AP* Test Prep Series AP BIOLOGY

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Pearson EducationAP* Test Prep SeriesAP BIOLOGYFred W. HoltzclawTheresa Knapp HoltzclawTo accompany:Pearson’s Campbell Biology Programs*Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, and Pre-AP are registered trademarksof the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, these products.Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River AmsterdamCape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto DelhiMexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. iSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd1Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

Vice President/Editor-in-Chief: Beth WilburSenior Acquisitions Editor: Josh FrostSenior Editorial Manager: Ginnie Simione JutsonSenior Supplements Project Editor: Susan BergeAssistant Editor: Katherine Harrison-AdcockManaging Editor, Production: Michael EarlyProduction Project Manager: Jane BrundageProduction Management and Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing ServicesCover Production: Seventeenth Street StudiosManufacturing Buyer: Michael PenneExecutive Marketing Manager: Lauren HarpText and Cover printer: Edwards Brothers MalloyCover Photo Credit: “Succulent I” 2005 Amy Lamb, www.amylamb.comCopyright 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1301 SansomeSt., San Francisco, CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication isprotected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction,storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request toPearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 1900 E. Lake Ave., Glenview, IL 60025. For information regarding permissions, call (847) 486-2635.Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designationshave been printed in initial caps or all caps.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—EB—16 15 14 13 12www.PearsonSchool.com/Advanced# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. iiSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd2Title: Test PrepThis AP* Test Prep Workbook replacesISBNs 0-13-137553-9/978-0-13-137553-6and 3-5ISBN-13: 978-0-321-85663-0KShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

Brief ContentsPart I: Introduction to the AP BiologyExamination  1To p ic 7Part II: A Review of Topics with SampleQuestions  31To p ic 8Topic 1The Chemistry of Life   33Topic 2The Cell   47Topic 3The Evolutionary History of BiologicalDiversity  171Plant Form and Function   199To p ic 9Animal Form and Function   217To p ic 1 0Ecology  265Part III: The Laboratory   287Respiration and Photosynthesis   77Topic 4Part IV: Sample Test   333Mendelian Genetics   99Topic 5Part V: Answers and Explanations   349Molecular Genetics   119Topic 6Index  411Mechanisms of Evolution   151iii# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. iiiSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd3Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

Figures taken from:Campbell Biology, Ninth Editionby Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky,and Robert B. JacksonCopyright 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsCampbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Editionby Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, and Jean L. DickeyCopyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsBiology: Exploring Life, First EditionBy Neil A. Campbell, Brad Williamson, and Robin J. HeydenCopyright 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice HallEssential Biology with Physiology, Second Editionby Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece, and Eric J. SimonCopyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsStudent Study Guide for Biology, Eighth Editionby Martha R. TaylorCopyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsBiology: Concepts & Connections Test Bank, Seventh Editionby Jennifer YehCopyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsPhoto credits:Part II, Topic 2, Fig 2.12: Biophoto/Photo Researchers; Part II, Topic 4, Fig. 4.1b: CNRI/PhotoResearchers; Part II, Topic 7, fig. 7.4: Laurie Knight; Part II, Topic 7, Fig 7.6: Andrew Brown/Ecoscene/Corbis; Part III, Fig. 9.4 & 9.5: Ed Reschke.# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. ivSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd4Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

About YourPearson AP* GuidePearson Education is the leading education solution provider worldwide. With operations on everycontinent, we make it our business to understandthe changing needs of students at every level, fromkindergarten to college. We think that makes usespecially qualified to offer this series of AP* TestPrep workbooks, tied to some of our best-sellingprograms.Our reasoning is that as you study for yourcourse, you’re preparing along the way for the APExam. If you can connect the material in the bookdirectly to the exam, it makes the material thatmuch more relevant, and enables you to focus yourtime most efficiently. And that’s a good thing!The AP Exam is an important milestone inyour education. A high score means you’re in abetter position for college acceptance, and possiblyputs you a step ahead with college credits. Our goalis to provide you with the tools you need to succeed.Good luck!v# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. vSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd5Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

