The Actantial And Functional Structure Analysis Of .

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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 3803rd Social Sciences, Humanities, and Education Conference (SoSHEC 2019)The Actantial and Functional StructureAnalysis of Fairytale Beauty and The BeastDwi Nur Cahyani Sri K.Universitas Negeri SurabayaSurabaya, s study is aimed to find how structuralnarrative which is in Beauty and The Beast fairytale byusing structuralism narratology A.J. Greimas. Thepurpose of this study is to obtain, examine, understandand describe the actantial and functional structure ofBeauty and The Beast. The result of the study concludesthat the analysis of main actantial scheme andfunctional structure is the Beast looking for his true loveto break the curse. The desire and wish of thecharacters which are the activator to looking for histrue arrative structuralism, Beauty and The Beast.I. INTRODUCTIONFairytale is one of literary works. Fairytale is ashort story and usually written for children. It tellsabout magical creatures, idealized or extremelyhappy [1]. The story of fairytale is rare in the realworld because, the characters of fairytale are animal,giant, dwarf, trolls, whiches and similar to them.Fairytale in the literary sense is easy to find. Theybelong to no one and have been adapted and retoldcountless times. Fairytale is an oral story and it isbased on an artistic fiction. It had been orally createdduring centuries and transferred from generation togeneration [2]. Fairytales do not need to be writtendown to be legitimate. Beauty and The Beast is oneof fairytale which tells about the prince who is cursedto be a Beast by a witch.Based on those stories, this study chooses Beautyand The Beast as the object of the study. This studyfocuses on the structure of a story by using structuralnarrative which is developed by A.J Greimas. A.JGreimas describes actants and functional scheme andalso the relationship to each other in the story[2].Within this framework, this study is conducted toanswer two research questions as follows: 1. Whatare the actant and functional scheme in Beauty andThe Beast, and 2. How is the relation between actantsand functional scheme in Beauty and The Beast.To answer the two research questions above, thisstudy used structural narrative theory to analyzefairytale Beauty and The Beast which are seen fromactantial and functional scheme. This structuralismmodel is used because the structural narrative ofGreimas is considered to have an advantage inpresenting the detail of character life from thebeginning to the ending of the story. In addition, thisstructuralism model has clearly been able todemonstrate and differentiate between protagonistand antagonist character[3,p.146].Piaget [4, p.4] "Structure consists of elementswhich close in a relationship and systematic to formthe unity and the wholeness of literary work". Thereare three ideas about the elements contained in thestructure. The first is the wholeness, it means that allelements which build a text determine its selfsignificant and determine all significant in theintrinsic norm. Also, all elements adapt themselves tothe other element.Piaget [4, p.4] “Structure consists of elementswhich close in relationship and systematic to form theunity and the wholeness of literary work”. There arethree ideas about the element that contained in thestructure. The first is the wholeness, it means that allelements which build a text determine its selfsignificant and determine all significant in intrinsicnorm. Also all elements adapt themselves to the otherelement.The theories are summarized into two point asfollows :1) ActantialActantial structure used to describe the role of thecharacter situasion, feelings, a thing from the storieswhich based on binary opposition such as : subject –object, sender – receiver, helper – opponent. There isstructure of tFig. 1: Actantial SchemeAs indicated in Figure 1, the element of theactantial can be explain based on their function. Asender wishes to transmit or communicate an objectto receiver. Sender is an actant who or which hasdesire and is activator of the story[10]. The sendergives a subject the mandate to perform or get sender'sCopyright 2019, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license 31

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 380request. Receiver is the character who undertakes thequest that is asked by sender. The opponent is a figureor force that tries to precent the subject from carryingout the commision. Helper is an actant who or whichhelp subject [11].2) FunctionalBesides showing actantial structure, Greimas findfunctional structural. The function of a functionalmodel used to explain the role of the subject in orderto carry out the assignment from the sender which iscontained in the actant[5]. The functional model isclosely related to the actantial model because therelations between one actant and the others aredetermined by their functions [6]. Fossion who iscited by Hacette in his book of lectures Nouvellessaid that "all stories despite in different forms showthat there is the same configuration on the types ofactant which is defined by relation and