Luperox Organic Peroxides Safe Handling Guide

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ORGANIC PEROXIDESOrganic Peroxides –Their Safe Handling and Use

TABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION1PAGE1Introduction22Safety Guidelines/Sources of Hazard33Hazard Information44Description of Various Product Classes tation129First Aid1210Safety Check List1311Conclusion14INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this bulletin is toprovide information on the safehandling and use of organic peroxides.Chemically, organic peroxides arecompounds characterized by the presence of an oxygen-oxygen linkage inthe molecular structure.9Organic peroxides are sensitive to heatand contamination, since these conditions will cleave the oxy-oxy bonds toform free radicals.2Since organic peroxides are reactivechemicals, they can be dangerous ifmistreated or mishandled.In case of Emergency call –Chemtrec: 800-424-9300For Medical Assistance call –R.M.P.C.C.: 303-623-5716(Rocky Mt. Poison Control Center)SAFETY GUIDELINES/TYPESOF ORGANIC PEROXIDESA wide variety of organic peroxidesare now offered commercially to meetthe sophisticated needs of polymermanufacturers. Among them areperoxyesters, peroxydicarbonates,dialkyl peroxides, diacyl peroxides,hydroperoxides, peroxyketals andMEK peroxides. Products representing each of these classes are listed inTable 1. (Note: MEK or Ketone peroxides are a mixture of peroxides andhydroperoxides).There are differences in the degreeand type of hazard associated withthese peroxides. A series of tests hasbeen carried out to evaluate properties such as shock sensitivity, heatsensitivity, burning rate, flash pointand storage stability. The results ofthe tests have proven helpful inestablishing safe handling, storageand disposal guidelines, and in developing the packaging and shippingprocedures described in this bulletin.Table 1 Representative organic peroxidesPeroxyestersOPeroxydicarbonatesODialkyl PeroxidesODiacyl x P(t-Butylperbenzoate)Luperox 223-M75S(Di-2-ethylhexylperoxydicarbonate)Luperox DI(Di-t-Butyl peroxide)Luperox A98(Benzoyl peroxide)Luperox TBH70X(t-Butyl hydroperoxide)Luperox 231(1,1-Di(t-Butyl peroxy)3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane)Luperox DDM-9(MEKP Solutionin Plasticizer 9% Active Oxygen)Luperox 26(t-Butyl peroctoate)Luperox 225-M60S(Di-sec-Butylperoxydicarbonate)Luperox 1012,5-dimethyl-2,5-bis(t-Butyl-peroxy) hexaneLuperox LP(Lauroylperoxide)Luperox CU90(Cumenehydroperoxide)Luperox 331M801,1-Di(t-Butyl peroxy)cyclohexaneLuperox Delta-X9(MEKP Solutionin Plasticizer 9% Active Oxygen)Luperox 11M75(t-Butylperoxypivalate)Luperox DC(Dicumyl peroxide)Luperox 10M75(t-Butyl peroxyneodecanoate)Luperox F(2,2-bis (t-butyl peroxy)diisopropylbenzene(s))Note: Lupersol DDM-9*, DHD-9*, DDM-30* and Delta X-9* will change to Luperox and drop * during 2001. Formulations will not change.2Ketone PeroxidesLupersol and Luperox are registered trademarks of Arkema Inc.Luperox DHD-9(MEKP Solutionin Plasticizer 9% Active Oxygen)Luperox 224(2,4 PentanedionePeroxide Solutionin Plasticizer)

