Copyright 2010 Grace Bible Church, College Station, TXCreated and edited by the pastors and staff of Grace Bible Church.Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE , Copyright 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995by The Lockman Foundation, used by permission.This document may be reproduced and distributed freely,but you may not charge a fee greater than your manufacturing costs.No section of this document may be modified without the written consentof Grace Bible Church, College Station, TX.
Introduction“The book of James is the voice of a great Christian leader whose grasp of the spiritual life and ofhuman nature is equal to any in the canon of NT Scripture. The modern Church ignores James’immensely practical admonitions at its own peril.”Zane Hodges, The Epistle of James, page 7.The 12 lessons in this packet are designed to walk us through this challenging book of theBible. During the first lesson (Survey), we will look at the overall message of the book ofJames. The next ten lessons will focus on studying key passages in detail. Then, in our lastlesson (Synthesis), we will summarize what we have learned for future reference.In studying each passage in detail, we will be learning and using a number of basic Biblestudy methods. These methods fit under three fundamental skills that are meant to bepracticed in order each week - observe, interpret, and apply. These skills are summarized in a “Quick Reference Guide” that you can flip back through during your study. Youcan find it along with other advanced Bible study skills in the Appendix for those whowant to go deeper in their study.As you use this packet to study James please keep in mind a couple of things. There aremore questions than you may have time to answer in any given lesson. Focus on the questions that seem most significant to understanding the passage’s meaning. Also, makesure that you don’t skip your own observations of the passage as this is the most important step of Bible study.Table of ContentsLesson 1 - James Survey & 1:14Lesson 8 - James 3:13-4:349Lesson 2 - James 1:2-129Lesson 9 - James 4:4-1755Lesson 3 - James 1:13-1815Lesson 10 - James 5:1-1261Lesson 4 - James 1:19-2721Lesson 11 - James 5:13-2067Lesson 5 - James 2:1-1327Lesson 12 - James Synthesis73Lesson 6 - James 2:14-2635Appendix - Bible Study Skills79Lesson 7 - James 3:1-12423
See the Big PictureJames survey & 1:14 / LESSON 1
PrayBegin this time in prayer, confessing any sins you know of,thanking the Lord for the gift of His Word, and asking for HisSpirit to guide your study.survey: What is the big idea?SKILLSurveying a book like James allows you to grasp the big picture and the overall storyline of thebook before getting caught up in the details. This survey provides a helpful road map to guide yourstudy during the coming weeks. Begin this crucial first step by taking the next thirty minutes toread straight through James without stopping. Then, answer the questions below before movingon to the next page.1. How would you describe James’ audience? Are they believers or unbelievers? Arethey spiritually mature or immature? What issues are they facing?2. What are the major themes or big ideas in this book? (Hint: Look for repeated wordsand ideas.)3.Now that you have read through the entire book, what are James’ purposes inwriting it? Be as specific as you can.4.What do you notice about the style, language, and structure of this book? Whatother books of Scripture does James remind you of? Why?5 / LESSON 1
BackgroundOnce you have completed the introductory questions on the previous page, read thisbackground article on the book of James (portions compiled from The Bible KnowledgeCommentary, The New Bible Commentary, and Notes on James by Thomas Constable).Few books of the Bible have been more maligned than the little book of James. MartinLuther called it a “right strawy epistle.” But on closer inspection, it proves to be a “rightstirring epistle,” designed to exhort and encourage, to challenge and convict, to rebuke andrevive, to describe practical holiness, and drive believers toward the goal of a faith thatworks. James is severely ethical and refreshingly practical.AUTHORSHIPThe author identifies himself as “James,” a name used by at least four men mentioned inthe NT: (1) the son of Zebedee and brother of John (Mark 1:19), (2) the son of Alphaeus(Mark 3:18), (3) the father of Judas (not Iscariot; Luke 6:16), and (4) the half brotherof