functionplayed in stories." [5, p.4] The function of functionalscheme is describing more detail the role of thesubject to get an object affected by the sender basedon the plot. Functional scheme divide into 3 stages;initial situation, the transformation stage and the finalsituation [9].A.J Greimas developed structuralism intonarrative structuralism.Narrative structuresconsidered by Greimas in order to explain the gradualevolution of sequences and the formation of the storyto compare the sensible/stative model[6].Greimas tells about the relationship betweencharacters (actants) from the stories. Based on thatstatement, the relationship among the charactersneeds to be analyzed to find actants and functional ofthe characters.II. METHODSTo analysis, this literary work, the method of thestudy is a qualitative-descriptive method. Qualitativedata in this study refers to text from the fairytaleBeauty and The Beast. Descriptive studies aredescribed in more detail about the correlationbetween actants and functional models.In this study, the data collected are analyzed byusing the structural theory of A.J Greimas. Toanalyzing the data, firstly identifying actant schemeand functional models in Beauty and The Beast, findthe main actant and functional and identifying therelationship between them in the story.III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThis study focused on 3 characters who haveimportant role in Beauty and The Beast. There areBeauty, The Merchant (Beauty’s father) and TheBeast (Prince).In this study, Beauty and The Beast has 8 actantand 8 functional schemes that actant is describedmore detail to find the role of character.A. The actant structure as follows :SenderBecome poorObjectMoneyReceiverEnoughliviing costHelperA ShipSubjectThe MerchantOpponent-Fig. 2: Actantial scheme 1In Figure 2, the Merchant has a role as a subjectwho desires money (object). The Merchant's life waschanging to become a poor family so he needs moneyto sufficient his family's needs (receiver). All at oncethe Merchant lost his whole fortune, excepting asmall country-house at a great distance from town,and told his children, with tears in his eyes, they mostgo there and work for their living [12, P.1]. Thesender from this actant is the change of Merchant'sfamily life. It becomes an activator of a subject to getan object in order to a receiver. There is a ship as ahelper to help the Merchant desire.A father should be responsible for his daughter.He is like a superhero who is without being asked willmake efforts to protect and support his child.Although his main responsibility is supporting hisfamily, a father should present the fundamentalqualities of leadership, responsibility, andaccountability, as well as the capabilities of planning,disciplining and loving. Fathering is a full-time job,it is not a big difference with mother.Functional structureInitial situation: The story begins with TheMerchant's life who had six children. Being a man ofsense, he spared no cost for their education but gavethem all kinds of masters.Qualifying test of transformation: TheMerchant's family was happy because they were rich.The two eldest had a great deal of pride and went outevery day upon parties of pleasure, balls, plays,concerts, etc. The youngest one, Beauty is differentfrom another child because she spent the greatest partof her time in reading books. Main test oftransformation: The Merchant lost his wholefortune. They moved to a small country-house at agreat distance from town and must work for theirliving. Glorifying test of transformation: He andhis child must work to make living. Two eldest onewon't leave the town and did nothing, meanwhileBeauty at four in the morning, and made haste toclean the house and prepared breakfast for her family.After she had done her work, she read, played on theharpsichord, or else sung whilst she spun.Final situation The Merchant received a letter,with an account that a vessel, on board of which hehad effects, was safely arrived. The Merchant wantsto join the ship. Before leaving, he asks his childrenif they wish for him to bring any gifts back for them.His oldest daughters ask for clothing, jewels, and thefinest dresses possible as they think his wealth hasreturned.232

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume elperBeast’sgardenSubjectThe MerchantOpponentThe BeastFig. 3: Actantial scheme 2As illustrated in Figure2, Beauty as a sender is inactant 2. "Since you are so kind as to think of me,(answered she,) be so kind as to bring me a rose, foras none grow hereabouts, they are a kind of rarity."