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BiologyUpper SecondarySyllabusPapua New GuineaDepartment of Education

Issued free to schools by the Department of EducationPublished in 2008 by the Department of Education, Papua New Guinea Copyright 2008, Department of Education, Papua New GuineaAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted by any form or by any means electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior writtenpermission of the publisher.ISBN 978-9980-9923-2-1AcknowledgementsThe Upper Secondary Biology Syllabus was written, edited and formatted bythe Curriculum Development Division of the Department of Education. Thedevelopment of the syllabus was coordinated by Jane Yanimu EcnemePagelio.Writers from schools, tertiary institutions and non-government organisationsacross the country have contributed to the writing of this Biology syllabusthrough specialist writing workshops and consultations. Quality assurancegroups and the Science Subject Advisory Committee have also contributedto the development of this syllabus.This document was developed with the support of the AustralianGovernment through the Education Capacity Building Program.

ContentsSecretary’s message . ivIntroduction.1Rationale .3Aims .4Strands .5Learning outcomes .6Unit sequence and structure .7Grade 11 units .8Grade 12 units .25Assessment components, weightings and tasks .36Assessment, examinations and certification.37

Secretary’s messageThis Biology syllabus is to be used by teachers of Biology to teach UpperSecondary students (Grades 11 and 12) throughout Papua New Guinea.This syllabus builds upon science concepts, skills and attitudes learnt inLower Secondary and provides a sound foundation for further learning.The Upper Secondary Biology Syllabus conforms to the National EducationPlan’s vision, which is that secondary education enables students to achievetheir individual potential to lead productive lives as members of the local,national and international community. It provides opportunities for studentsto deepen their understanding of advanced biological knowledge. Studentsare prepared to deal with biological, moral and ethical issues brought aboutthrough local, national and international developments and changes.Teachers of Biology play a pivotal role by being innovative, creative andkeeping abreast of new information based on scientific research andtechnological changes. The challenge for teachers of Biology is to engagestudent learning in realistic contexts for increased and better understanding.Engaging in such learning helps students appreciate that humans are part ofnature and continue to have a greater influence on the environment than anyother species.Through learning Biology, students identify patterns in nature andunderstand that all living organisms carry out similar processes to form thestructures that make up their bodies. They also consider the impact ofhuman activities, both on the organisms and ecosystems that constitute thebiosphere and on individual human beings and human society in Papua NewGuinea and the world. Applying an understanding of Biology helps studentsto appreciate culture, ethics, economics, power relationships and otherfactors that influence the pursuit of science and have significant impacts onthe way people live. The study of Biology enables students to make informeddecisions about modifying and interacting with nature.This syllabus incorporates fundamental biology units that provide thefoundation for higher learning in fields such as medicine and health,agriculture and the environment, and prepares students continuing on tofurther education at tertiary level and other professional courses. Besidesproviding students with the conceptual background in biology needed tomeet the challenges of academic and professional courses, the syllabus alsoequips them to appreciate and apply basic biology knowledge in their livesand communities.I commend and approve this syllabus as the official curriculum for Biology tobe used in all schools with Grades 11 and 12 students throughout PapuaNew Guinea.DR JOSEPH PAGELIOSecretary for Education

IntroductionBiology is based on the curriculum principles from the National CurriculumStatement. It has been designed using learning outcomes that identify theknowledge, skills, attitudes and values that all students achieve ordemonstrate by the end of Grade 12. It links to the national curriculumlearning area Science and builds on the knowledge and skills students havelearnt in Grades 9 and 10.Through content knowledge, skills and values and building on students’ priorlearning, Biology offers a number of pathways to post-secondary study andthe workforce. It has specialised and general applications in both areas.Lower SecondaryScienceLower SecondaryScienceUpper SecondaryBiologyUpper SecondaryBiologyStrandsUnitsGrade 11 unitsGrade 12 unitsLife and LivingEcologyLiving ThingsEcologyNature of ScienceOur BodyNutritionPopulationMatter and EnergyMicrobiologyTransport SystemsGeneticsRespiration and GasExchangeEvolutionEarth and SpaceResponse to StimuliReproductionNote: Strands 1, 3 and 4 have some relevance to Biology with regard to the nature of theunits, interdependence and maintenance of natural processesPapua New Guinea harbours more than five per cent of the world’sbiodiversity within some of the world’s most biologically diverse and richecosystems. These ecosystems are heavily depended upon by manyordinary people for basic needs. The rich resources of these ecosystems arethreatened by an increasing trend in ecosystem destruction, caused byextractive activities and overuse of natural resources. The study of Biologyreinforces students’ understanding of variations amongst learners and theirrespect for diversity and helps them to appreciate that complex biologicalphenomena are also built on essentially simple processes.Students and teachers of Biology have to be aware that all living things areprotected and must not be harmed unnecessarily (as in dissectionprocedures). As well as the need to protect animals, students and teachersprotect themselves from disease and while handling animals andmicroscopic organisms.Biology is a specialised subject that requires a high level of cognitivecompetency. Having a high level of numeracy competency and a basic levelof language skills would help students to learn and understand biologicalprocesses better.Assessment is an important component of teaching for learning and isintegrated into the learning and teaching activities of Biology. Continuousassessment in Biology provides feedback to students and the teacher onstudents’ progress towards achievement of the learning outcomes. It helpsstudents improve their standards of achievement by knowing what they needto do well and where they need to improve. In Biology, teachers gather

