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Adaptations of Sherlock HolmesSee also: Pop culture references to Sherlock Holmes“Thank you, but I'm afraid the pipe is purely for showthese days.”The stories of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur ConanDoyle were very popular as adaptations for the stage,and later film, and still later television. The UniversalSherlock Holmes (1995) by Ronald B. DeWaal lists over25,000 Holmes-related productions and products.Holmes was also featured prominently in issue 13 of theDC/WildStorm series Planetary. Holmes is shown to bein league with Bram Stoker's Dracula in the story. ACharlton Comics series depicted a Holmes based in NewYork City.1SelfMadeHero published “Hound of the Baskervilles”,adapted by Ian Edginton and illustrated by Ian Culbard,in May 2009.Board gamesHolmes is referred to and briefly featured in Alan Moore's Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective (gamebook)The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. Holmes appears(1981) (Sleuth Publications) (book-based game)in a flashback sequence depicting the climactic scene ofThe Adventure of the Final Problem and is still believed 221B Baker Street (Gibsons Games)by the public to be deceased following the events of that Watson & Holmes. From the Diaries of 221B (2015) story, although it is revealed in the second volume that(Ludonova)Mina later meets with him.2Warren Ellis's Aetheric Mechanics is primarily inspiredby Sherlock Holreimanmes, while being a mashup ofHolmesiana with other contemporary works.Comic stripIn the Italian comic book Martin Mystère and spin-off series Storie di Altrove/Stories from Elsewhere Holmes is ahistorical character.[4] In the late 1880s he worked onthe case of Jack the Ripper and met professor RichardVan Helsing, a vampire who destroyed Count Dracula.[5]Along with Professor Challenger, Holmes visited a secret valley of dinosaurs in South America in 1896. Thesame year he worked with the American Secret Service “Elsewhere” to stop paranormal threats from another dimension.[6] In 1910 he discovered a life extensionserum.[7] At the beginning of World War I he had a finalThe latest arc of the famous webcomic Sweet Bro confrontation with Professor Moriarty.[8] After the war,and Hella Jeff shows the main characters in the roles he moved to Ukraine, giving Arthur Conan Doyle the taskof Holmes and Watson and details their detective-hat- to convince everyone that he was just an imaginary charwearing, pipe-clinking adventures.[3]acter. With the help of his serum, Holmes prolonged hislife for several decades. In the 1990s he indirectly helpedMartin Mystère to capture a villain who found a formulaof his serum.[8]3 Comic booksThree Sherlock Holmes adaptations have appeared inAmerican newspapers. The first, titled Sherlock Holmes,ran from 1930 to 1931. Sherlock Holmes was drawn byLeo O'Mealia (who later drew covers for Action Comics)and distributed by the Bell Syndicate.[1] A short-livedhalf-page Sherlock Holmes comic strip appeared dailyand Sunday in the 1950s, written by radio scriptwriterEdith Meiser and drawn by Frank Giacoia.[2] The thirdadaptation “Mr. Holmes of Baker Street” by Bill Barryappeared in 1976-1977.In the 1990s, Caliber Comics issued a four-partSherlock Holmes Reader which featured quotes fromHolmes, a map of 221-B Baker Street, and canon storyadaptations[9] as well as individual stories such as Dr.Jekyll and Mr. Holmes[9] and The Sussex Vampire.[10]There have been a number of Sherlock Holmes comicbooks, notably from Dell and DC. The 50th anniversaryissue of Detective Comics features a cameo from a 135year-old Holmes, who congratulates Batman for defeating Professor Moriarty's descendants. He explains “Aproper diet, a certain distillation of royal jelly developedin my beekeeping days, and the rarified atmosphere of Tibet, where I keep my primary residence,” have kept himalive. When Batman tries to light his pipe, Holmes states2009 brought the Black House Comics series The DarkDetective: Sherlock Holmes.[11] The series is written byChristopher Sequeira with covers by Academy Awardwinning artist Dave Elsey.[12]1

