 2004. The new Barbara Brodie Nursing History Fellow willpresent a paper from their study in the Center’s History Forum series.Selection of the fellow will be based on the scholarly quality of theinvestigator’s project including: the clarity of the project’s purpose, itsrationale and significance, the rigor of its methodology and questionsposed, and its potential contributions to the field of nursing.The application and a curriculum vitae should be sent to Dr. ArleneKeeling, Director, Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry, University ofVirginia School of Nursing, PO Box 800782, McLeod Hall,Charlottesville, Virginia 22908-0782. Applications are available on theCenter’s Web site, athttp://www.nursing.virginia. edu/centers/cnhi/hrfellowship.html.

Windows in TimeOctober 2003Page 3T HE CENTER’SCALENDAR OF E VENTSFALL 2003HISTORY FORUMSMcLeod Hall Room 504412:00 - 1:00 PMSeptember 23, 2003Sandra L. Annan, RN, MSN,UVa Doctoral Student“Making Do with So Little”Emergency Room Nursing, 1940-1950BRODIE FELLOW VISITSCENTEROctober 21, 2003Brigid Lusk, PhD, RN, recipient of the 2003Barbara Brodie Nursing History Fellowship,spent a week in July at the Center researchingthe history of cancer nursing. The major aim ofLusk’s project is to document the nursing careof patients with cancer between 1880 and 1950.Cancer, prior to the advent of chemotherapy,required a range of nursing activities andservices, and studying it provides a suitablevantage point to examine nurses’ work. Inaddition, her work will document the emergenceof cancer nursing as a specialty field. Dr. Luskplans to address nurses’ integral involvement inthe history of U.S. cancer care, an area, to date,largely untouched by historians.Barbra Mann Wall, PhD, RNAssistant Professor, Purdue University2002 Center Fellow“Balancing Markets and Missions”Nursing Sisters in the U.S.1865-1930November 18, 2003Brigid Lusk, PhD, RNAssistant Professor,Northern Illinois University2003 Brodie Nursing History Fellow“Uncovering Nursing Care inCancer Nursing,”1880 to 1950Dr. Lusk will be presenting “UncoveringNursing Care in Cancer Nursing,” 1880-1950November 18, 2003, as part of the CNHIHistory Forum Series.All are welcome to attend.

Windows in TimeVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003Page 4C ENTER ACTIVITIES AND A WARDSNOTES FROM ABROADJoy Buck, MSN, RNNRSA Pre-Doctoral FellowUniversity of Virginia School of NursingOne of the benefits of federal funding for nursingresearch is the financial freedom it allows to travel tohistorical sites. In April, I had the opportunity tospend a month in the UK to interview Dame CicelySaunders, attend a week long internationalmultidisciplinary palliative care course at St.Christopher’s Hospice in London, and work withscholars from the Hospice History Project at theUniversity of Sheffield. At St. Christopher’s I spenta week with professionals from 23 countriesdiscussing the various models of palliative care, thechallenges of health care delivery, the HV/AIDSpandemic, the role of nursing, and health care policy.It was fascinating to compare and contrast theevolution of hospice/palliative care nursinginternationally. Although the foundations of themodern hospice movement are universal, differencesSPECIALEVENT!All areWelcome!in professional roles, health care economics, andpublic policy have created striking differences inhow hospice and palliative medicine haveevolved in the U.S. and U.K.The Hospice History Project was initiated at theUniversity of Sheffield in 1995, and is led byProfessor David Clark. The current project teamcontains staff from the university andcollaborating colleagues from other countries.The primary aims of the project are to:undertake and foster academic study in thehistory of hospices; catalog/safeguard archivalrecords relevant to the development of hospice inBritain and Ireland; and, establish a hospice andpalliative care digital archive. David Clark hasdone extensive work with Dame Cicely and herpapers. The Cicely archival collection iscurrently housed at the University of Sheffield(Notes from Abroad continued on page 11)THE 11TH ANNUALAGNES DILLON RANDOLPH AWARD/Julie Fairman, RN, PhD, FAANAssociate ProfessorUniversity of Pennsylvania School of NursingTriangulating NursingThe ANA, AAP, and Nurse Practitioner, 1970-1985TUESDAY, MARCH 23, 2004 4:00-5:30 PMMCLEOD HALL AUDITORIUMRECEPTION SPONSORED BYBETA KAPPA CHAPTER OF SIGMA THETA TAU,INTERNATIONAL