HAZARDS INFORMATIONThe major causes of peroxidedecomposition (sources of hazard)are Heat, Fire, Friction, Shock andContamination. Examples of thecommon sources of these include:HAZARD OVERVIEWTEMPERATURE3DangerZoneself heatingHeat - Sunlight; loss of refrigeration;radiators; heating elements; hotreaction vessels; heating ducts.Fire - Open flame; sparks.Friction - Mixing; pumping; grinding;traffic over spillage (which cangenerate heat).Shock - Dropping; impact duringtransportation (which can generateheat).Contamination - Metal salts; amines;acids; bases; polymerization accelerator; transition metals; persulfates.The major safety characteristicsArkemaInc.measurestodetermine the relative hazard of anorganic peroxide include: shocksensitivity, the amount of energyreleased during a decomposition,and flash point. Also measured arethe ease of burning, sensitivity to rateof heat rise, thermal stability, selfaccelerating decompostion temperature and ignition or autoignitioncharacteristics.STANDARD SAFETY TESTSStandard tests have been developedfor determining the hazard of peroxides. The following is a list anddescription of these established tests:A. SADT (Self AcceleratingDecomposition Temperature)The SADT test establishes thelowest temperature at which aperoxide, in its largest commericalpackage, will undergo self accelerating decomposition. The type ofdecomposition and damage potential are measured, and the severityof decomposition is determined.The two parameters having theRedZoneSADTviolentdecompositionIncreased Assay Loss ZoneRecommendedStorageTemperatureSafe ZoneTIMEFigure 1greatest effect on SADT are rate ofdecomposition and heat loss fromthe package. Figure 1 illustrates theimpact of the SADT.B. Shock SensitivityA standard weight is dropped on asmall sample in an “impact tester”.The height of the fall required for theweight to decompose the productis a measure of its sensitivity toshock. Dry/pure Dibenzoyl peroxide(Luperox A98) is one of the fewcommercially available peroxides toexhibit shock sensitivity in this test.C.Flash PointThe standard (closed cup) SETAflash test is now used. It is thetemperature at which the productvapors ignite on contact with anopen flame.D.Thermal Stability TestResults are determined by storingperoxide at a constant temperaturefor a specified time. The results ofthis test in terms of weight loss andassay are used as criteria for establishing storage temperature andshelf life requirements.Product descriptions and safetydata for representative organicperoxide formulations are givenin tables 2 and 3.The three primary types of hazards to beconcerned with are flammability, heat sensitivity and contamination.The following statements are providedas general discussion for these typesof hazards, as they relate to all organic peroxides.A. FlammabilityAll organic peroxides will burn vigorously,and once ignited will be difficult to extinguish.The flammability of organic peroxides willalso be affected by the decompositionproducts. When most peroxides begin todecompose they will generate vapors andheat. Such vapors may be flammable andcould be the cause of an explosion.B. Heat SensitivityAll organic peroxides are sensitive to heat. Ifa peroxide is heated above a certaintemperature (depending on the specificheat sensitivity of the peroxide itself) therate of decompostion will increase in anuncontrolled manner. This reaction canbecome violent, releasing large volumes ofhot, flammable gasses.The temperature at which this will occurdepends on the volume of the peroxide,the container and the period of timethe peroxide remains at that temperature.The self accelerating decompositiontemperature (SADT) test provides ameasure of this hazard.In general, the best way to avoid decomposition due to heat is to scrupulouslyadhere to the recommended storagetemperatures for each product. This isparticularly true for peroxides requiringrefrigerated storage.C.ContaminationChemical contamination can acceleratedecomposition of organic peroxides.Care should be taken to avoid all formsof contamination, particularly oxidizingand reducing agents and metal salts –especially strong mineral acids. Thesewill initiate a rapid decomposition atnormal ambient temperatures, whilemany heavy metals such as copper, iron,brass, etc. will have a similar effect over alonger period of time.3