Revisions to This EditionPart I: Introduction to the AP BiologyExamination The introduction is now aligned with the newCurriculum Framework (CF) that launches inthe 2012–2013 school year. An outline of the new CF is included and itsorganization is explained. The science practices that will be tested areintroduced. A revised topic correlation shows how conceptsin Campbell Biology correspond to the new CF. The description of the exam and the testinghints are revised to reflect the changes in thecourse beginning with the 2013 exam.Part II: A Review of Topics with SampleQuestions You Must Know boxes have been edited toreflect the change in emphasis of the new CF. New boxes titled What’s Important to Know?are scattered throughout the content areas toremind students of the types of questions theymight be asked. These often focus on sciencepractices, which is an emphasis of the newcourse. Content that is no longer relevant to the examhas been removed, or notes have been addedto make it explicit whether material reflects illustrative examples or is required content. New test questions have been added to eachtopic to reflect changes that will be seen on theexam beginning in 2013. This includes questions that require interpretation of data or application of knowledge.Part III: The Laboratory The 12 classic labs in the 2001 AP BiologyLaboratory Manual have been modified or replaced. The College Board has released a newgroup of laboratory investigations, and so thissection has been heavily revised to reflect thesechanges. The new CF asks students to be able to applymathematics to a variety of topics. A sheet offormulas will be supplied to them on the exam.This is included in this revised edition, alongwith a number of tutorials and problems thattake students through sample mathematical applications. New boxes titled Science Practices: Can You. . .have been added to focus students on makingconnections and applying science practices.Part IV: Sample Test The format of the exam is changing beginningin 2012–2013. The sample test more accuratelyreflects the types of questions students mayencounter. It will be very important for students to practice with these types of questionsthroughout the year. Grid-in questions are included in the sampletest. Students will be expected to have a calculator for the new exam and provide numericalresponses with a grid-in system. Free-response questions will be of varyinglengths. The sample test follows this new f ormat.Part V: Answers and Explanations The format of this section remains similar topast editions, but some explanations focus onscience practices and applications.vi# 109605   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. viSeries: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsA01 HOLT6630 04 SE FM.indd6Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services04/09/12 1:57 PM