Windows in TimeVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003In addition to these herbal teas, nurses used theherbs asexternal treatments. Roasted poke rootwas externally applied to treat “any kind of pain”but particularly “rheumatism.” The root wasroasted, split open, and bound directly to the site.An alternative was to administer a drink of pokeberries mixed with whiskey (Breckenridge, 1959,p. 17).Today, many of these simple herbal remedies arestill in use. For example, American ginseng isused as a tonic for “invigoration and fortificationin times of fatigue and debility” (Blumenthal,1998, p. 138), and Deadly Night Shade , morecommonly known as belladonna leaf, is appliedexternally to treat colic pain and spasms of thegastrointestinal tract. Indeed, the nurses werecorrect in noting that the leaf was poisonous, as itcontains the alkaloids of scopolamine andatropine (Blumenthal, 1998, p. 87).Today, Black Cohosh, is given for the treatmentof dysmenorrhea and the painful symptoms ofmenopause, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoidarthritis, and fibromyalgia. (Blumenthal, 1998 p.90). Known for its anti-inflammatory properties,Poke (Phytolacca decandra) has traditionally beenused to treat inflammatory conditions of theupper respiratory tract, including laryngitis,tonsillitis, and mumps. Topically it can be used totreat skin and glandular disorders, whileStinging nettle root relieves the symptoms ofbenign prostate hypertrophy (PBH), and nettlesare used to assuage the pain of osteo- andrheumatoid arthritis. Cloves continue to be usedas topical anesthetics in dentistry, while plantainsare applied externally to treat inflammatory skinconditions (Blumenthal, 1998). Today, Pleurisyroot (Asclepias tuberosa) is given to treat upperrespiratory infections, bronchial irritation andpneumonia. It is considered to be an effectiveexpectorant tonic, anti-inflammatory, andantitussive therapy(Mills and Bone, 2000, p. 216).At the present time, there is a resurgence ofinterest in herbal medicines, remedies that havelong been used by a variety of civilizations,including the Chinese, Greeks, Romans, NativePage 8Americans, and Western Europeans. Less than 40years ago, FNS nurses, sensitive to the culturalheritage of the community and preferences of theirpatients, carefully learned what local herbs“yarbs” were effective in healing medicalconditions, and used them, in conjunction withpharmaceutical drugs, in their care of patients.Guided by the standing orders provided by theirmedical advisory committee, the nurses usedcommonly accepted herbal remedies to alleviatethe itch of poison ivy, treat the throb of atoothache or the ache of arthritis, reduce skininflammation or suppress a cough. Using whatwas available, nurses provided a natural form ofhealth care that is increasingly sought after today.References:Blumenthal, M. (1998). Complete GermanCommission E Monographs. Austin, TX:American Botanical CouncilBreckinridge, M. (1959). “Yarb Lore in theKentucky Mountains.” Quarterly Bulletin, FNS,in the University of Kentucky FNS collection(reprint) p. 3-17.FNS, Medical Routines, 1928, 1930, 1936, 1948.FNS, Price List of Drugs for the use of the FrontierNursing Service, Inc. Box 53, Folder 12,University of Kentucky FNS Collection.Mills, S. & Bone, K. (2000). Principles and Practice ofPhytotherapy. New York: ChurchillLivingstoneRand, W. (1929). “Impressions of a Public HealthNursing Service in the Kentucky Mountains.”American Journal of Nursing, 29, (5), 527-530.Summers, V. (1941). “Saddle-bag and Log CabinTechnique.” Quarterly Bulletin of the FNS, 17,1.1According to a price list of drugs for FNS nurses, 1 oz ofhorehound and honey with ipecac cough syrup cost 2 cents( University of Kentucky Archives, Box 53, Folder 12, nodate).

