Disrupting Reality: Taking Virtual & Augmented Reality To .

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Cognizant ReportsDisrupting Reality: Taking Virtual &Augmented Reality to the EnterpriseFrom touchscreen encounters to “real-world, real-life”immersive experiences, virtual and augmented reality signal anew way of working, communicating and collaborating acrossthe enterprise.cognizant reports august 2016

Executive SummaryReady Player One, an upcoming StevenSpielberg movie, is set in a dystopian futurewhere people spend most of their days inside aglobally networked virtual universe, Oasis. Thegame's “real world” environment and immersiveexperiences are so absorbing that players preferthem to real life – so much so that the game’svirtual schools have replaced traditional brickand-mortar structures. While this depiction ofthe future may seem bleak, advancements inalternative reality technologies – virtual reality(VR); augmented reality (AR), its relativelyyounger cousin; and their hybrid, mixed reality(MR) – may very well see 2018 audienceswatching Ready Player One using VR headmounted devices (HMDs).For over 60 years, technologists have sought tocreate VR experiences that stimulate multiplehuman senses. In their earliest forms, theseefforts depended on bulky, unwieldy devicesthat offered limited content, such as Sensorama,invented by Morton Heilig in 1962.1 Over the pasttwo decades, rapid advancements in computingtechnology and the rise of video games helpedmake VR devices smaller and more immersive.Using biological circuits and silicon sensors,today’s HMDs trick the human brain intovisualizing an imaginary world as real. Yet unlikePCs, which were first used to fulfill demandfrom large enterprises, VR and AR headsets, likesmartphones, are expected to appeal equally toconsumers and enterprises.Awareness of VR and AR business and consumersolutions has reached a crescendo — resultingin optimistic projections for the marketopportunity and a growing list of applicationsacross industries. As SMAC stack (social, mobile,analytics and cloud) technologies democratizecomputing power and information access, VRand AR hardware and software will nsumerconnectivityandinteractions,including employee collaboration, training andmarketing.Today, the principal platform for virtual reality isthe smartphone, thanks to its small form factor,light weight, reasonable cost, high-resolutiondisplays and powerful computing capabilities.Looking ahead, the possibilities seem infinite.For example, today's workstations could give waycognizant reportsto virtual work areas with multiple displays andreal-time access to enterprise data, irrespectiveof where an employee is physically located.Similarly, customers could use HMDs to explorea company’s products and services in depthwithin a highly personalized, fully immersiveenvironment free of real-world distractions.Enterprises looking to adopt VR and AR willneed to focus on upgrading their technologyinfrastructure and creating an ecosystem ofVR-related applications. They will have todevelop a set of best practices for new usersand a change management program to helpemployees become comfortable with the newhardware and software.HMDs’ ability to track and understand userbehavior will fuel the development of strictpolicies for protecting data and guardingprivacy. At a broader level, companies will needto overcome some fundamental challenges, suchthe current high price tag of HMDs, a fragmented(but growing) market of developers, and a lackof industry standards – all critical for large-scaleadoption.This white paper explores all of these issues andincludes a roadmap to help enterprises navigatethe process of weaving AR and VR into the fabricof their businesses.A Groundswell of ExpectationsInvestments in alternative reality technologieshave shown steady growth. As of Q4 2015, VRand AR saw six straight quarters of investmentgrowth.2In a recent report, Goldman Sachs predicted thatthe VR and AR hardware market will touch 80 billion by 2025.3 Citibank expects the market for VRhardware, networks, software and content to reach 200 billion by 2020.4The high expectations of alternative reality aredriven by the variety of offerings developed and indevelopment by tech giants and startups alike. Oneestimate puts the number of companies workingon VR hardware and content at 230.5 However, thislandscape is not limited to virtual and augmentedreality alone (see Figure 1, next page).In terms of devices, industry favorite Oculus Riftoffers a conventional headset. Google Cardboard(a successor to Google Glass, which went back to2

