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Mixed Methods Research WORKSHOP2nd July 2015Deakin University, MelbourneDr Roslyn CameronCo-Convenor of Mixed Methods SIG - ANZAMResearch FellowCurtin Business SchoolRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Mixed Methods Research Introduce and definitionsHistorical & philosophical roots of MMRAuthorities & publications in the fieldTerminologies, notation system & visualsPurposesResearch designs & typologiesResearch Fellow at Curtin University, WA.Ros is a Fellow of the Australian HumanResources Institute (FAHRI) and CoConvenor of the Mixed Methods ResearchSpecial Interest Group of ANZAM. Sheutilizes mixed methods in many of herfunded research projects and publishes inthe use of mixed methods across businessand management disciplines. She has runseveral workshops on mixed methods atdoctoral symposiums and academicconferences. She has been granted 1.09(AUD) million in research funding and hasover 90 publications.Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Definition Mixed MethodsIn general, mixed methods research represents research thatinvolves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitativeand qualitative data in a single study or in a series of studiesthat investigate the same underlying phenomenon.Leech N, Onwuegbuzie A, (2008) A typology of mixed methods research designs,Quality and Quantity, 43(2), March, pp. 265-275.Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Definition Mixed Methods Mixed methods research is a research design withphilosophical assumptions as well as methods of inquiry. As amethodology, it involves philosophical assumptions that guidethe direction of the collection and analysis of data and themixture of qualitative and quantitative data in a single studyor series of studies. Its central premise is that the use ofquantitative and qualitative approaches in combinationprovides a better understanding of research problems thateither approach alone. Creswell and Plano Clark (2007: 5)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Methodological dichotomyQuantitative(Positivist)Objective ariablesNumericalStatisticalImpersonalRoslyn Cameron Copyright ive realityMeaningsHuman intentionsPersonally involvedStudy casesActors in natural settingsVerbal & pictorial dataGeneralise case findings

Research ProblemOntologyEpistemologyMark’s OnionResearch iveMonomethodMultimethodRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014Mixed MethodsQualitativeMonomethodMultimethod

Paragdigmatic IssuesOntology: philosophical study of the nature of reality worldviewEpistemology: Philosophy/theory about the nature and scope ofknowledge Questions what knowledge is and how it can beacquired and the extent of its validity and limitsRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Source: Adapted from Teddlie and Taskakkori (2003, p. 11)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Research choices and theresearch process ‘onion’Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014Source: Saunders, N, Lewis & Thornhill, A(2012) Research Methods for BusinessStudents, 6th Edn, Pearson.

Basic typologyRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2013Source: Source: Saunders, N, Lewis & Thornhill, A(2012: 165) Research Methods forBusiness Students, 6th Edn, Pearson

Historical perspective- MM ‘Paradigmatic wars’- catalystShort History-early 1980’sRejects the ‘either or’ approach‘Quiet’ revolution-resolve tensionsThird methodological movementTashakkori & Teddlie (2003) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioural Sciences Last ten years research methods texts have begun toaddress Mixed Methods Authorities emerging in the areaRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

History of mixed methodsresearchCreswell and Plano Clark (2007) Designing and ConductingMixed methods Research, Thousand Oakes, CA, Sage PublicationsRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Third Methodological Movement Growing body of trans-disciplinary literature. Prominent research methodologists/authorities from acrossdiscipline fields are emerging and guiding the commentaryand the movements’ momentum. ‘today, we see cross-cultural international interest,interdisciplinary interest, publication possibilities, and publicand private funding opportunities for mixed methodsresearch’(Creswell and Plano Clark 2007: 18) .Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Table 1: Summary of empirical papers aligned with discipline fieldsDISCIPLINEQUANTQUALMIXED TOTALMarketing553781057363 Journals 1993-2002(75%)(11%)(14%)(100%)Hanson and Grimmer (2005)(31%)International business26957683944 Journals 2000-2003(68%)(15%)(17%)(100%)Hurmerinta-Peltomaki and(17%)Nummela (2006)Strategic management44130995701 Journal 1997-2006(78%)(5%)(17%)(100%)Molina-Azorin (2009)(24%)Organizational behaviour19717172311 Journal 2003-2008(85%)(7.5%)(7.5%)(100%)Molina-Azorin and Lopez-Fernandez (2009)(10%)Operations management14623181871 Journal 2003-2007(78%)(12%)(10%)(100%)Molina-Azorin (2008)(8%)Entrepreneurship17837202352 Journals 2003-2007(76%)(16%)(8%)(100%)Molina-Azorin %)* Empirical articles quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods (not conceptual)Source: Adapted from Cameron and Molina-Azorin (2011, p. 266). ‘The acceptanceof mixed methods in business and management’, International Journal ofOrganizational Analysis, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 256-271Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Pragmatism and MMR Several authors propose pragmatism as the best paradigm for justifyingMMR: Pragmatism supports the use of both QUAL & QUAN in same study &rejects incompatibility stance Pragmatic researchers consider the RQ to be more important thaneither the method or paradigm that underlies it the method”dictatorship of the RQ” Pragmatists rejects forced choice between postpositivism &constructionism with regards to logic, epistemology etc Methodological decisions depend on the RQ and stage of the study Pragmatism is very practical and applied Teddlie & Tashakorri (2003:21) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioural SciencesThousand Oakes: CA, Sage Publications. Maxcy,S. (2003). Pragmatic threads in mixed methods research in the social sciences:Thesearch for multiplemodes of inquiry and the end of the philosophy of formalism. In A.Tashakorri & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 51-90). Thousand Oaks,CA:SageRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