Liquid MixtureLiquidLiquidSolid MixtureLiquidDi-t-butyl Peroxidet-butyl Hydroperoxidet-butyl Hydroperoxidet-amyl peroxyacetatet-amyl peroxybenzoateDi-t-amyl Peroxide2,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexyne-32,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexyne-32,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexaneLuperox TBIC M75Luperox DILuperox TBH 70XLuperox TBH 70Luperox 555M60Luperox TAPLuperox DTALuperox 130Luperox 130XL45Luperox 101PlasticizerLiquidLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquidLiquid MixtureLiquidLiquid MixtureLiquid quid MixtureLiquid BBP & fillerBBP & FillerDBP & eNAAromatic 100OMSOMSDiluentLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquidLiquidLuperox TAECCatalyst 730*Luperox CU90Red Catalyst 11*Clear Catalyst 11*Luperox Delta X-9 (red)Luperox DHD-9 (red)Luperox DDM-30 (red)Luperox DDM-9 (red)Luperox 224Paste MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquid Mixturet-butylperoxy isopropylcarbonateLuperox ACP35Luperox PLuperox PAR70Luperox 7M75Luperox 7M50Paste MixtureLuperox TBECDibenzoyl PeroxideLuperox ATC50Paste MistureLiquidDibenzoyl PeroxideLuperox AFR40SolidSolidSolidSolid USP GradeSolid USP GradePaste MixturePaste Mixturet-butyl peroxy-2ethylhexyl carbonateDilauroyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideDibenzoyl PeroxideLuperox LPLuperox A98Luperox A75Luperox A75FPLuperox A70SLuperox ANS55Luperox ANS55PPhysicalFormDibenzoyl Peroxidet-Butyl Perbenzoatet-Butyl Perbenzoatet-Butyl peroxyacetatet-Butyl peroxyacetate2,4 PentanedionePeroxideMethyl Ethyl KetonePeroxideMethyl Ethyl KetonePeroxideMethyl Ethyl KetonePeroxideMethyl Ethyl KetonePeroxideMEKP & CumeneHydroperoxideMEKP & CumeneHydroperoxideMEKP & CumeneHydroperoxideCumene Hydroperoxidet-amyl peroxy-2ethylhexyl carbonatePeroxideNameTradeNameTable 2 Ambient Products & Safety Data91 to 93%45%90 to 95%96%95%60%70%70% 98%75%95%91%35%98%70%75%50%4% ActiveOxygen9% ActiveOxygen5.5% ActiveOxygen9% ActiveOxygen9% ActiveOxygen8.6% ActiveOxygen (min)8.6% ActiveOxygen (min)8.7% ActiveOxygen (min)88 to 90%50%40%98.50%98%75%75%70%55%55%Assay (%)38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F(prefer 85 F)38 C/100 F(prefer 85 F)38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F(prefer 85 F)38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F(prefer 85 F)38 C/100 F38 C/100 F27 C/80 F38 C/ 100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 F38 C/100 FMax. StorageTemp F (C )SADT86 C [30# ctn.]88 C [100# ctn.]93 C [35# ctn.]75 C [30# ctn.]65 C [40# ctn.]75 C [35# ctn.]est. 88 C [35# ctn.]est. 88 C [35# ctn.]80 C (30#ctn)65 C (35#ctn)65 C(35#ctn)65 C (35#ctn)NE82 C (5 gal. ctn)NENE85 C (8#ctn)85 C (8#ctn) 85 C (8#ctn)75 C (45# ctn)54 C(42#ctn)NE63 C (40# ctn)est 63 C (40# ctn)79 C (7#ctn)85 C (7#ctn)NE55 C (40# CTN)51 C (65#ctn)68 C (1#ctn.)71 C (25# ctn)71 C (25# ctn.)82 C (50# ctn)54 C (50# ctn)54 C (50# FPA Code704 HealthHazard PA Code704 Flamm.Hazard PA Code704 ReactivityHazard ID.III (30 gal.)NENENEII(5 gal.)III(5 gal.)II (55 gal.)IV (55 gal.)III (55 gal.)II (5 gal.)III (5 gal.)NENEIII (55 gal.)NENE(V 5 gal. lb.)IV (5 gal.)for DMP prodIV (5 gal.)for DMP prodIV (5 gal)for DMP prodIV (5 gal.)for DMP prodV (100 lb.)II (5 gal.)NEI (5 gal.)NENEIV (380 lb.)IV (110 lb.)I (1lb.)III (25 lb.)III (25 lb.)IV (25 lb.IV (350 lb.)IV (350 lb.)NFPA Code432 StorageClass3HAZARDS INFORMATION

Solid MIxtureSolid iquid uid Mixture2,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexane2,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexaneDi-2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl benzeneDi-2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl benzeneDi-2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl benzeneDi-2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl benzeneDi-2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl benzeneDicumyl PeroxideDicumyl PeroxideDicumyl PeroxideDicumyl PeroxideDicumyl Peroxide1,1 Di(t-amylperoxy)cyclohexaneEthyl 3,3 di- t-amylperoxy butyrate1,1 di-t-(butylperoxy3,3,5 trimethylcyclohexane1,1 di-t-(butylperoxy3,3,5 trimethylcyclohexane1,1 di-t-(butylperoxy3,3,5 trimethylcyclohexanen-butyl 4,4 bis t-butylperoxy valeraten-butyl 4,4 bis t-butylperoxy valerateEthyl 3,3 di- t-butylperoxy butyrate1,1 Di(t-butylperoxy)cyclohexaneLuperox HP101XLPLuperox 101PP20Luperox FLuperox F40PLuperox F40KELuperox F40KEPLuperox F40MGLuperox DCSCLuperox DC40PLuperox DC40KELuperox DC40KEPLuperox DC40MGLuperox 531M80Luperox 533M75Luperox 231Luperox 231P75Luperox 231XL40Luperox 230XL40Luperox 230Luperox 233M75Luperox 331M80OMSOMSNACalcium CarbonateCalcium CarbonatePhthalateNAOMSOMSEPM RubberClayClayCalcium CarbonateNAEPM reCalciumCarbonate80%75%95 - %20%45%32 C /90 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F32 C /90 F32 C /90 F32 C /90 F32 C /90 F32 C /90 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 F38 C /100 FNE 65 C [35# cnt]for phthalate blend80 C [35# ctn.]75 C [40# ctn.]60 C [20# ctn.]60 C [100# ctn.]est. 66 C [35# ctn.]66 C [35# ctn.]80 C [35# ctn.]60 C [30# ctn.]NENENENE91 C [40# ctn.]NENENENENEest. 82 C [100# ctn.]est. 82 C [100# ctn.]82 C [100# 1112NENE1NOTE: Lupersol DDM-9*, DDM-30*, DHD -9* and Delta X-9* trade names are scheduled to change to those indicated in the table during 2000 or 2001. PRODUCT FORMULATIONS WILL NOT CHANGE.SolidSolidSolid Mixture2,5-Dimethyl 2,5 -Di(t-butylperoxy) hexaneLuperox 101XL45322NE13322NE1112NE0002NENE1II(5 gal.III(5 gal.)II (5 gal.)NEV(100 lb.)II(5 gal.)II(5 gal.)III(5 gal.)III(5 gal.)NEV(100 lb.)V(100 lb.)V(100 lb.)IV(55 gal.)NEV(100 lb.)V(100 lb.)V(100 lb.)III (100 lb.)NENEV (100 lb.)