[12, P.2]From that quotation, Beauty wants a rosefrom her father. Bring me a rose shows that the objectof this actant and Beauty's wishes as a sender. A roseas an object must be obtained by subject in order tosender, Beauty.Functional StructureInitial situation : The Merchant loses his way togo home but he lost himself in a larger forest. It rainedand snowed terribly, besides, the wind was so high.He begins to apprehend being either starved to deathwith cold and hunger.Qualifying test of transformation: TheMerchant returned God thanks for this happydiscovery, and hasted to the palace, but was greatlysurprised at not meeting with anyone in the outcourts. He was entering into a large hall, he found agood fire, and a table full of food, but no one. Hewaited a considerable time, till it struck eleven, andstill, nobody came: at least he was so hungry that hecould stay no longer, but took a chicken and ate it intwo mouthfuls, trembling all the while. Main test oftransformation: The Merchant woke up the nextmorning and he was astonished to see a good suit ofclothes in the room of his own. He looked through awindow, but instead of snow, he saw the mostdelightful arbors, interwoven with the most beautifulflowers that ever were beheld. He rememberedBeauty's request to him and gathered a branch onwhich were several roses. Glorifying test oftransformation: The Beast, owner of the palace, wasangry because the Merchant took a branch of roseswithout permission. The roses which the Beast valuebeyond anything in the universe were stolen by theMerchant, so he must pay it with his life.Final situation: The Merchant fell on his knees,and he lifted up both his hands. He asked forforgiveness from the Beast (see Figure 4).SenderGuilt and fearObjectforgivenessHelperNegotiationSubjectThe MerchantReceiverGo home withthe roseOpponent-Fig. 4: Actantial scheme 3The Merchant as a subject feels guilty and fear ofThe Beast’s anger (sender). The Merchant asks forforgiveness because he wants to go home with thatrose for her daughter. Because the Merchant wantsto make his daughter happy, he try to fulfill hisdaughter wants. Based on this actant, we can see thatthere is a father’s struggle to his family. He will doanything just for his family. "My Lord (said he,) Ibeseech you to forgive me, indeed I had no intentionto offend in gathering a rose for one of mydaughters,.” [12, P.4] He works, he rememberwhat his daughter wants, he tries to negotiate to theBeast and asks forgiveness because he wants to comeback to his family.Functional StructureInitial situasion : The Merchant asks forforgiveness from the Beast. "My Lord (said he,) Ibeseech you to forgive me, indeed I had no intentionto offend in gathering a rose for one of my daughters,who desired me to bring her one."Qualifying test of transformation: The Beastwill forgive The Merchant with one condition; TheMerchant should bring her daughter to him withinthree months. Main test of transformation: TheMerchant agree and had no mind to sacrifice hisdaughters to the ugly monster, but he thought, inobtaining this respite, he should have the satisfactionof seeing his daughter once more. Glorifying test oftransformation: The Beast told him that he can goback to the room where the Merchant lay and permithim to take everything that the Merchant likes andwill send it to his house.Final situation; The horse, of The Merchant ownaccord, took one of the roads of the forest; and in afew hours, the good man was at home.SenderFree fromBeastObjectBeautyHelperThe sistersSubjectThe MerchantReceiverBack to hisfamilyOpponentFather’ssadnessFig. 5: Actantial scheme 4Figure 5 shows that in actant 4 we can see thatthere is a father's struggle to his family. ".I had nointention to offend in gathering a rose for one of mydaughters, who desired me to bring her one." [12,P.4] He will do anything just for his family. Heworks, he remembers what Beauty wants but makesthe Beast angry. he asks forgiveness to the Beastbecause he wants to come back to his familyFunctional StructureInitial situation: The Merchant back to his homeand his children came around him. Instead ofreceiving their embraces with pleasure, he looked onthem and burst into tears.Qualifying test of transformation: He gives theroses to Beauty and told them what happen with himon the way back home. Main test of transformation:Beauty delivers herself into the Beast. Because shemade this trouble to her father. Glorifying test of233

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 380transformation: Her brothers don't permit her to goto the Beast. They will fight for her and his father.But, the father doesn't agree with that idea.Final situation: Her father so afflicted at thethoughts of losing his daughter, that he had quiteforgotten about the gold that he brings before.SenderBreak thecurseObjectMarry BeautyHelperGoodness ofBeastSubjectBeastReceiverTo be princeOpponentUgly faceFig. 6: Actantial scheme 5Figure 6 illustrates that the Beast as a subject inactant 5. The Beast wants to marry Beauty (object),but the Beast's wishes are blocked by his terrible face(opponent). The Beast wants to marry Beauty is therole of the activator of the story. "Beauty, will you bemy wife?" [12,P.10] This quotation shows howserious the Beast wants Beauty to become his loveralthough he has another goal that he wants to breakthe curse that made his face terrible. The curse can beremoved if the Beast finds his true love. He hopes thatBeauty becomes his true love. The Beast looking forhis true love because true love doesn't look at hisappearance. The Beast realized that he had a terribleface, it makes many people do not want him to betheir lover or their true love and feel fear of him.Functional StructureInitial situation : Beauty and her father are goingto Beast's palace to fulfill his promise. The Beast letthe Merchant leave the palace and make Beauty as aprisoner.Qualifying test of transformation: The Beasttries to approach Beauty to help him break the curse.The Beast invited Beauty to take dinner togetherevery night. Main test of transformation: Threemonths passed, the Beast purpose Beauty to marryhim. Glorifying test of transformation: Beautyalways rejected the Beast's proposal.Final situation: Beast asks her to never leave himeven though he has a terrible face for his lifetime.SenderMiss herfatherObjectBeauty’s fatherReceiverGo homeHelperA gold ringSubjectBeautyOpponentThe sistersFig. 