Part IIA Review of Topicswith Sample QuestionsPart II is keyed to Campbell Biology, NinthEdition, by Reece et al. It gives an overviewof important information and providessample multiple-choice and free-responsequestions. The necessary content is included in the bulleted information, butyou will need to rely on sample questionsand your teacher’s instruction to reinforce the science practices. Answers and explanations can be found in Part V. Usethe summary of key concepts section atthe end of each chapter in your textbookbefore attempting the practice questions.Be sure to review the answers thoroughlyto prepare yourself for the range of questions you will encounter on the APBiology Examination.# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 31Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd31Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 32Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd32Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Topic 1The Chemistry of LifeChapter 2: The Chemical Context of LifeWhat’s Important to Know?This chapter is considered prior knowledge for the AP Biology Examination. However, you will need to know this information to proceed with therequired topics, so we include what is most important in this area.You Must Know The three subatomic particles and their significance. The types of chemical bonds, how they form, and their relative strengths.Concept 2.1  Matter consists of chemical elements in pure formand in combinations called compounds Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances bychemical reactions. Examples: gold, copper, carbon, and oxygen. A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in afixed ratio. Examples: water (H2O) and table salt (NaCl). C, H, O, N make up 96% of living matter. About 25 of the 92 natural elementsare known to be essential to life. Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities.Examples: iron and iodine.Concept 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of theelement. Atoms are made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons. Protons are positively charged particles. They are found in the nucleus anddetermine the element. Electrons are negatively charged particles that are found in electron shellsaround the nucleus. They determine the chemical properties and reactivity ofthe element. Neutrons are particles with no charge. They are found in the nucleus. Theirnumber can vary in the same element, resulting in isotopes.33# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 33Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd33Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Isotopes are forms of an element with differing numbers of neutrons. Example: 12C and 14C are isotopes of carbon. Both have 6 protons, but 12C has 6neutrons whereas 14C has 8 neutrons. The atomic number is the number of protons an element possesses. This number is unique to every element. (See Figure 1.1.) The mass number of an element is the sum of its protons and neutrons.Atomic number # of protons2HeElement symbolAtomic mass # protons # neutrons4.00Figure 1.1An element of the periodic tableConcept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms Chemical bonds are defined as interactions between the valence electrons ofdifferent atoms. Atoms are held together by chemical bonds to form molecules. A covalent bond occurs when valence electrons are shared by two atoms. Nonpolar covalent bonds occur when the electrons being shared areshared equally between the two atoms. Examples: O O, H H.Atoms vary in their electronegativity, a tendency to attract electrons ofa covalent bond. Oxygen is strongly electronegative.In polar covalent bonds, one atom has greater electronegativity thanthe other, resulting in an unequal sharing of the electrons. Example:Refer to Figure 1.2 and note that within each molecule of H2O the electrons are shared unequally, resulting in the region of the oxygen atombeing slightly negative, whereas the regions about the hydrogen atomsare slightly positive. –Hydrogen bond Slightlynegative–– HydrogenOxygen Slightlypositive Figure 1.234     P A R T– Hydrogen bonds between water moleculesI i : A R e v i ew o f To pic s with Sam ple Que s tions# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 34Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd34Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Ionic bonds are ones in which two atoms attract valence electrons so unequally that the more electronegative atom steals the electron away from theless electronegative atom. An ion is the resulting charged atom or molecule.Ionic bonds occur because these ions will be either positively or negativelycharged, and will be attracted to each other by these opposite charges. Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak bonds that form between the partial positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule and the strongly electronegative oxygen or nitrogen of another molecule. Van der Waals interactions are very weak, transient connections that are theresult of asymmetrical distribution of electrons within a molecule. These weakinteractions contribute to the three-dimensional shape of molecules.Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds A chemical reaction shows the reactants, which are the starting materials,an arrow to indicate their conversion into the products, the ending materials.Example: 6 CO2 6 H2O ¡ C6H12O6 6 O2. The chemical reaction above also shows the number of molecules involved.This is the coefficient in front of each molecule. You will note that the numberof atoms of each element is the same on each side of the reaction. Some chemical reactions are reversible, which is indicated with a doubleheaded arrow: 3 H2 N2 2 NH3. Chemical equilibrium is the point at which the forward and reverse reactionsoffset one another exactly. Their concentrations have stabilized at a particularratio, though they are not necessarily equal.Chapter 3: Water and LifeYou Must Know The importance of hydrogen bonding to the properties of water.Four unique properties of water, and how each contributes to life on Earth.How to interpret the pH scale.How changes in pH can alter biological systems.The importance of buffers in biological systems.Concept 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding The structure of water is the key to its special properties. Water is madeup of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen, bonded to form amolecule. Water molecules are polar. The oxygen region of the molecule has a partialnegative charge, and each hydrogen has a partial positive charge.topi c 1 : th e c h e m is try of l if e# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 35Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd35Title: Test PrepKShort / Normal35DESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules. The slightly negative oxygenatom from one water molecule is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogenend of another water molecule. Each water molecule can form a maximum of four hydrogen bonds at a time.Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life Hydrogen bonds are the key to each of these properties. This is what makeswater so unique.1. Cohesion. Cohesion is the linking of like molecules. Think “watermolecule joined to water molecule” and visualize a water strider walking on top of a pond due to the surface tension that is the resultof this property. Adhesion is the clinging of one substance to another. Think “water molecule attached to some other molecule” such as waterdroplets adhering to a glass windshield. Transpiration is the movement of water molecules up the verythin xylem tubes and their evaporation from the stomata inplants. The water molecules cling to each other by cohesion, andto the walls of the xylem tubes by adhesion.2. Moderation of temperature is possible because of water’s high specificheat. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise or lower thetemperature of a substance by 1 C. Relative to most other materials, the temperature of water changes less when a given amountof heat is lost or absorbed. This high specific heat makes the temperature of Earth’s oceans relatively stable and able to supportvast quantities of both plant and animal life.3. Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice. Water is less dense as a solid than in its liquid state, whereas theopposite is true of most other substances. Because ice is less densethan liquid water, ice floats. This keeps large bodies of water fromfreezing solid and therefore moderates temperature.4. Water is an important solvent. (The substance that something is dissolved in is called the solvent, whereas the substance being dissolved isthe solute. Together they are called the solution.) Hydrophilic substances are water-soluble. These include ioniccompounds, polar molecules (e.g., sugars), and some proteins. Hydrophobic substances such as oils are nonpolar and do not dissolve in water.Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms The pH scale runs between 0 and 14 and measures the relative acidity and alkalinity of aqueous solutions. (See Figure 1.3.)36     P A R TI i : A R e v i ew o f To pic s with Sam ple Que s tions# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 36Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd36Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