The Alternative Reality LandscapeVirtual RealityAugmented RealityMixed RealityWhat it DoesChanges reality byplacing the user in a360-degree imaginaryworld.Visible world isoverlaid with digitalcontent.Like AR, but virtualobjects are integratedinto and respond tovisible surroundings.Where it StandsHas been around fora long time; mostfamous example isOculus Rift. Hundredsof companiesare working onprototypes.Introduced in the formof Google Glass. Nowseveral companies aredeveloping prototypes.Magic Leap andHoloLens areleading research anddevelopment.Games, theme parks,simulation excercises,employee ket OpportunitiesVideogames,theme parks,entertainment apps,video, collaboration,employee training,simulation exercisesBiggest PlayersOculus RV, SamsungGear VR, Sony, HTCVuzix, Skully, EpsonMicrosoft, Magic LeapSource: Cognizant Research Center AnalysisFigure 1the drawing board) offers a low-cost cardboardVR headset that utilizes smartphone displays.Microsoft’s HoloLens6 – the first fully self-contained, holographic computer – superimposes3-D digital images on top of real-world visuals.Amid moves by tech giants,Leap, a startupIt is hard to predict Magicfocused on mixed reality,which player will has emerged as an indusemerge as the try favorite. The company,is partially backed byleader, but the whichGoogle, is working on whatdiversity of efforts it calls a mixed reality lightbodes well for the field, a technology thatdigital images ontoalternative reality projectsthe human retina through amarket. transparent lens.7 This creates a 180-degree field ofview (much wider than any other current mixedreality headset) that's closer to how humans seethe real world; 3-D merges digital images withreal-world surroundings seamlessly. It is hard topredict which player will emerge as the leader(and thereby help create industry standards) butthe diversity of efforts bodes well for the alternative reality market.cognizant reportsThe Impending Enterprise RealityShake-UpFacebook’s acquisition of Oculus VR in 20148was a strong signal that VR headsets weremoving from the realm of science fiction intothe mainstream. Most mobile and video-gamemanufacturers soon followed with their ownofferings. Amid these disruptions, the enterpriseopportunity was largely missed.Today, all of that is changing. A major reason isthat VR eliminates the need for a person to bephysically present in environments that dependheavily on “hands-on” expertise, such as healthcare, manufacturing, and utilities. For example, a3-D rendering of patient images, product designsand factory layouts allows people and facilitiesto be remotely monitored and attended to asneeded, in real time.Nevertheless, virtual reality has its limitations.Rather than providing a truly immersiveexperience, it completely blocks a person’simmediate surroundings – requiring them toremain in place. Although headset manufacturersare working to overcome VR-induced sickness3

and nausea, it is still a problem for some people.This is where AR headsets have an advantage;they merge a person’s present surroundingswith 3-D images to createThe flexibility a continuous view of bothoffered by the virtual and real worlds.augmented Furthermore, unlike VRdevices, AR headsets do notreality makes it a require users to stand infrontrunner in the place; they can move aroundrace for enterprise and remain productive whileattending to other tasks.adoption over the This is one reason why –long term. despite being behind VR onthe current developmentcurve, AR is expected to have a bigger impact onthe enterprise market.According to ABI Research, AR headsets willdeliver 46 billion in revenue by 2021, whereasVR will generate 15 billion. AR will focus primarily on the enterprise, while VR will emerge as aconsumer play.9However, hurdles involving display technologyand real-time processing and calibration of physical environments must be overcome first.10Enterprises are already experimenting with bothvariants. A 2016 survey by Tech Pro Research11found that 77% of respondents had first-handVR/AR experience, while others were considering adopting either of the two technologies(see Figure 2). The flexibility offered by augmented reality makes it a frontrunner in therace for enterprise adoption over the long term.However, both VR and AR will drive take upof HMDs as a new computing platform, muchlike mobile computing drove advancements inthe smartphone.The Age of the HeadsetThe impact of AR and VR is will likely be profound for people and processes across industries. Given the flat-out pace of the digital world,HMD headsets have the potential to ease processbottlenecks and save time and money by reducing the need for physical premises and presence –improving the effectiveness of employee training and engagement programs, and enabling abetter understanding of employee and consumerbehavior.Increased Communication & CollaborationEnterprise communications were last disruptedby the smartphone, which replaced physicalbuttons with a multipurpose touchscreen thatallows users to move beyond phone calls and textmessages. The iPhone, as Steve Jobs famouslyannounced at its 2007 launch,12 merged theiPod, the mobile phone and an Internet communications device into one product – making wayfor today’s hyper-connected world. VR and ARwill take this to the next level by making communications hyper-real. For example: A video call could take place in a simulatedconference room that looks exactly like a physical meeting room. Only in the virtual conference room, attendance would not be dictatedby physical space. Teams and individuals indifferent geographic locations would be ableAdopting VR & AR: What Enterprises are Doing48%67%are consideringadopting VR23% within the next 3 yearsTop 3 areas of interest for using VRSimulationexercisesEmployee testingand trainingComputermodeling30% within the next 3 yearsTop 3 areas of interest for using ARSimulationexercisesResponse base: 205Source: Tech Pro ResearchFigure 2cognizant reportsare consideringadopting AR4Employee testingand trainingFor use inproducts