6 Blind Men & an ElephantRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

The most interesting part about this story is thatsince none of the men can experience theelephant in its entirety on his own, the only wayto fully grasp the whole thing would be to shareand accept each others' perceptions and thenadd them all together. If each men were able todo this, the entire picture of the elephant couldbe realized. But, in their utter insistence onbeing right, each man is doomed to never seethe entire picture.Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Mixed MethodsResearch14 books on mixed methodsresearchhave been writtensince 1988Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Authorities/ recent texts Starter Kit:Creswell JW and Plano Clark VL (2007; 2011)Tashakkori A and Teddlie C (Eds.) (2003; 2008; 2010)Greene and Caracelli (1989)Greene (2007)Bergman (2008)Andrews & Halcomb (2009)Morse & Neihaus (2009)Onwueugbuzie, AJohnson, BMertens, DRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Gurus & their recent words Teddlie & Tashakkori (2009) FoundationsTeddlie & Tashakkori (2003, 2010) SAGE handbook Eds 1 and 2Creswell and Plano Clark (2011) Design & ConductPlano Clark & Creswell (2007) ReaderGreene (2007) – Social inquiryBergman (2008) – Theory & application in multiple fieldsMorse & Niehaus (2009) - DesignMertens (2005) – Education and PsychologyBazeley (2003) – CAQDAS - NVIVOAndrew & Halcomb (2009) – Nursing and Health SciencesHesse-Biber (2011) – Theory & practiceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Journals Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR)(first issue Jan 2009) Quality and Quantity International Journal of Methodology International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches(IJMRA)(first issue Oct 2009)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Special issues- IJMRA International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches (IJMRA)Special Issues:Special Issue ECRM 2013 Conference, (Vol.8, Issue 2)Mixed Methods Research: Philosophy, Policy and Practice inEducation (Vol. 7, Issue 1) Mixed Methods in Genders & Sexualities Research (Vol. 7, Issue 2) Mixed Methods in Education 2012 Vol 6 (3)Mixed Methods in Business & Management 2011 Vol5 (3)Mixed Methods in Health Sciences 2011 Vol 5 (1)Mixed Methods for Novice Researchers: 2009 Vol 3 (1)Teaching Mixed Methods: 2008 Vol 4 (1)General Issue with Section: Computer Assisted Multiple and Blended Research:2008 Volume 2 (1)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Journals Special Issues on MMRInternational Journal of Educational Research2008 Vol 47 (2) International Journal of Social Research Methodology Theory and Practice2005 Issue 3 Organisational Research Methods 2015 Feature Topic: Mixed Methods in the Organizational SciencesRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

MMR in Management & Business Professor Allan Bryman - UK Assoc. Prof. Jose Molina Azorin- Spain Dr Ros Cameron – Australia Oxford University Press commissioned a Handbook on Multimethods and Mixed Methods ResearchInquiry to be published in 2015. Editors Professors BurkeJohnson and Sharlene Hesse-Berber (USA) Molina-Azorin & Cameron (2015) Chapter 26 History and Emergent Practices of Multimethodand Mixed Methods in Business ResearchRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

ANZAM MMR (SIG) Australian and New Zealand Academy ofManagement (ANZAM) launched its MMR SpecialInterest Group (SIG) at its 2011 annual conference. In business and management fields the use of MMR isgrowing and has been researched through severalstudies (Bryman 2008, Bazeley 2008, Cameron 2010,2011; Currall & Towler 2003; Molina-Azorin 2008, 2009;Molina-Azorin & Cameron 2010, Cameron & MolinaAzorin 2011).Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