Table 3 Arkema Inc. Refrigerated say (%)Luperox SAPsuccinic acid peroxide2-Hydroxy-1, 1-dimethylbutylperoxyneodecanoatet-amyl peroxy -2-ethylhexanoatet-amyl peroxy -2-ethylhexanoateFrozen SolidWater57.29Liquid MixtureOMS50%LiquidNA95%Liquid MixtureOMS75%Luperox 11M75t-butyl peroxypivalateLiquid MixtureOMS75%Luperox 11M45t-butyl oxydicarbonatealpha-cumyl peroxyneoheptanoatealpha-cumyl peroxyneoheptanoatet-amylperoxyneodecanoatet-amyl peroxypivalatet-amyl peroxypivalate2,5 dimethyl 2,5 bis-2ethyl hexanoyl peroxyhexaneDidecanoyl peroxidet-butyl peroxy 2-ethylhexanoatet-butyl peroxy 2-ethylhexanoatet-butyl peroxy 2-ethylhexanoate1,1 Di(t-butylperoxy)cyclohexane & t-butylperoxy-2-ethylhexanoateLiquid MixtureOMS45%LiquidNA 99%Liquid MixtureOMS75%LiquidNA 99%LiquidNA 97%Liquid MixtureOMS75%LiquidNA 98%Liquid MixtureOMS60%Liquid MixtureOMS75%Liquid MixtureOMS75%Liquid MixtureLiquid MixtureLiquid MixtureOMSOMSOMS75%75%50%LiquidSolidNANA 90% 98.5%LiquidNA 97%Liquid MixtureOMS50%Liquid MixturePhthalate50%Liquid MixtureOMS65%Luperox 610M50Luperox 575Luperox 575M75Luperox 10Luperox 10M75Luperox 221Luperox 223SLuperox 223M75SLuperox 225SLuperox 225M60SLuperox 188M75Luperox 288M75Luperox 546M75Luperox 554M75Luperox 554M50Luperox 256Luperox DECLuperox 26Luperox 26M50Luperox 26P50Luperox M33† Data referenced from NFPA 432 Code for the storage oforganic peroxide formulations; 1997 edition.OMS – odorless mineral spiritsSADT – Self Accelerating Decompostion TemperatureNote: Lupersol DDM-9*, DDM-30*, DHD-9* and Delta X-9*trade names are scheduled to change to those indicated inthe table during 2001. PRODUCT FORMULATIONS WILLNOT CHANGE.6REMARKSNOTES:Luperox 223 M75S Possible phase separation below 0 F(–18 C). (C)Rapid decomposition gives gasses which mayspontaneously ignite in air.Luperox 11 M75Phase separation and crystallization of solutions to return homogenous solution, let stand at recommendedstorage temperature, with occasional mixing or shaking.Freezes at -2 F (-19 C). Thawing atstorage temperature returns tooriginal form.