ACIDIC0BASIC7.0Figure 1.314pH scaleAcids have an excess of H ions and a pH below 7.0. [H ] . [OH ]Bases have an excess of OH ions, and pH above 7.0. [H ] , [OH ]Pure water is neutral, which means it has a pH of 7. [H ] 5 [OH ]Buffers are substances that minimize changes in pH. They accept H fromsolution when they are in excess and donate H when they are depleted. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is an important buffer in living systems. It moderatespH changes in blood plasma and the ocean. Chapter 4: Carbon and the MolecularDiversity of LifeYou Must Know The properties of carbon that make it so important.Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds The major elements of life are C, H, O, N, S, and P, sometimes recalled with theacronym for a person’s name: P.S. COHN. All organic compounds contain carbon, and most also contain hydrogen. Once thought to be made only in living cells, artificial synthesis of organiccompounds is possible. A classic experiment done by Stanley Miller in 1953showed that complex organic molecules could arise spontaneously. See the figure in your text, and note the conditions and compounds that might have beenpart of the early conditions on Earth.Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form molecules that are large, complex,and diverse. Why? It has 4 valence electrons.It can form up to 4 covalent bonds.These can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds.It can form large molecules.These molecules can be chains, ring-shaped, or branched. Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but differ in theirarrangement of these atoms. These differences can result in molecules thatare very different in their biological activities. Examples: glucose and fructose(both have the molecular formula of C6H12O6).topi c 1 : th e c h e m is try of l if e# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 37Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd37Title: Test PrepKShort / Normal37DESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Concept 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules Functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton have diverse properties.The behavior of organic molecules is dependent on the identity of their functional groups. Some common functional groups are listed below:Functional Group Name/StructureOrganic Molecules with the Functional Group and Items of Note about Functional GroupHydroxyl, —OHAlcohols such as ethanol, methanol; helps dissolve molecules such as sugarsCarboxyl, —COOHCarboxylic acids such as fatty acids and sugars; acidic properties because it tends to ionize; sourceof H ionsCarbonyl, COKetones and aldehydes such as sugars/\Amino, —NH2Amines such as amino acidsPhosphate, PO3Organic phosphates, including ATP, DNA, and phospholipidsSulfhydryl, —SHThis group is found in some amino acids; forms disulfide bridges in proteinsMethyl, —CH3Addition of a methyl group affects expression of genesChapter 5: The Structure and Functionof Large Biological MoleculesYou Must Know The role of dehydration reactions in the formation of organic compoundsand hydrolysis in the digestion of organic compounds. How to recognize the four biologically important organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by their structural formulas. The cellular functions of the four groups of organic compounds. The four structural levels of proteins and how changes at any level can affect the activity of the protein. How proteins reach their final shape (conformation), the denaturingimpact that heat and pH can have on protein structure, and how thesechanges may affect the organism.Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers Polymers are long chain molecules made of repeating subunits called monomers. Examples: Starch is a polymer composed of glucose monomers. Proteinsare polymers composed of amino acid monomers. (See Figure 1.4.) MonomersDehydrationreactionsH2OPolymers PolymersHydrolysisMonomersH2OFigure 1.4 Synthesis and breakdown of polymers38     P A R TI i : A R e v i ew o f To pic s with Sam ple Que s tions# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 38Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd38Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

Dehydration reactions create polymers from monomers. Two monomers arejoined by removing one molecule of water. Example: C6H12O6 C6H12O6 H22O11 H2O. Hydrolysis occurs when water is added to split large molecules. This occurs inthe reverse of the above reaction.Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates include both simple sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, etc.)and polymers such as starch made from these and other subunits. All carbohydrates exist in a ratio of 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen or CH2O. Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates. Examples: glucose(C6H12O6) and ribose (C5H10O5). Notice the 1:2:1 ratio discussed above. Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides. Examples: starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Two functions of polysaccharides are energy storage and structural support.1. Energy-storage polysaccharides Starch is a storage polysaccharide found in plants(e.g., potatoes). Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide found in animals,vertebrate muscle cells, and liver cells.2. Structural support polysaccharides Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods, such as lobstersand insects and the cell walls of fungi. It gives cockroaches their“crunch.”Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules Lipids are all hydrophobic. They aren’t polymers, as they are assembled from avariety of components. Examples: waxes, oils, fats, and steroids. Fats (also called triglycerides) are made up of a glycerol molecule and threefatty acid molecules. Fatty acids include hydrocarbon chains of variable lengths. These chains arenonpolar and therefore hydrophobic. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between carbonstend to pack solidly at room temperatureare linked to cardiovascular diseaseare commonly produced by animalsExamples: butter and lardUnsaturated fatty acids have some C C (carbon double bonds); this results in kinkstend to be liquid at room temperaturetopi c 1 : th e c h e m is try of l if e# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 39Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd39Title: Test PrepKShort / Normal39DESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