the Lord (Galatians 1:19). Upon studying the evidence, the final option seems mostreasonable. The author is James, the half brother of the Lord, who became the recognizedleader in the Jerusalem church. This conclusion is supported by the authoritative toneof the letter and by the marked similarities in Greek between this epistle and the speechby James recorded in Acts 15. Though James was reared in the same home with the LordJesus, he apparently did not become a believer until after Christ’s resurrection (John 7:5; 1Corinthians 15:7). Paul later listed James, Peter, and John as “those reputed to be pillars”of the church (Galatians 2:9). Flavius Josephus, first-century historian, records that Jameswas martyred in A.D. 62, so the epistle must have been written prior to that date. Since nomention is made of the Jerusalem Council (A.D. 49) in which James took so active a role,it is likely that the letter was written between A.D. 45 and 48, making James perhaps theearliest of the writings of the New Testament.RECIPIENTSThe greeting “to the 12 tribes scattered among the nations” (James 1:1) tells us that thisletter was written to Jewish Christians of the Diaspora, who had been scattered fromPalestine and had come to faith in Christ (1:1). Several Jewish references in the booksupport the claim that a Jew wrote it to other Jews (e.g., 1:18; 2:2, 21; 3:6; 5:4, 7). Infact, the letter as a whole possesses a marked Jewish flavor. The book has the substanceand authority of the Prophets and the style and beauty of the Psalms. Considered oneof the General Epistles, James, like the epistles of Peter, John, and Jude, is an encyclicaladdressed not to individual churches or persons but to a larger sphere of believers.6 / LESSON 1
STYLEThe Book of James is as much a lecture as it is a letter. Though it opens with the customarysalutation of an epistle, it lacks personal references common in a letter and it has noconcluding benediction. It was obviously prepared for public reading as a sermon to thecongregations addressed. James included 54 commands in his 108 verses—an average ofone call for action in every other verse!The Book of James probably has more figures of speech, analogies, and imagery from naturethan all Paul’s epistles together. Exhortations, rhetorical questions, and illustrations fromeveryday life give spice to this little book.In addition to his unique and innovative style, James furnishes an unusual number ofreferences or parallels to other writings. He makes reference to Abraham, Rahab, Job,Elijah, to the Law and the Ten Commandments, and includes allusions to passages in 21Old Testament books: Genesis through Deuteronomy, Joshua, 1 Kings, Psalms, Proverbs,Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and 7 of the 12 Minor Prophets. Amazingparallelisms exist between James’ letter and the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5-7.James did not actually quote the Lord’s words, but he obviously had internalized Histeachings. No other letter of the NT has as many references to the teaching of Jesus perpage as does James.PURPOSEThe purpose of this powerful letter is to exhort early believers to spiritual maturityand holiness of life. James told his readers how to achieve spiritual maturity throughperseverance in trial, compassionate service to those in need, careful speech with oneanother, and contrite submission to the Lord. He dealt with every area of a Christian’s life:what he is, what he does, what he says, what he feels, and what he has.With his somewhat stern teaching on practical holiness, James showed how Christian faithand Christian love should be expressed in a variety of actual situations. The seeminglyunrelated parts of the book can be harmonized in light of this unified theme.7 / LESSON 1
Outline the BookHaving read the background article on the book of James, now skim through James one more timeand create your own title for each of the major sections below (you can divide these into smallersections, each with its own title, if you wish). Do not use the titles in this packet or in your Bible.Create your own titles that capture your understanding of the main idea of each section.My James Outline.pp 1:1-12pp 1:13-18pp 1:19-27pp 2:1-13pp 2:14-26pp 3:1-12pp 3:13-4:3pp 4:4-17pp 5:1-12pp 5:13-20Pray8 / LESSON 1End your study by returning to the Lord in prayer. Thank Him forwhat you have learned this week and lay before Him the needs ofyour fellow small group members.