Windows in TimeOctober 2003Page 9THE SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION FOR THEHISTORY OF MEDICINE AND SCIENCEANNUAL MEETINGThe SAHMS annual meeting meeting isFebruary 27-28, 2004 in Augusta Georgia. TheSAHMS meeting will be co-hosted by theMedical college of Georgia and the Center forthe Study of Georgia History, Augusta StateUniversity. For complete meeting andregistration information contact:Robert Nesbitt at rnesbitt@mail.mcg.edu orWendy Turner at wturner@aug.eduC ANADIAN ASSOCIATIONFOR THEHISTORY OF NURSING16TH ANNUAL CONFERENCEJUNE 11-13, 2004The CAHN invites abstracts for papers on anytopic in the history of nursing. Papers mustrepresent original work not already published or inthe press. We are seeking papers from communityscholars, students, full- time researchers andacademics. Papers should be 20 minutes in length.The program committee welcomes proposals forsymposiums. These sessions should include three20 minute papers, a 20 minute comment from thechairman or moderator, plus another 20 minutesfor questions and discussion from the audience.Abstracts should be 250 words in length, can be ineither French or English, and may be submitted bye-mail, please use either WordPerfect or MicrosoftWord. The abstract should include a completetitle, the author’s name, address, and institutionalaffiliation if he/she has one. Please also includecontact details: telephone, email, fax, and fullpostal address. Deadline for submission is on orbefore January 15, 2004.Email to: carol.helmstadter@rogers.comMail to: CAHN 2004 Conferencec/o Carol Helmstadter34 Chestnut ParkToronto, ON M4W 1W6CanadaCALL FOR ABSTRACTSAAHN 21 ST ANNUALHISTORY OF NURSINGCONFERENCECHARLESTON, S OUTH CAROLINAOCTOBER 1-3, 2004Please submit six copies of your abstract. Onecopy must state complete title, author(s), address,institutional affiliation, phone number/e- mailaddress/fax number, and indicate whether it is fora paper, poster or panel presentation. If more thanone author is listed, indicate which one is thecontact person. Abstracts will be selected on thebasis of merit through blind review.Abstracts must include purpose of the study,rationale and significance, description ofmethodology, identification of major primary andsecondary sources, findings and conclusions.Each section of the abstract should be clearlyidentified.Abstracts are to be received no later than January14, 2004See www.aahn.org/abstract.html for completepreparation guidelines.Mail to:Dr. Eleanor C. Bjoring, ChairAAHN Abstract Review Committee7400 Crestway Drive #813San Antonio, TX 78239-3093

Windows in TimeVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003Page 10C ENTER C ONTRIBUTORSFEBRUARY 2003 - OCTOBER 2003RANDOLPH SOCIETYBEAZLEY SOCIETYCENTER SUPPORTERMr. & Mrs. William AlbrechtMr. & Mrs. Beauford BancroftJanice Peacock BellackMarjorie Glaser BidnerBecky BowersBarbara BrodieMr. & Mrs. Dudley BryantMr. & Mrs. Terry CarrMr. & Mrs. George DaviesBarbie DunnJanet FickeissenMarilyn FloodAnnette GibbsDr. & Mrs. Robert GibsonMikel GrayArlene KeelingVirginia LeakeSally NicholsonJoAnne PeachMr. & Mrs. John PicklerMr. & Mrs. Chuck ShererUVA SON Alumni AssociationLynn Irene WasserbauerMr. & Mrs. Keith WoodardAlma WoolleyPaula Doyle ZeanahAlice AucielloCynthia BalinEliza BarryMarie BastiBillye Jean BrownMr. & Mrs. Irving BrownfieldKatharine (Joy) BuckJanis ChildsRuth Reed ChitwoodMarylou DownsEvelyn DriverElizabeth ErwinStephanie FergusonDenise Geolot ShererCarol GleitMr. & Mrs. Charles GreinerRebecca HarmonMr. & Mrs. Christopher KaiserMr. & Mrs. Edward KaiserMr. & Mrs. Michael KaiserDr. Richard KeelingMr. & Mrs. David LandinYu-Shen LinCarolyn Falvo-MacCormacKathy O’KelleyMary O’LaughlenJosephine RunnionSusan PhillipsDiane SkibaMary Jane TrautmanElizabeth Ann TroughtMary WickerSusan WintersWendy WolfCynthia Colyer AllenMary K. AppleLinda BunkerCheryl DumontMattia GilmartinLynn HartzKelli HollingerMarion HunterConrad JonesGretchen KellyLynn LaningBrigid LuskLaura MarkmanCarol Lynn MaxwellThompsonMr. & Mrs. Scott MingledorffBarbara MoranVirginia OhlsonSonda OppewalClaire ParsonsLisa Ann PlowfieldFay RainesDawn RigneyShelby ShiresDavid Strider, Jr.Susan SwastaJohn Twomey, Jr.JoAnn Van Valkenburgh WhitacreArlene WiensAngela WilsonPEMBER SOCIETYJanis Peacock BellackBeta Kappa Chapter,Sigma Theta TauElaine GrafElaine KendrickKathleen Dacuk KennedyMr. & Mrs. David KoepnickProgress Power CorporationSylvia RinkerCenter Contributors continued on page 11