7: Actantial scheme 6In Figure 7, Beauty has a role as a subject. Beautyhas the desire to meet her father (object) because shemisses him so much. After several months she wasdetained in the Beast's palace, she thinks about herfather. Her feel which missing her father become anactivator in this scheme. The Beast gives Beauty agold ring to help her to go back to her father, but withone condition. She must promise to return to Beast'spalace. Bella's love for her father never ends becauseshe felt her father's love for her is never end too.Functional StructureInitial situation : Beauty had seen in her glass,that her father had pined himself sick for the loss ofher and she wants to see him again.Qualifying test of transformation: The Beastasks Beauty to do not to leave him and will stay in thepalace with the Beast even she doesn't want to marryhim. Main test of transformation: Beauty agreesand promises not to leave him and will stay in thepalace to accompany him. But, she has one desire tosee her father first before she throws her self as aservant to the Beast. Glorifying test oftransformation: The Beast feel so disappointedbecause Beauty will leave him and go back to herfather. He will die with his loneliness and grief.Final Situation: Beauty promise, she will returnto the palace a week. She just wants to stay with herfather because he is alone. Her sister and brother aremarried. The Beast gives a ring to Beauty. That ringwill send her to her father's house if it lays in besideher.SenderDream of BeastObjectThe BeastReceiverPromise to returnHelperA gold ringSubjectBeautyOpponent-Fig. 8: Actantial scheme 7As indicated in Figure 8, Beauty dreams about theBeast have a role as a sender of activator this actant.It makes Beauty remembers and wants to meet theBeast (object). She wants to fulfill her promise, toreturn into Beast's Palace because she feels guilty toforget the Beast's kind and besides that, the Beastbelieves her that she will fulfill her promise.Functional StructureInitial situation : In the next morning, Beautywoke up in her father's house. Her father feels sohappy to see her again but on the other hand Beauty'ssisters sickened with envy, when they saw herdressed like a princess, and more beautiful than ever;nor could all her obliging affectionate behavior tostifle their jealousy, which was ready to burst whenshe told them how happy she was.Qualifying test of transformation: Beauty'ssister was envious and wanted to hold Beauty for notto keep her promise so the Beast will angry with her.The tenth night she spent at her father's, she dreamedshe was in the palace garden, and that she saw theBeast extended on the grass-plot, who seemed justexpiring, and, in a dying voice, reproached her withher ingratitude. Main test of transformation:Beauty cried and she thinks that she is very evil forthe Beast. The Beast very kind and have a good234

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 380attitude to her even though he has a terrible face buthe cares and loves Beauty. Beauty thinks that histerrible face is not that wrong, and why she refusedhis proposal to marry her. Glorifying oftransformation: She puts her ring on the table andthen laid down again. She waked the next morning,she was overjoyed to find herself in the Beast'spalace.Final Situation: She keeps her promise to returnthe Beast's palaceSenderThe Beast isdyingObjectMarry BeastReceiverBeast becomeprinceHelperLoving BeastSubjectBeautyOpponent-Fig. 9: Actantial scheme 8In Actant 8 (see Figure 9), the dying Beast(sender) become a reason or mover of Beauty to meethim because Beauty dreamed about the dying BeastLikewise, the desire of Beauty for the Beast not todie, it becomes mover of Beauty to marry him(object).Beauty does not realize it, if she has beeninterested with the Beast. Because, the Beast alwaysbe kind to Beauty, it makes Beauty does not afraidand disgusted with his terrible face.Love is something difficult to describe. Love willnot have any restrictions on appearance, material andhabit. In this scheme, finally, Beauty realize that sheloves the Beast (helper) because of the Beast'skindness and good attitude. Beauty put aside thatterrible face of the Beast, and realized that she reallydidn't want to lose the Beast. Based on this, Beautywants to marry the Beast on the other hand the Beastfinds true love in Beauty.Functional Structurebeheld. Beauty surprise and give the charming Princeher hand to rise and they went together into thepalace. After all, Beauty overjoys to find her fatherand his whole family in the palace.B. The Relationship BetweenFunctional StructuresActantandFrom the analysis