Rejoicein TrialsEndure TrialsThrough FaithJames2-12James 1:1:2-12PrayBegin this time in prayer, confessing any sins you know of, thankingthe Lord for the gift of His Word, and asking for His Spirit to guideyour study.Why does this matter?Leah had never known pain quite like this: intense cramping in her stomach, throbbing in her forehead,and worst of all, insatiable burning throughout her legs. How could her body ache so badly only 14 milesinto this marathon? If it hurt this badly half way through, how bad would it be by the end? Yet while herbody screamed for her to stop, her will drove her on. Too much was riding on this race. If she could justmake it to the end she would enjoy the praise of her family and friends out in droves to support her, shewould raise a whopping 1200 for her favorite charity, and best ofall, she would finally accomplish one of her great goals in life – torun the Boston Marathon. Despite overwhelming fatigue, she keptplacing one foot in front of the other, ticking off yard after yard, mileafter mile, battling pain by imagining the ecstasy of finishing thisgrueling race. That vision kept her going over the hills and propelledher through the wall at the 20-mile-mark until finally, rounding thelast bend, the finish-line came into view.o Can you think of other examples where endurance in a trial brings reward?o What trials have you had to endure in life?9 / LESSON 2
James 1: 2-12Consider it all joy, my brethren, when you encounter various trials, 3knowing that the testing of your2faith produces endurance. 4And let endurance have its perfect result, so that you may be perfect andcomplete, lacking in nothing. 5But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to allgenerously and without reproach, and it will be given to him. 6But he must ask in faith without anydoubting, for the one who doubts is like the surf of the sea, driven and tossed by the wind. 7For thatman ought not to expect that he will receive anything from the Lord, 8being a double-minded man,unstable in all his ways. 9But the brother of humble circumstances is to glory in his high position;and the rich man is to glory in his humiliation, because like flowering grass he will pass away.10For11the sun rises with a scorching wind and withers the grass; and its flower falls off and the beauty of itsappearance is destroyed; so too the rich man in the midst of his pursuits will fade away.Blessed is a12man who perseveres under trial; for once he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life whichthe Lord has promised to those who love Him.Observational Questions1.What key words do you notice in this passage? These are words that are either theologicallysignificant or that set the theme or big idea for the passage.10 / LESSON 2
2.List themes or big ideas you find in each of these sections of this passage:1:2-41:5-81:9-111:123.James is filled with vivid figurative language, especially metaphors that compare spiritualrealities to earthly events and objects. What figurative language do you notice in this passage?My ObservationsList at least 1 observation per verse. See your “Bible Study Cheat Sheet” for instructions.vv 2-4vv 5-7vv 8-10vv 11-1211 / LESSON 2
interpret: What does it mean?1.Why would our good God allow us to experience painful trials?What reasons does James give in this passage?What other reasons are given in these cross-references: Matthew 5:12; Romans 5:3-4;James 5:10-11; 1 Peter 1:6-7?2.What does James mean by the second use of the word “perfect” in v4 (teleios in Greek)?See the following verses where teleios also appears: 1 Corinthians 14:20; Ephesians 4:13.3.James covers several diverse subjects in this passage. What connects the diverse partstogether? Specifically.What is the connection between “wisdom” (v5) and “endurance” (vv2-4)?What connects James’ comments to the rich and poor (vv9-11) with his previous wordson faith and endurance?12 / LESSON 2
4.What does it mean to ask God for something “in faith”? What exactly is James challengingthe person in v6 to believe? Hint: Think about what James means by the opposite idea -- being“double-minded.”5. What does the word “wisdom” mean in Scripture? See 1 Kings 3:9-12, Psalm 111:10, Proverbs1:1-7, and James 3:13.6.What is this “crown” (stephanos in Greek) of life in v12? Will all believers receive it? To answerthis question, look up the following verses that also use this Greek word: 1 Corinthians 9:25;1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Peter 5:4; Revelation 2:10.13 / LESSON 2
apply: How does it work?oWhy is it so difficult for us to respond to trials with joy?oAre you experiencing trials right now? How can you respond in a way that “counts it all joy”?oAre there other members in your group, friends, or family that are suffering right now? Howcan you encourage them this week? What can you do specifically to bless them?MemorizePray14 / LESSON 2James 1:2-3 Write it out to get your memorization started.End your study by returning to the Lord in prayer. Thank Him forwhat you have learned this week, ask Him to help you apply theprinciple you have chosen, and lay before Him the needs of yourfellow small group members.