24In 2010, Boom! Studios published a four-part series entitled Muppet Sherlock Holmes which featured Gonzo asHolmes,[13] Fozzie Bear as Dr. Watson,[13] and Kermitthe Frog as Inspector Lestrade.[13]In the Victorian Undead comic series (2010 and 2011by Wildstorm and DC) Sherlock Holmes, Doctor Watson and others must deal with a zombie outbreak, CountDracula, and Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde.In 2013, New Paradigm Studios began publishing amonthly, ongoing series entitled Watson and Holmes. Theseries re-imagines Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson asliving in the 21st Century and living in Harlem.[14]4FilmFILMBy 1916, Harry Arthur Saintsbury, who had playedHolmes on stage hundreds of times in Gillette’s play,reprised the role in the 1916 film The Valley of Fear.[18]The next significant cycle of Holmes films were producedby the Stoll Pictures company in Britain. Between 1921and 1923 they produced a total of 47 two-reelers,[19] allfeaturing noted West End actor Eille Norwood in the leadwith Hubert Willis as Watson.John Barrymore played the role in a 1922 movie entitled Sherlock Holmes, with Roland Young as Watsonand William Powell in his first screen appearance. ThisGoldwyn film is the first Holmes movie made with highproduction values and a major star.Clive Brook played Sherlock Holmes three times: TheReturn of Sherlock Holmes (1929), as part of an anthologyfilm, Paramount on Parade (1930), and Sherlock Holmes(1932).In 1931 Raymond Massey played Sherlock Holmes in hisscreen debut, The Speckled Band,[20] while Arthur Wontner played Holmes in five British films from 1931 to 1937.Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce played Holmes and Watson in The Hound of the Baskervilles which launched a 14film series. Rathbone is regarded as the Holmes of hisgeneration.Many other films have been comedies and parodies whichpoke fun at Holmes, Watson, their relationship and othercharacters. These have included Billy Wilder’s The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes with Robert Stephens andColin Blakely as Holmes and Watson.Sherlock Holmes Baffled, the first screen portrayal of Holmesfrom 1900.It has been estimated that Sherlock Holmes is the mostprolific screen character in the history of cinema.[15] Thefirst known film featuring Holmes is Sherlock Holmes Baffled, a one-reel film running less than a minute, madeby the American Mutoscope and Biograph Companyin 1900. This was followed by a 1905 Vitagraph filmAdventures of Sherlock Holmes; or, Held for Ransom, featuring Maurice Costello as Holmes.[16] Sherlock Holmeshas also been a prolific screen character in foreign language films, such as the Russian 2013 mini-series versionbroadcast in November 2013.[17]Many similar films were made in the early years of thetwentieth century, most notably the 13 one- and two-reelsilent films produced by the Danish Nordisk Film Company between 1908 and 1911. The only non-lost film isSherlock Holmes i Bondefangerkløer, produced in 1910.Holmes was originally played by Viggo Larsen. Other actors who played Holmes in those films were Otto Lagoni,Einar Zangenberg, Lauritz Olsen and Alwin Neuss. In1911 the American Biograph company produced a seriesof 11 short comedies based on the Holmes character withMack Sennett (later of Keystone Kops fame) in the titlerole.More serious, non-canonical films were A Study in Terror (with John Neville and Donald Houston) and Murderby Decree (with Christopher Plummer and James Mason)both of which involved Holmes and Watson investigatingthe murders by the Whitechapel serial killer Jack the Ripper. And Young Sherlock Holmes with Nicholas Roweas Holmes and Alan Cox as Watson playing the duo asschoolboys (in this film one of Holmes’ early mentors becomes an enemy who, in the final credits, hides out in theSwiss Alps and signs his name as Moriarty).The 1974 novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, a “lostmanuscript” of a Holmes adventure, was also made intoa film in 1976 starring Nicol Williamson as Holmes andRobert Duvall as Watson.The 1988 film Without a Clue was a comedic twist on thefamiliar Holmes legend. Dr. John Watson (Ben Kingsley)is a genius crime fighter and successful author. Fans of hisnovels clamor to see the real Sherlock Holmes and Watson realizes that his audience simply would not accept thefact that Holmes was a fabrication and to reveal himselfas the creator and brains behind him would be tantamountto literary suicide. To solve his dilemmas, Watson hiresReginald Kincaid (Michael Caine), an alcoholic, womanizing, ne'er-do-well actor to impersonate Holmes.The twenty-eighth film in the VeggieTales series is en-