to talk face-to-face, exchange virtual notesand make presentations in a shared environment without the need to be in the same physical space, and without having to travel to themeeting destination. Much like the iPhone removed the need forphysical buttons, HMDs could create virtualbuttons for any application incorporated intoit. People traveling to a foreign country couldtranslate sign boards and food menus inreal time, hands-free.Similarly, English-speaking employees wouldbe able to talk effortlessly with their Chinesecounterparts, with the headset providing realtime translation. (This capability applies tovarious languages).A Smarter, More Engaged WorkforceAccording to recent Gallup research, engagedemployees are involved in, enthusiastic aboutand committed to their work. The research alsoshowed that employee engagement is stronglyconnected to factors that are essential to a company’s financial success, such as productivity,profitability and customer engagement.13 However, Gallup found that 87% of the global workforce is either not engaged, indifferent to oractively disengaged with their employer organizations – costing billions of dollars annually in theU.S. alone.14, 15Gamification (adding game elements to training and other processes) is one approach enterprises are using to address this issue. (For moreon this topic, read our whitepaper “Gamification3.0: Meaningful Insights for Businesses AcrossIndustries.”) These initiatives could benefit fromVR/AR. Researchers at Iowa State Universityfound that users across demographics, wheninstructed through AR, experienced a 90%reduction in errors when assembling a mock airplane wing.16Employee engagement also requires enterprisesto make the most of employee interactionsacross the organization — collecting their feedback on a regular basis and understanding thetalents and needs of each person. A VR/AR solution can fit nicely into these efforts. For example,VR and AR headsets could provide employeeswith a host of tools, such as training videos, visualized data and multiple desktops for performingvarious activities. For example, AR can be usedcognizant reportsto teach complex maintenance procedures forfactory equipment – overlaying animation-basedinstructions and reference materials directlyonto the physical gear. (For more on this subject, read our whitepaper “Augmented Reality:A New Workforce Mobilization Paradigm”). Theengrossing nature of these headsets could alsoserve as a medium for sharing leaders’ visionsfor the enterprise.Learning from BehaviorVR and AR headsets are designed to track userbehavior to generate rich behavioral data. Foremployers, this provides an opportunity to morefully understand employee and customer patterns and tailor the user experience to matchexpectations. Additionally, since the headsetacts as the center of the user’s connected worldexperience, it can be linked to other wearables,such as smart watches and health trackers, toimprove the quality of user data.Branding & MarketingA marketing message delivered through a VR orAR headset is likely to be highly effective for thesimple reason that the experience is richer, highlypersonalized and devoid of any distractions. Notsurprisingly, major brands such as Volvo, CocaCola and McDonald’s have rolled out VR-centeredmarketing campaigns.17 In November 2015, TheNew York Times gave away 1.3 million GoogleCardboard VR boxes to its subscribers,18 allowing them to experience news with 360-degreevideo. Given that it is still early days for the technology, this is an impressive list that is likely tokeep growing. As more brands realize the powerof immersive VR experiences, more people willprobably have their first VR experience deliveredfor free through similar marketing plays.ManufacturingThanks to the Internet of Things (IoT), manufacturing is already transforming. Sensors installedon the factory floor and on machines are creating opportunities for manufacturers to monetize software and data, improve operationalefficiencies to save costs, and revamp theirsupply chains.19 VR and AR are expected to savetime and money in areas such as collaboration,digital prototyping, design reviews and clientpresentations.20 Using virtual reality demos,The Ford Motor Company has streamlined itsmanufacturing process and made it safer –resulting in a 70% drop in worker injury ratesand a 90% reduction in ergonomic issues.215