Escape Sin’s DeceptionJames 1:13-18PrayBegin this time in prayer, confessing any sins you know of, thankingthe Lord for the gift of His Word, and asking for His Spirit to guideyour study.Why does this matter?Tom had never been so humiliated in his entire life. Every person in his company watched in silent shockas security guards escorted him hurriedly from the building. Yet he had no one but himself to blame. Afteryears of faithful, often unrewarded service to his company, Tom had discovered a “full-proof” way to makea few extra bucks each month: exaggerate his expense reports. At firstit was just a few extra miles added to his monthly gas reimbursement,resulting in a few extra bucks in his pocket. When that went unnoticed,he began to expense business lunches he never actually attended. Still,no one called him on it. So he went for the gold: he began to expense outof-town trips to visit clients, trips he never actually went on. Since hisboss and the company accountant never compared notes, no one was anythe wiser. Or so Tom believed. Unfortunately for him, new accountingsoftware flagged these unexpected expenses and Tom’s boss was alerted.After calling clients and discovering Tom’s deception, security was called and Tom was not only firedbut told that prosecution would follow. The company simply couldn’t tolerate the theft of thousands ofdollars. Not only had Tom’s sin cost him his job, it had cost him his reputation, his financial security, andpotentially his freedom. How could a little exaggeration turned into this?oCan you think of a time when a seemingly small sin turned into something muchbigger?oCan you think of examples in your own life where sin or foolishness resulted insurprisingly painful consequences?15 / LESSON 3
James 1:13-18Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am being tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted13by evil, and He Himself does not tempt anyone.away and enticed by his own lust.But each one is tempted when he is carried14Then when lust has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and when15sin is accomplished, it brings forth death.Do not be deceived, my beloved brethren.16Every17good thing given and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights,with whom there is no variation or shifting shadow.In the exercise of His will He brought18us forth by the word of truth, so that we would be a kind of first fruits among His creatures.Observational Questions1.What key words do you notice in this passage? These are words that are either theologicallysignificant or that set the theme or big idea for the passage. Remember to especially look forfrequently repeated words.2.List out everything James says about God in this passage.16 / LESSON 3
3.What human experience does James metaphorically use to describe the progress fromtemptation to death?My observationsList at least 1 observation per verse. See your “Bible Study Cheat Sheet” for instructions.vv 13-14v 15vv 16-17v 1817 / LESSON 3
interpret: What does it mean?1.How does 1:13-18 relate to 1:2-12?2.Note that the word “trial” in 1:2,12 is the same basic Greek word translated “tempted”in 1:13,14 (noun peirasmos in vv2,12; verb peirazo in vv13,14). So even though “trial” and“tempted” seem very different in English, they are actually translations of the same Greekword! What does this teach us about the relationship of trials and temptations in our lives? Howare they similar and how are they different? How can James speak positively of them onemoment and negatively the next?3.Why does James stress the fact that God is not the author of temptation? Why should thistruth matter to us when we encounter temptation?4.Describe in your own words the chain of events James describes in vv14-15. Have youexperienced this progression at any point in your own life?18 / LESSON 3
5.Read Proverbs 7 to see an example of this progression at work. What do you learn abouttemptation and sin from Solomon’s observations in this passage?6.When tempted, especially by desires that feel shameful, many believers are overwhelmedby guilt. Is that response valid? Are we guilty before God for the sinful desires that come to ourminds, or are we only guilty if we give in? How should we respond when we begin to feel temptedtowards sin? See 1 Corinthians 10:13, Galatians 5:16-23, and Philippians 2:12-13.7.What does the word “lust” mean in Scripture (epithumia in Greek)? See the following verses:Mark 4:19; Romans 1:24-25; 7:7-8; Galatians 5:16-21; Philippians 1:23; Titus 3:3.8.What does James mean in v15 when he says that sin leads to “death”? To answer this question,determine your options by studying the following passages that relate sin and death. Then, decidewhat option best fits James 1:15.Proverbs 11:19, 12:28, 19:16Ezekiel 18:26-27Romans 7:13Romans 7:24Ephesians 2:11 Timothy 5:6James 5:19-2019 / LESSON 3
apply: How does it work?oThink about some of the most significant temptations you face on a regular basis. On ascale of 1 to 10, how do you fare in dealing with these temptations, with 1 being “I give inevery time” and 10 being “I’m a rock!”oSpend a few minutes thinking back through the details of the last time you gave into asinful temptation. Do you recall a similar progression to what James describes in vv14-15?How was your experience similar to what James describes? How was it different?oBased on your study of this lesson, practically speaking, what should you do the next timeyou face temptation?MemorizePray20 / LESSON 31 Corinthians 10:13 Write it out to get your memorization started.End your study by returning to the Lord in prayer. Thank Him forwhat you have learned this week, ask Him to help you apply theprinciple you have chosen, and lay before Him the needs of yourfellow small group members.