Windows in TimeOctober 2003CENTER CONTRIBUTORSCONTINUEDPage 11ATONEMENTBY IANMCE WANFRIENDS OF THE CENTERSusan CallicottBrenda CarsleyMr. & Mrs. Richard ChristmasMrs. Clifford FoxDoris GlickBarbara GrahamTeresa HallerAnn HamricMr & Mrs. William HarrisMonthana HemcHayatAnn HershbergerKathryn KelseyVirginia LeeKaren RatzlaffLinda SabinJudith SandsVicki SchwabMr. & Mrs. Wayne SullivanTusana ThaweekoonMr. & Mrs. John ThomasUVa Fund AnonymousTami WyattFor those readers who enjoy a good read, I suggest theypick-up Ian Mc Ewan’s 2002 novel, Atonement. Acompelling story of three young English youngstersentering adulthood in the late 1930s, it tells the tale of ayoung British girl who unjustly accuses a young man of afoul deed that drastically alters both of their lives.Seeking to atone for her cruelty, the young woman entersnurses training in a London hospital during WWII.Working as a probationary student with injured armysurvivors from the battle of Dunkirk, McEwan allows usto see the horrors of war through her eyes. The narrativepower of McEwan to capture and convey her feelings offear, disgust and compassion, as she struggles to care forthese men, is extraordinary. As a nurse, I could only givethanks that I didn’t have to face this situation when I wasa beginning young student nurse!To gather material for the book, McEwan used theImperial War Museum’s archival collection of letters,journals and reminiscences of soldiers/nurses fromWWII. Clearly, in the hands of an award winning Britishauthor, archival material can become an evocative humanstory.-Barbara BrodieNotes from Abroad continueduntil it is transferred, in approximately two years, to its permanenthome at King’s College. (Information about the project, pleasevisit their website at http://www.hospice-history.org.uk/main.htm)My stay in England allowed me to develop new insights into thehospice movement. Moreover, I gained a greater appreciation ofa remarkable relationship that developed between two hospiceleaders: Dame Cicely and Florence Wald. Indeed, Dame Cicelyprofoundly influenced the American hospice movement, and yet,in the correspondence between these two visionaries, it wasobvious that the flow of influence was clearly not unidirectional.Cicely Saunders c.1940

Windows in TimeVolume 11, Issue 2, 2003Page 12Membership ApplicationThe Center for Nursing Historical InquiryEnclosed is my check for I would like to contribute to The Center:Friends of the Center (up to 49)Center Supporter ( 50- 99)Roy Beazley Society ( 100- 249)Phoebe Pember Society ( 250- 499)Agnes Dillon Randolph Society ( 500 and above)NameAddressCity State ZipPlease contact me about named gift opportunities.Please send more information about donating papers, artifacts, or collections.Mail your tax-deductible contribution to: The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry (CNHI)University of Virginia School of NursingP.O. Box 800782McLeod HallCharlottesville, Virginia 22908-0782Windows In TimeNON-PROFIT ORG.U.S. POSTAGE PAIDCHARLOTTESVILLE, VAPERMIT NO. 164Please support nursing history byrenewing your annual membership.

A Newsletter from The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry Volume 11, Issue 2, 2003 October 2003 . historical research findings. Windows in Time Volume 11, Issue 2, 2003 Page 2 . evolution of hospice/

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