are commonly produced by plantsExamples: corn oil and olive oil Functions of lipids Energy storage. Fats store twice as many calories/gram ascarbohydrates!Protection of vital organs and insulation. In humans and other mammals, fat is stored in adipose cells. Phospholipids make up cell membranes. They have a glycerol backbone (head), which is hydrophilic.have two fatty acid tails, which are hydrophobic.are arranged in a bilayer in forming the cell membrane, with the hydrophilic heads pointing toward the watery cytosol or extracellular environment, and hydrophobic tails sandwiched in between (see Figure 1.5).CholinePhosphateGlycerolWATERFatty acidsHydrophilicheadHydrophobic tailsHydrophobictailsSpace-filling modelHydrophilicheadPhospholipid symbolFigure 1.5WATERThe structure of a phospholipid Steroids are made up of four rings that are fused together. Cholesterol is a steroid. It is a common component of cell membranes.Estrogen and testosterone are steroid hormones.Concept 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid monomers. Amino acids contain a central carbon bonded to a carboxyl group, an aminogroup, a hydrogen atom, and an R group (variable group or side chain). (SeeFigure 1.6.)40     P A R TI i : A R e v i ew o f To pic s with Sam ple Que s tions# 104112   Cust:PE  Au: Holtzclaw  Pg. No. 40Series: Biology to accompany Campbell Biolo     Server: JobsM02 HOLT0000 00 SE PT02.indd40Title: Test PrepKShort / NormalDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services20/06/12 9:35 AM

α carbonRHOCNH Peptide bonds link amino acids. They are formed by dehydration synthesis. There are four levels of protein structure (see Figure 1.7):CPrimary structure is the unique sequence in which amino acids are joined.Secondary structure refers to one of two three-dimensional shapesthat are the result of hydrogen bonding. OHH AminogroupCarboxylgroup Figure 1.6 The structureof an amino acid Tertiary structure results in a complex globular shape, due to interactions between R groups, such as hydrophobic interactions, van derWaals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges. 13NGly Pro Thr GlyThrAmino end15LeuMetVal5GlySeuPro Cys LysGluBeta pleated sheet10LysValLeuAsp20Ala Val Arg GlySerProAla25Globular proteins such as enzymes are held in position by theseR group interactions.Quaternary structure refers to the association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein. Hemoglobin is a globularprotein with quaternary structure, as it is composed of four chains. HAlpha (α) helix is a coiled shape, much like a slinky.Beta (β) pleated sheet is an accordion shape.O H HO H HO H HO H HRRRC C NC C NC C NC C NC C NCC NCCC NCRRRROOOH HOHHHHRRRROOOOHHHHCCCCHHHC N HC NC NHC NC NHC NC NHC NH O CH O CH O CH O CCRRRC NHRRC HC HN HO C N HO CN HN HO CCOH C R H C RH C R H CRN H O CN HO CO C N HO CN HCCR HR HPrimarystructureAlpha helixSecondarystructureFigure 1.7TertiarystructureQuaternarystructureLevels of protein structure Protein shape is crucial to protein function. When a protein does not foldproperly, its function is changed. This can be the result of a single amino acidsubstitution, such as that seen in the abnormal hemoglobin typical of sicklecell disease. Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of proteins within cells. They provide an isolating environment in which a polypeptide chain may attain final conformation. A protein is denatured when it loses its shape and ability to function due toheat, a change in pH, or some other disturbance.Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ri

Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition by Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, and Jean L. Dickey . A revised topic correlation shows how concepts in Campbell Biology correspond to

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