3titled Sheerluck Holmes and the Golden Ruler, and fea- them are posted online, and can be found on Tumblr.tures Larry the Cucumber as Holmes and Bob the Tomato "Scarlet Story", the opening theme of the NHK puppetryas Watson.Sherlock Holmes is titled after "A Study in Scarlet". AndRobert Downey, Jr. appears as the detective in the Guy a song titled “Agra Treasure” that is made for the show isRitchie–directed Sherlock Holmes (2009) and its sequel sung in “The Adventure of the Cheerful Four”, one of theSherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (2011), with Jude episodes of the series based on "The Sign of the Four".Law as Dr. Watson, Rachel McAdams as Irene Adler, In the episode, some of the characters are modeled afterand Jared Harris as Moriarty.the members of the Beatles.In 2010, low-budget film company The Asylum producedSherlock Holmes, which is intended to capitalize on GuyRitchie’s film. It stars new actor Ben Syder as Holmes andTorchwood actor Gareth David Lloyd as Watson. It wasshot in Wales and directed by Rachel Lee Goldenberg.[21]7 RadioSee also: List of BBC Radio Sherlock Holmes DramatiIn the 2015 film Mr. Holmes, Ian McKellen portrays the sationsdetective as a 93-year-old retiree, living in a countrysidefarmhouse with his housekeeper (Laura Linney) and herIn the 1930s, writer, actress, and producer Edith Meiserson. As his memory deteriorates, he struggles to recall thewas largely responsible for first bringing Holmes to Amerlast case of his career, which sent him into retirement.ican radio listeners. Meiser, loved the Holmes stories,See also the 1971 film They Might Be Giants, starring helped sell the show to the NBC radio network and foundGeorge C. Scott and Joanne Woodward, which portrays a sponsor. She wrote the show by herself for 12 yearsa man who believes himself to be Sherlock Holmes.[1930–1942], both adapting Doyle’s classic tales as wellThe film adaptations of Sherlock Holmes and the actors as writing new adventures in the Holmesian style. Thefirst show she adapted was “The Adventure of the Speckwho played the main role are listed here.led Band.” It was broadcast on October 20, 1930 and featured William Gillette in the lead role. Various actorsplayed the Holmes and Watson parts in the series until5 InternetOctober 2, 1939 when Basil Rathbone and Nigel Brucewere cast after appearing in the 1939 film “The HoundIn January 2004, the BBC posted five new Sherlock of the Baskervilles”.[23][24][25] NBC’s Red and Blue netHolmes short stories on their “Cult” website, along with works carried the series until 1942. After that the showsRealAudio files of the stories, as read by Andrew Sachs were then written by the team of Dennis Green and Anand Hannah Gordon. The audio productions were done thony Boucher. Then the Mutual Broadcasting Systemin association with BBC 7, but are no longer available. picked up the series which it ran until 1947 [Rathbone leftThe texts of all five short stories are still posted, with ac- in 1946 and was replaced by Tom Conway, Nigel Brucecompanying illustrations and illustration galleries, as well remained] with the proviso that Meiser continue to conas an edited transcript of an interview with Bert Coules. tribute “new adventures”. Meiser’s adaptations and origiThe short story texts can also be downloaded as eBooks nal stories won praise from Conan Doyle’s family for theirin three different formats.faithful adherence to the original characterization.