As AR and VR technologies advance, data-drivencollaboration among designers and engineerscould open up new areas for heightening efficiencies.HealthcareFrom 3-D operating room simulations to decentralized mental health treatments, VR and ARare expected to have wide-ranging applications.These advancements are predicted to generate 2.54 billion globally by 2020, according to oneestimate.22 For example, in April 2016, the RoyalLondon Hospital broadcast a surgery for coloncancer, streamed live to VR headsets and smartphones using 360-degree cameras).23 The ideais a simple yet powerful way to transfer knowledge and skills. Similarly, virtual organ modelscould allow surgeons to better prepare for delicate surgeries. For amputees, the headsets holdpromise for dealing with phantom limb pain.24As connected care becomes the norm, VR andAR solutions – combined with big data analytics,sensors and artificial intelligence – could upendevidence-based medicine and the way care isdelivered.RetailFor retailers, VR and AR headsets can be a toolfor squeezing the most value out of the datagathered from social media and mobile apps.Consumer shopping patterns can be used to create virtual tours tailored to the expectations ofdifferent customer segments. Shoppers can usethe headsets to experience a new product or service without being physically present in a store.They could watch a fashion show in real time, usetheir HMD to see how they would look in a particular outfit, or how a room renovation would lookbefore they decide to move forward. (For moreon the digital retail theater concept, please read"The Digital Retail Theater: Shopping's Future.")The operational benefits could be equally attractive for retailers. For example, using HMDs, storepersonnel could track hands-free sales acrossmultiple stores to make inventory adjustmentsin real time, or assist customers by visualizingthe exact location of individual products.25EntertainmentGoldman Sachs expects video games, live eventsand video entertainment to form the biggestchunk of software revenue from VR and AR by2025 (see Figure 3). This should not come asa surprise. For creators and players of videogames, VR headsets are a boon, since they create new possibilities for immersive content.Thunderbird: The Legend Begins, a puzzle gamedesigned exclusively for VR, is one of the manyexamples of this trend.26 AR-based video gamescould merge the user’s immediate surroundings into the game. Audiences watching liveevents could experience the thrill of the venuewithout leaving their homes. Movie makers arealso on board the VR bandwagon – creatingProjected Revenue Prediction for VR & AR by SectorMilitary 1.4BEngineering 4.7BVideo games 11.6BHealthcare 5.1BEducation 0.7BReal estate 2.6BLive events 4.1BRetail 1.6BVideoentertainment 3.2BSource: Goldman Sachs Global Investment ResearchFigure 3cognizant reports6

VR experiences for movies such as The Avengers: Age of Ultron.27 In the near future, storieswill be told in a 360-degree format that allowsviewers to watch the plot unfold all around them,and view a scene from any angle they choose.28EducationIf tablet devices made learning interesting forschool-goers, VR and AR could revolutionize theeducation market through immersive learning inboth primary and higher education.29 Google’sExpeditions, for example, is a VR platform thatallows students to take guided tours of citiesaround the world, as well as stars and planets.Subjects such as astronomy and medicine couldbe taught much more effectively through 3-Dgraphics and 360-degree videos.stationary while bearing the weight of a devicethat weighs close to 500 grams32 – a littleover one pound – making it difficult to use theheadset for long periodsof time. In this case, AR Just as theheadsets have a distinct smartphone droveadvantage, but are likely tothe need for onbe similar in design to thenow-shelved Google Glass. demand accessNevertheless, both VR and to mobile apps,AR headsets will have toVR and AR willdeal with the fact that onerequire a backbonesize does not fit all. Hurdles to a Virtual FutureIf the disruptive power of VR and AR HMDsmatches that of the PC and the smartphone, sodo the challenges. Given the flurry of activityin this space, it is important that these issuesbe tackled effectively to ease the path towidespread adoption: Price and apps: Top-end consumer HMDs suchas Oculus Rift and HTC Vive Price are currently priced at 599 and 799, respectively.30These headsets must be tethered to computers capable of running high-end VR software,which adds to the cost. Cheaper HMDs that usesmartphone displays are currently limited bythe poor battery life of most smartphones andthe low quality of displays (although displaymanufacturers should closeVR and AR headsets the quality gap over time).VR headsetwill have to deal with Importantly,manufacturers are still awaitthe fact that one ing the launch of an

alternative reality market. The Alternative Reality Landscape Virtual Reality Augmented Reality Mixed Reality What it Does Changes reality by placing the user in a 360-degree imaginary world. Visible world is overlaid with digital content. Like AR, but virtual objects are integrated into and respond to visible surroundings. Where it Stands

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