Biologyevidence from students’ work during the course of the term and use thosecontinuous assessments to improve their teaching and students’ learning.The teaching program should also include formal summative assessment oflearning to gauge students’ level of achievement.Biology is to be timetabled for 240–250 minutes per week in Grade 11 andGrade 12.Overview of the study of Biology from Lower Secondary toUpper SecondaryGrade 9Grade 10Grade 11Grade 1211. 1Living Things11.2Nutrition9.3 EcologyStrandLife and Living11.3Transport System10.2Microbiology9.4 Our Body11.4Respiration andExchange of onse to Stimuli11.6Reproduction212.4Evolution

Upper Secondary SyllabusRationaleThe technical assistance of qualified biologists, environmental managersand forestry and agricultural specialists is essential for sustainablemanagement of our environment and resources, including biodiversity.Students’ skills in problem solving, critical thinking, and workingcooperatively in small groups are enhanced in the study of Biology. Theseskills enable students to explore various solutions to environmental andrelated problems.Students also develop values and attributes such as flexibility, curiosity,critical reflection and respect for evidence, which help them to consider theissues and implications of having respect for the environment, both livingand non-living. They can also recognise and understand the strengths andlimitations of biological techniques and technologies in the field of science.Humans are part of nature and continue to have a greater influence on theenvironment than any other species. By studying Biology, Papua NewGuineans become scientifically literate and demonstrate a soundunderstanding of biological life processes, natural systems, interactions andbalances, genetics and evolution.The study of genetics and evolution is the basis for understanding some ofearth’s environmental, medical and agricultural problems and exploring waysof solving these. This knowledge helps students to recognise theirresponsibility to conserve, protect, maintain, and improve the quality of theirenvironments for future generations.Studying emerging biological knowledge and its relevance to individuals andsocieties encourages rational and specific attitudes to issues related topopulation, environment and development, and provides students with afoundation for sustainable living in their community, further education andthe workforce. Students are able to make informed decisions to care for andprotect their environment.Through exploring the basic chemical constituents of living bodies, studentsunderstand the connections of biology to real-life problems, such as the useof biological discoveries or innovations in everyday life in the environment,nature, medicine and health and agriculture.Students understand, through scientific investigations, the underlyingprinciples that are common to animals and plants, as well as highlighting therelationships between biology and other areas of knowledge.3

BiologyAimsThe study of Biology enables students to: 4think scientifically and apply biological knowledge and skills to makedecisions about real problems and challenges in the context of their dailylivesgain an appreciation of and respect for the natural world, its diversity,fragility and finite nature, especially when harvesting from theenvironmentreflect on the underpinning biological principles and knowledge of livingorganisms and to be able to construct new knowledge for themselvesthrough research and research-based informationdevelop an understanding of the effects of human activities on livingorganisms, including the systems of the human body, for healthy livingand maintaining healthy environmentdevelop values and attributes that help them to consider issues andimplications associated with biological techniques and technologies.

Upper Secondary SyllabusStrandsThe study of Biology is described in the strand: ‘Life and living’.The ‘Life and living’ strand is about the diversity of living things and theirinteractions with each other and with the physical world. It considers thefunctions of various parts of living things and compares these in differentecosystems.This strand considers the way in which living things adapt to environmentsand change. It examines ecological habitats, roles of plants in ecosystems,life processes, and social and biological issues surrounding the survival ofspecies. The study of the interdependence of living things includesconsideration of the relationship of organisms within ecosystems. It alsoexplores the effects of human activity on these systems.This strand provides students with an understanding of the interdependenceof different life forms and the need to conserve the balance of nature.5

BiologyLearning outcomesThe Biology learning outcomes identify the knowledge, skills, attitudes andvalues all students achieve or demonstrate at the end of Grade 12. Thelearning outcomes for Biology are listed below. Students can:1. demonstrate an understanding of fundamental principles and models ofbiology2. demonstrate an understanding of plant and animal physiology3. demonstrate an understanding of interactions between organisms andtheir environment4. analyse and interpret data, graphics and other forms of information5. undertake investigations using scientific methodologies to solvebiological problems6. communicate biological investigation and findings in various ways usingbiological terms and conventions7. analyse and evaluate past and present biology-related developmentsand their impacts on human beings and environment and be able tomake informed and ethical decisions8. demonstrate an understanding of traditional biological knowledge andpractices and its relevance todayNote: While all ideas and concepts in Biology are linked, the table belowindicates the connections that should be highlighted most.Learning outcomes mapped against unitsLearning outcomesUnit 2. Demonstrate an understanding of plant andanimal physiology 3. Demonstrate an understanding of interactionsbetween organisms and their environment 4. Analyse and interpret data, graphics and otherforms of information 5. Undertake investigations using scientificmethodologies to solve biological problems 6. Communicate biological investigation andfindings in various ways using biological terms andconventions 8. Demonstrate an understanding of traditionalbiological knowledge and practices and itsrelevance today 12.4 12.3 12.212.111.611.511.411.3 7. Analyse and evaluate past and present biologyrelated developments and their impacts on humanbeings and environment and be able to makeinformed and ethical decisions611.211.11. Demonstrate an understanding of fundamentalprinciples and models of biology