Max. StorageTemp F (C )SADTNFPA Code704 HealthHazard ID.†NFPA Code704 Flamm.Hazard ID.†NFPA CodeReactivityHazard ID.†NFPA Code432 StorageClass†32 F [0 C]66 C [1# bag]NENENENE0 F [-18 C]25 C [7# ctn]NENENENE50 F [10 C]45 C [35# ctn]032III (55 gal.)50 F [10 C]32 F [0 C]NOT 0 F (-18 C)32 F [0 C]NOT 0 F (-18 C)45 C [35# ctn]NENENENE29 C [35# ctn]233II (5 gal.)45 C [30# ctn]NENENENE14 F [-10 C]21 C [30# ctn]NENENENE14 F [-10 C]27 C [35# ctn]232III (5 gal.)-10 F [-23 C]-7 C [9# ctn]234I (1 gal.)0 F [-18 C]15 C [8# ctn]133II (1 gal.)14 F [-10 C]20 C [7# ctn]NENENENE14 F [-10 C]10 C [8# ctn]133II (1 gal.)14 F [-10 C]15 C [35# ctn]NENENENE5 F [-15 C]15 C [37# ctn]132III (5 gal.)0 F [-18 C]20 C [35# ctn]232III (5 gal.)14 F [-10 C]20 F [-7 C]20 F [-7 C]25 C [30# ctn]30 C [30# ctn]NE11NE33NE22NEIII (5 gal.)III (5 gal.)NE60 F [16 C]60 F [16 C]40 C [35# ctn]43 C [50# ctn]013322III (5 gal.)III (50 lb.)50 F [10 C]42 C [35# ctn]13260 F [16 C]54 C [30# ctn]12260 F [16 C]65 C [7# ctn]NE 65 C [35# cnt]for phthalate blend122III (5 gal.)III (55 gal.)IV (5 gal.)III (55 gal.)IV (5 gal.)NENENENE15 C/59 F7

4HAZARD OVERVIEW BY PEROXIDE FAMILYIncluded below is information aboutspecific product classes, i.e., salientpoints about certain organic peroxides in these groups as they relateto these hazards as discussed insection 3.PEROXIDE CLASSESA. DIACYL PEROXIDESDry benzoyl peroxide (Luperox A98) is shock and friction sensitive. Except for Luperox A98,commercial diacyl peroxides areformulated to be non-shock ornon-friction sensitive and must behandled and stored properly.Examples include the wetted andpaste forms of benzoyl peroxide.Wet forms of benzoyl peroxideshould not be allowed to dry out.B. PEROXYESTERSPeroxyesters are quite stable attheir recommended storagetemperatures. The recommended temperatures for thosematerials requiring refrigeratedstorage should be strictlyadhered to ( consult ArkemaInc.’s Peroxyesters ProductBulletin).Some peroxyesters (such asLuperox P) can freeze. Frozenmaterials can be thawed by placing in storage at dicarbonates are thermallyunstable compounds. At theirrecommended storage temperatures however they are notexpected to decompose. Abovethe recommended storagetemperatures, decomposition willoccur, and in some cases violentdecomposition.D.DIALKYL PEROXIDESMost Dialkyl peroxides have relatively high flash points, but onceignited, will burn vigorously andare difficult to extinguish.However, Di-t-Butyl Peroxide andDi-t-Amyl Peroxide have a lowflash point and their vapors arehighly flammable; thus, they mustbe handled as a flammable liquidas well as an organic peroxide.Specific handling and use information are available upon requestfrom Arkema Inc.E. KETONE PEROXIDESKetone peroxides are corrosive toeyes and irritants to skin. As agroup, the ketone peroxides aresubject to decomposition throughchemical action and are particularly sensitive to metallic salts.They are widely used as roomtemperature catalysts for curingpolyester resins which containaccelerators such as cobaltnaphthenate and cobalt/tertiaryamine combinations.Direct mixtures of the peroxideand the accelerator may decompose with violence and everyeffort should be made to eliminate any possibility of directcontact. Because of the widerange of contaminants which caninteract with ketone peroxides,good housekeeping practicesshould be strictly maintained.Methyl Ethyl Peroxides shouldnever be diluted with Acetone.F. PEROXYKETALSPeroxyketals are extremely sensitive to acid contamination whichcauses rapid decompositionreleasing flammable vapors whichmay self ignite.G.HYDROPEROXIDESHydroperoxides are generallycorrosive to skin and eyes.Commercial formulations ofHydroperoxides as supplied byArkema Inc. are not shocksensitive. Pure t-butyl hydroperoxideand 2,5-dihyroperoxy-2,5-dimethylhexane are considered too shocksensi

Max. Storage NFPA Code NFPA Code NFPA Code NFPA Code Trade Peroxide Physical Temp 704 Health 704 Flamm. 704 Reactivity 432 Storage Name Name Form Diluent Assay (%) F (C ) SADT Hazard ID. Hazard ID. Hazard ID. Class Luperox

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