[26][27]One famous radio appearance starred Orson Welles asSherlock Holmes in an adaptation of one of William6 MusicGillette’s plays. This was broadcast in September 1938as part of The Mercury Theater on the Air series on CBSSherlock Holmes is the subject of the song “Sherlock Radio.Holmes” by Sparks from their 1982 album Angst in My Throughout the early 1940s on American Radio, BasilPants.Rathbone and Nigel Bruce performed as Holmes andWatson,respectively, in several series of canonical andComposer Jon Deak wrote a work for solo double bassoriginalSherlockHolmes stories on The New Adventuresbased on The Hound of the Baskervilles, complete withradio show. These broadcasts wereofSherlockHolmesnarration and sound effects to mimic radio plays of the[22]looselybasedonDoyle’scases. When Rathbone finally1920s.departed the role before the 1947 season, Tom ConwayProgressive rock musicians Clive Nolan & Oliver Wake- played Sherlock Holmes opposite Nigel Bruce for oneman released a concept album titled The Hound Of The season. After a change of networks, there were two moreBaskervilles about the story of the same name in 2002.pairings: John Stanley as Holmes and Alfred Shirley asShrock is a genre that’s developed by the fans of BBC Watson in 1947–1948 and Stanley and “George Spelvin”Sherlock. They write music about the new series during in 1948–1949. Both Stanley and Conway emulated Raththe considerably long hiatuses between seasons. Most of bone when performing Holmes to aid in continuity for the

4audience.John Gielgud played Holmes for BBC radio in the 1950s,with Ralph Richardson as Watson. Gielgud’s brother, ValGielgud, appeared in "The Bruce-Partington Plans", perhaps inevitably, as Mycroft Holmes. As this series wasco-produced by the American Broadcasting Company,known American actors also appeared, such as OrsonWelles as Professor Moriarty in "The Adventure of theFinal Problem".Carleton Hobbs portrayed Holmes in a series of BBC radio broadcasts that ran from 1952 to 1969, with NormanShelley playing Watson. Many of these were broadcaston Children’s Hour. Of the many actors who have portrayed Holmes and Watson for the BBC, the Hobbs andShelley duo is the longest running.8 STAGEby Lawrence Albert.[28] Scripts are by Jim French, M.J. Elliott, Matthew Booth, John Hall, Gareth Tilley, J RCampbell and Lawrence Albert. In 2005, with adaptations written by M. J. Elliott, French and his companybegan a new series based on Conan Doyle’s original talescalled “The Classic Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.”Many episodes are available on CD as well as downloadable from the Imagination Theater website.8 StageThere have been many other radio adaptations (over 750in English), including a more recent BBC Radio 4 run featuring Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williamsas Watson. Together, the two actors completed radioadaptations of every story in the canon between 1989and 1998. The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes,a new series consisting of original stories written exclusively by Bert Coules was then commissioned, but following Williams’ death from cancer in 2001, he was replacedby Andrew Sachs. The episodes of The Further Adventures were based on throwaway references in Doyle’s shortstories and novels. The complete canonical run is available on CD and audio tape. The Further Adventures ofSherlock Holmes is also available on CD as four box sets H. A. Saintsbury as Holmes, c. 1903each containing four episodes.BBC Radio 2 also broadcast in 1999 a more ribald six- The actor most associated with Holmes on stage wasepisode spoof series featuring Holmes and Watson enti- William Gillette, who wrote, directed, and starred in atled The Newly Discovered Casebook of Sherlock Holmes popular play entitled Sherlock Holmes in seven differentstarring Roy Hudd as Holmes (“England’s greatest detec- productions on Broadway from 1899 (filmed in 1916),tive, master of disguise and toffee-nosed ponce”), Chris while the stories were still being published, to 1930.Emmett as Watson (“contributor to the British Medi- His version of Holmes, dressed in deerstalker hat andcal Journal, Which Stethescope Magazine and inventor Inverness cape and smoking a large curved calabash pipe,of the self-raising