Upper Secondary SyllabusUnit sequence and structureGrade 11 units11.1 Living Things5–6 weeks Living cells Linnean system of classification11.2 Nutrition8–10 weeks Autotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition11.3 Transport Systems6–8 weeks Transport systems in plants Transport systems in animals11.4 Respiration and Gas Exchange4–6 weeks Gas exchange surfaces Respiration11.5 Response to Stimuli6–8 weeks Tropism in plants Nervous system Endocrine systemGrade 12 units12.1 Ecology8–10 weeks Biomes and habitats Interactions Human impacts on the environment12.2 Population4–6 weeks Population sampling Human population growth12.3 Genetics8–10 weeks Inheritance Genes and chromosomes Variations Biotechnological techniques12.4 Evolution6–8 weeks Theories of evolution Evidence of evolution Mechanisms of evolution11.6 Reproduction6–8 weeks Reproduction and fertilisationSecondary sexual characteristicsFamily planning methodsSexually transmitted infections7

BiologyGrade 11 units11.1 Living Things5 6 weeksContextDid you know that there are millions of plant and animal species in theworld? And did you know that Papua New Guinea has about 20 000 speciesof vascular plants, over 200 species of mammals and 750 species of birds?How are scientists able to organise such vast numbers of species into anorderly manner? What kind of system do they use? Would you know if thereare some forms or methods of grouping or naming organisms in your localarea? If you don’t, would you like to find out?KnowledgeIn this unit, students discover the vast number of plant and animal species,realising the need for a common classification system. Students useinvestigative procedures to find out traditional classification systems, leadingto the Linnean classification system where every living thing has a doublename in Latin (‘binomial nomenclature’). Students learn that under thissystem organisms are divided into groups, the largest being the ‘kingdom’.Students have prior knowledge about cells from Grade 8, strand 2 ‘Livingthings’, sub-strand ‘Nature of living things’, and experience in usingmicroscopes. Combining this knowledge and experience, students preparewet mounts to manipulate the microscope to view differences between plantand animal cells.Learning outcomesStudents can:1. demonstrate an understanding of fundamental principles and models ofbiology2. demonstrate an understanding of plant and animal physiology3. demonstrate an understanding of interactions between organisms andtheir environment4. analyse and interpret data, graphics and other forms of information5. undertake investigations using scientific methodologies to solvebiological problems6. communicate biological investigation and findings in various ways usingbiological terms and conventions8. demonstrate an understanding of traditional biological knowledge andpractices and its relevance today.To achieve these outcomes, students: compare and contrast traditional biological classification and Linneanclassification systems8

Upper Secondary Syllabus design and conduct investigations on cell structure and functionsmanipulate microscopes to observe cells.ContentStudents acquire knowledge and skills through the learning and teaching ofthis content.Living cells parts of a compound microscope structure and functions of cell organelles such as: mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi body,vacuole, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, cell wall, chloroplast,nucleolus types of animal cells such as nerve, muscle, skin, brain, reproductivecells, blood experiments to investigate living cellsLinnean system of classification researching traditional biological classification systems binomial nomenclature and the Linnean system of classification using set criteria to classify given organisms into categories (kingdom,phyla, class, order, family, genus, species) the five kingdoms: monera, protista, fungi, animals and plants simple use of dichotomous keys for identification of unknown organismsAttitudes, values and skillsSpecific skills and attitudes practised in and gained through this unit:Attitudes and values appreciation of and respect for traditional knowledge and the greatdiversity of organismsProcess skills manipulation of microscopes observation and classification of organisms calculation of cell magnificationGeneral skills communication of resultsLaboratory and practical work1. Collect plant and animal specimens and identify them.2. Construct simple dichotomous keys and use these to identify unknownorganisms.3. Prepare a wet mount and observe different types of plant and animalcells such as onion cells and cheek cells.9

Biology11.2 Nutrition8–10 weeksContextHave you ever wondered about how plants manufacture food? Or whichplant structure makes food by photosynthesis? Do you know if animalsbenefit from these products made by plants? Or, what do the digestivesystems of herbivores and carnivores look like?KnowledgeStudents have prior knowledge about how plants and animals feed throughthe Upper Primary sub-strand, ‘Nature of living things’. This extends brieflyinto the Lower Secondary strand, ‘Life and living’. The unit provides studentswith an understanding of autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition throughinvestigating how plants and animals feed. In other laboratory work, studentsexplore factors that determine rates of chemical reactions, such asphotosynthesis and respiration.

Secondary students (Grades 11 and 12) throughout Papua New Guinea. This syllabus builds upon science concepts, skills and attitudes learnt in Lower Secondary and provides a sound foundation for further learning. The Upper Secondary Biology Syllabus conforms to the National Education