Obey the Law of LibertyJames 1:19-2721 / LESSON 4
James 1:19-27This you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to19anger;for the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God.20Therefore, putting aside all21filthiness and all that remains of wickedness, in humility receive the word implanted, which is able tosave your souls. 22But prove yourselves doers of the word, and not merely hearers who delude themselves.For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in a23mirror;for once he has looked at himself and gone away, he has immediately forgotten what kind of24person he was.But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty, and abides by it, not25having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual doer, this man will be blessed in what he does.If26anyone thinks himself to be religious, and yet does not bridle his tongue but deceives his own heart,this man’s religion is worthless. 27Pure and undefiled religion in the sight of our God and Father is this:to visit orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself unstained by the world.Observational Questions1.What key words do you notice in this passage?22 / LESSON 4
2.James contrasts two ways of “hearing” in this passage. What are they?3.List themes and big ideas for each section of this week’s passage:1:19-211:22-251:26-27My observationsList at least 1 observation per verse. See your “Bible Study Cheat Sheet” for instructions.vv 19-20vv 21-22vv 23-24vv 25-2723 / LESSON 4
interpret: What does it mean?1.What is the “word implanted” that they are to receive (v21)? What must they do to “receive”it according to the rest of the passage?2.Based on the overall context of the letter what does James mean by “save your souls” inv21? To help you answer this question, look up the following passages that use the same orsimilar language:1 Samuel 19:11Psalm 86:1-4Ezekiel 18:26-27James 5:19-203.Using just this passage, fill in the two columns below by listing out the consequences of eachchoice – either to “hear and do” God’s Word or to “hear without doing” His Word.Hear and do God’s Word24 / LESSON 4Hear without doing God’s Word
4.In your own words, explain James’ point in the metaphor of vv23-24. Note that James is referringspecifically to a male, not a person in general (Think about the difference between how menand women look at themselves in a mirror!) How do we avoid becoming like this forgetful man?5.What is the “law of liberty” (v25; see also 2:12)? Why does James describe this law as perfect? of liberty? (Aren’t laws contrary to liberty? How can a law bring us greater freedom?See John 8:31-32; Romans 6:15-16; 1 Peter 2:16.)6.How do vv26-27 relate to the rest of the passage and to the book as a whole? How do thesespecific acts of obedience prevent one’s religion from being worthless?7.Why does James focus our attention on widows and orphans? What does it mean to “visitthem in their distress”? What was life like for these two groups in the first century? What types ofpeople in our society today suffer in similar ways?25 / LESSON 4
apply: How does it work?oWhy do we struggle to practice what we hear in God’s Word?oWhat have you done lately to demonstrate God’s love to the vulnerable and needy?oWhat will you do this week to help the vulnerable and needy?MemorizePray26 / LESSON 4James 1:25 Write it out to get your memorization started.End your study by returning to the Lord in prayer. Thank Him forwhat you have learned this week, ask Him to help you apply theprinciple you have chosen, and lay before Him the needs of yourfellow small group members.
Embrace EqualityJames 2:1-13PrayBegin this time in prayer, confessing any sins you know of, thankingthe Lord for the gift of His Word, and asking for His Spirit to guideyour study.Why does this matter?A little more than one hundred years ago a young Hindu man from India arrived in South Africa to practicelaw. As he settled into his new home he began to hear good things about the Christian faith. Before long,he was reading through the Bible and seriously considering becoming a Christian. One Sunday morning hedecided to attend a service at a large church nearby. But as he walked up the steps towards the auditorium,a white South African elder of the church barred his way at the door.“Where do you think you’re going, kaffir (a derogatory racial slur)?” theelder asked in a belligerent tone of voice. The young Indian replied, “I’dlike to attend worship here.” The church elder snarled at him, “There’s noroom for kaffirs in this church. Get out of here or I’ll have my assistantsthrow you down the steps.”From that moment, the young man decided that while he was willing toadopt what good he found in Christianity, he would never again consider becoming a Christian. Whatmakes this shameful act of discrimination even more tragic is to whom it was committed: the young Indianman was none other than Mahatma Gandhi who would in later years become one of the most influentialleaders in modern history. Yet because of his experience on that Sunday in South Africa, Gandhi wouldlead a world-changing revolution completely disconnected from Christianity. This man who years earlierhad shown interest in the message of Jesus Christ could have utilized his unprecedented social influenceto become one of the greatest evangelists of all time had he only seen the love of Christ reflected in thewords and actions of Christians.oCan you think of other examples of discrimination or favoritism committed by thechurch in recent history?oWhat leads people, Christians included, to discriminate against others based onrace, economic class, outward appearance, cultural differences, etc.?27 / LESSON 5