thermometer") and June Whitfield as contributed much to the popular image of the character.Mrs. Hudson. Titles in this series included “The Case of The deerstalker hat appears occasionally in Paget’s origithe Clockwork Fiend”, “The Mystery of the Obese Es- nal illustrations for The Strand, but it is by no means a partcapologist”, “The Caes of the Deranged Botanist”, “Sher- of Holmes’ regular clothing. Doyle’s text is even vaguer,lock Holmes and the Glorious Doppelganger”, “Holmes referring only to a travelling cap with earflaps in the pasStrikes a Happy Medium” and “The Demon Cobbler of sages with the relevant illustrations. He is also describedGreek Street”, and usually turned out to have Holmes’ as smoking several different types of pipes, varying themmortal enemy Moriarty (Geoffrey Whitehead) behind with his mood.each mystery. This series has since been re-broadcast on While Gillette is the most well known stage actor to porBBC Radio 7.tray Holmes, the first was John Webb.[29] Webb assayed[29]Starting in 1998, U.S. radio producer Jim French was Holmes in a play written by Charles Rodgers in 1894.given permission from the Conan Doyle estate to producenew, original Sherlock Holmes stories for radio in NorthAmerica.[28] These are presented within the ImaginationTheater program on radio stations and XM satellite radio. The new stories are also broadcast under the banner The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. JohnGilbert played Holmes until 2000, and subsequently byJohn Patrick Lowrie.[28] Watson is played in all showsHolmes is tangentially referred to in an unfinished play byL. Frank Baum and Emerson Hough called The King ofGee-Whiz (1905).In Langdon McCormick's 1905 play, The Burglar and theLady, Holmes is pitted against the fictional criminal A. J.Raffles, created by E. W. Hornung. McCormick did notsecure permission from either Doyle or Hornung to usetheir characters.[30]

5The calabash pipe is associated with Sherlock Holmes because early portrayers, particularly William Gillette andBasil Rathbone, made an artistic decision to use something large and easily recognized as a pipe. A calabashpipe has a large air chamber beneath the bowl that provides a cooling and mellowing effect. Holmes preferredharsh and strong tobaccos and therefore would eschewsuch a pipe. In fact, most stories, particularly The Adventure of the Copper Beeches, described him as preferring along-stemmed cherry-wood or a clay pipe.In the first twenty years of the 20th century, Harry ArthurSaintsbury played Holmes on stage in Gillette’s play morethan 1,400 times.[18] In subsequent revivals of this production, Holmes was played by John Wood, John Neville,Patrick Horgan, Robert Stephens and Leonard Nimoy.Frank Langella played Holmes in a 1981 production forHBO.9 TelevisionThere have been many television incarnations of Sherlock Holmes, varying in faithfulness to the source material from direct adaptations of Holmes stories, most notably The Hound of the Baskervilles, to new stories set inthe present day and even the future.9.1 Television seriesOne of the earliest television appearances was the 1951BBC mini series Sherlock Holmes starring Alan Wheatleyas Holmes and Raymond Francis as Watson.Three years later, the first American adaptation ofHolmes and Watson, Sherlock Holmes was produced bySheldon Reynolds in 1954, and starred Ronald Howard asThe play Sherlock’s Last Case by Charles Marowitz ran on Holmes and Howard Marion-Crawford as Doctor Watsonproduced in Paris, France.Broadway in 1987, starring Frank Langella.[31]The Secret of Sherlock Holmes by Jeremy Paul was stagedin London’s West End in 1988, with Jeremy Brett andEdward Hardwicke reprising their television roles asHolmes and Watson. It was revived in the summe

Sherlock Holmes: Hakushaku Reijō Yūkai Jiken (1986)(FamilyComputer) 221BBakerStreet(1987)(Datasoft)(PCandMac) Sherlock: TheRiddleoftheCrownJewels(1988) (Infocom) Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective (1991) (ICOMSimulations) SherlockHolmes:ConsultingDetectiveVol.II(1992) (ICOMSimulations) Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective Vol. III