above, there are 8 actant andfunctional structures. The main framework from thefairytale Beauty and The Beast, among them, isactant scheme 5. In actant and functional scheme 5,there is the key to the story. The Beast's deepestwishes are marrying Beauty but blocked by histerrible face. There are two opposing sites betweenhis desire and his real condition. When the Beastproposes Beauty, he knows what Beauty will say andrespond but he still determined to say it. There is nodoubt when the Beast proposes Beauty as if he wassure that Beauty is different from anyone elsebecause Beauty has no choice to accept his proposeor he will angry with Beauty's respond. But, Beautyis smart enough, she does not answer the Beast'sproposal directly. "Beast, you make me very uneasy,I wish I could consent to marry you, but I am toosincere to make you believe that will ever happen: Ishall always esteem you as a friend; endeavor to besatisfied with this." [12 ,P.10]This functional scheme becomes the mainfunctional because the core of the story seems to bethe strongest desire of one of the characters in thestory.It can demonstrate as follows:Initial situation: The Beast tries to approachBeauty to help him break the curse.Qualifying test of transformation: The Beastinvited Beauty to take dinner together every night.Main test of transformation: Three months passed,the Beast purpose Beauty to marry him. Glorifyingtest of transformation: Beauty always rejected theBeast's proposal.Initial situation:mBeauty returns to the Beast'spalace. She is looking for the Beast but she does notfind him. She is feared that she had been the cause ofhis death.Final situation: Beast asks her to never leave himeven though he has a terrible face for his lifetime.Qualifying test of transformation: She rancrying and wringing her hands all about the palace,like one in despair. She remembered her dream tofound where the Beast was dying. Main test oftransformation: She finds the Beast stretched, andas she imagined, dead. She threw herself upon himwithout any dread and finding his heartbeat. TheBeast is disappointed because he thinks that sheforgets her promise to return, and he resolved tostarve himself. Glorifying of transformation:Beauty feels sorry to the Beast after leaving himalone, and she does not want to lose the Beast. Beautysaid that she loved the Beast ad wanted to make theBeast her husband.The discussion of this paper shows the followingresults. After analyzing the actant and functionalstructure in Beauty and The Beast, there are 8 actantsschema and functional structure that develop thesestories. There are 4 actants which are not perfect, inactants 1, actant 2, actant 7 and actant 8 because itdoes not have all the required actant components.From 8 actants, the Beast has a more dominant roleas sender than an object meanwhile Beauty and theMerchant has a role as a subject more than the Beast.Final Situation: The Beast had disappeared andshe saw one of the loveliest princes that eye everIV. CONCLUSIONBased on the results of the relationship betweenactants and functional structure, it can be found anactant that becomes the main structure of the stories,is the Beast looking for his true love to break thecurse. He uses Beauty to fulfill his desire. But, his235

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 380wishes are blocked by his terrible face, which makesan opponent to his desire.REFERENCES[1] A. Jolles. Simple Forms: Legend, Saga, Myth, Riddle, Saying,Case, Memorabile, Fairytale, Joke. Verso. 2017[2] K. Sikharulidze. Fairy-Tale as a Genre. Journal of Education(pp. 1-3). doi: 1(2):91-94,2012. ISSN:2298-0245[3] A.J Greimas, Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method.Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. 1966 pp.146-151[4] J. Piaget, Structuralism. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.1995[5] O. KS Zaimar, A Djokosuyatno. Laporan Penelitian StrukturCerita Sunda, Aktan dan Fungsinya. (UI Depok, 1992), p.4[6] G. Januarsyah. Skripsi: Penerapan Model Aktansial GreimasDalam Cerita Rakyat Roro Jonggrang: Satu Kajian SemiotikNaratif. Bandung: Universitas Padjajaran. 2015[7] T. Eagleton, Literary Theory An Introduction Second Edition.Blackwell Publisher. 2005[8] S. Endraswara. Metodologi Penelitian Sastra. FBS UniversitasNegeri Yogyakarta. 2004[9] Jabrohim. PASAR : Dalam Perspektif Greimas. Yogyakarta :Pustaka Pelajar. 1996[10] E. Resita dan S. Oemiati. Analisis Struktural Dalam CerpenHana Karya Akutagawa Ryounosuke. Program BahasaJepang. Fakultas Bahasa. Univeritas Dian Nuswantoro. 2014Access on : Desember 2019[11] S. Rukoyah. A Thesis : The Actantial and Functional StructureAnalysis Of Into The Woods Musical Play. English LettersDepartment. Faculty of Adab And Humanities. UIN SyarifHidayatullah Jakarta. 2015[12] Marie Leprince de Beaumont, Jeanne. 1756. Beauty and TheBeast. Global Grey ebooks236

important role in Beauty and The . There are Beast Beauty, The (Beauty’s father) and The Merchant Beast (Prince). In this study, Beauty and The has 8 Beastactant and 8 functional schemes that is described actant more detail to find the role of character. A. The actant structure as follows: Fig. 2: Actantial scheme 1. In Figure 2, t