James 2:1-13My brethren, do not hold your faith in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ with an attitude of personal1favoritism. 2For if a man comes into your assembly with a gold ring and dressed in fine clothes, andthere also comes in a poor man in dirty clothes, 3and you pay special attention to the one who iswearing the fine clothes, and say, “You sit here in a good place,” and you say to the poor man, “Youstand over there, or sit down by my footstool,” 4have you not made distinctions among yourselves, andbecome judges with evil motives? 5Listen, my beloved brethren: did not God choose the poor of thisworld to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom which He promised to those who love Him? 6But youhave dishonored the poor man. Is it not the rich who oppress you and personally drag you into court?Do they not blaspheme the fair name by which you have been called? 8If, however, you are fulfilling7the royal law according to the Scripture, “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF,” youare doing well. 9But if you show partiality, you are committing sin and are convicted by the law astransgressors.of all.For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles in one point, he has become guilty10For He who said, “DO NOT COMMIT ADULTERY,” also said, “DO NOT COMMIT MURDER.”11Now if you do not commit adultery, but do commit murder, you have become a transgressor of thelaw.So speak and so act as those who are to be judged by the law of liberty.12merciless to one who has shown no mercy; mercy triumphs over judgment.Observational Questions1.What key words do you notice in this passage?28 / LESSON 5For judgment will be13
2.What big ideas or themes do you observe in 2:1-13 that were also present in chapter 1?3.List all the reasons James gives for why we should not show partiality to the rich over the poor.My observationsList at least 1 observation per verse. See your “Bible Study Cheat Sheet” for instructions.vv 1-3vv 4-6vv 7-9vv 10-1329 / LESSON 5
Background infoBackground Article on Wealth and Poverty in the Ancient WorldExcerpted from Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels by Intervarsity PressIn the first-century Palestinian world there were essentially two major groups of people, the richand the poor. The rich included especially the wealthy high-priestly clans. Consisting of four extendedfamilies, they must be distinguished from the lower clergy (e.g., Zachariah of Luke’s birth narrative)who were in general poor and felt oppressed by the high-priestly group. It was the chief priests who notonly profited from the sacrifices offered in the Temple (the lower clerk officiated for only two weeks ayear, while the high-priestly clans were always present) but also controlled the considerable commerceassociated with that sacrifice and other religious activities (e.g., the activity noted in Mk 11:15-19).Another wealthy group was the Herodian family and retinue, whose political power was easilytranslated into wealth. It has been estimated that Herod and later his family may have owned morethan half the land in his dominions. Gifts of land to faithful followers were not unusual.The third group of wealthy people were the remnants of the older Jewish aristocracy (althoughmuch of their land was confiscated by Herod and his sons) and individuals who had become rich throughtrade, tax farming or the like. To be considered truly rich one had to own land, so a person wouldpurchase landholdings as he became wealthy, but such a person would not farm his own land. Instead,he rented it to tenant farmers and spent much of his time on civic and religious affairs in the city(principally, Jerusalem). This system led to the abuse of tenants and hired laborers. This mistreatmentwas seen by wealthy as perfectly legal, but was viewed by the poor as totally unjust (cf. Jas 5:1-6).A final group of wealthy people were the prosperous merchants who had not yet joined the landowning aristocracy, although like them they controlled much of the economic life of the country. Boththe land-owning and non-land-owning groups were deeply resented by the people of the land. It was noaccident that during the Jewish revolt of A.D. 66-70, when the common people got the upper hand inJerusalem, one of their first acts was the burning of th
Lesson 3 - James 1:13-18 15 Lesson 10 - James 5:1-12 61 Lesson 4 - James 1:19-27 21 Lesson 11 - James 5:13-20 67 Lesson 5 - James 2:1-13 27 Lesson 12 - James Synthesis 73 Lesson 6 - James 2:14-26 35 Appendix - Bible Study Skills 79 Lesson 7 - James 3:1-12 42 Introduction “The book of James is the voice of a great Christian leader whose grasp .
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
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