TerminologyBridges WebsiteAdopted from Tashakkori and Teddlie's (2003)Handbook of mixed methods in the social andbehavioral research) Glossary.http://www.fiu.edu/ bridges/glossary.htmRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Basic MM terminology Monomethod Mixed method Multimethod Inference: an umbrella term to refer to a final outcome of a study.The outcome may consist of a conclusion about, an understandingof, or an explanation for an event, [a] behaviour, [b] relationship,or a case (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003, p. 35) Inference quality Inference transferablity Meta-inference Rules of integration Points of interfaceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

MM Notations (Morse 1991) QUAN or quan QUAL or qual Use of upper case Use of lower case MM “ ” “ ” “ “ “( )”Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014refers to quantitativerefers to qualitativerefers to emphasis, primary ordominant methodrefers to lower emphasis, priority ordominancerefers to mixed methodsdata collected sequentiallydata collected simultaneouslyconverged data collectionone method embedded in the other

Converged and EmbeddedRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Purpose or utility ofMM research Can answer research questions that other methodologies cannot Provides better (stronger) inferences Provides the opportunity for presenting a greater diversity ofdivergent views (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003) the strengths and reducing the limitations ofsingle methodsResearch questions should determine methodIncreased validityPassport benefitsInstitutional and financial arguments (BERA, n.d.)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Purpose of MMRGreene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., & Graham, W. F. (1989).Toward a conceptual framework for mixed methods evaluation design. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11,255-274.triangulation; Seek convergent resultscomplementarity; Explore interconnected &/or distinct aspects of a phenomenoninitiation; Examine similarities, contradictions & new perspectivesexpansion Add breadth and scope to a projectdevelopmentRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014 Use methods in ways to complement one another (eginterviews inform development of a survey)

Neal, Hammer and Morgan (2006)Broadest PurposeCombine different strengths ofdifferent methodsConvergent FindingsUses different strengthsusing each method toinvestigate the samephenomenon andcomparing the resultsComprehensive CoverageUses different strengths byassigning each method adistinct set of purposeswithin the study as a wholeConnected ContributionsUses different strengths byconnecting methods so thatone contributes to theperformance of anotherqual quanquan qualqual QUANqual quanquan QUALqual QUANQUAN qualQUAL quanQUAL quanqual quanNeal,M.,Hammer,L.,& Morgan,D. (2006). Using mixed methods in research related to work and family. InM. Pitt-Cassouphes,E.Kossek,& S. Sweet (Eds.), The work and family handbook:Multidisciplinary per-spectives and approaches . Mahwah,NJ:LawrenceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014.Erlbaum

Andrew & Halcomb (2006). purpose of mixed methods research is not to replace eitherqualitative or quantitative research, but rather to extractthe strengths and diminish the weaknesses in bothapproaches within a single study researcher needs to evaluate the most appropriatemethodological approach to answer the specific researchquestion must clearly elucidate the rationale for using a mixedmethods design, rather than a singularly qualitative orquantitative approach Andrew, S., & Halcomb, E. J. (2006). Mixed methods research is an effective method ofenquiry for community health research. Advances in Contemporary Nurse, 23(2), 145-153.Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Example A Rationale for Employing Mixed Methods Design inDoctoral Research about Female Students’ AcademicAchievement in Secondary Schools in Papua NewGuinea Dinah R. Dovona-Ope (oped@usq.edu.au) Faculty of Education, University of SouthernQueensland, Australia International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 4(2),pp. 59-67. February 2008Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Mixed Methods TypologiesPrincipal Method Principal yQuantitativePreliminaryqualquanQUANComplementary Method:PreliminaryQUALComplementary Method:Follow-upQualitative Follow- QuantitativeupFollow-up QUANqualRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2009QUALquan35Morgan,D. (1998). Practical strategies forcombining qualitative and quantitativemethods:Applications tohealth research.Qualitative Health Research, 8, (3),362-376.

Creswell et al (2003)Creswell et al. (2003)Stage of integrationImplementationPriority / StatusSequential designs*SequentialexplanatoryInterpretationQUAN qualUsually QUAN, can beQUAL or equal*SequentialexploratoryInterpretationQUAL quanUsually QUAL, can beQUAN or rent designs*TriangulationInterpretation oranalysisQUAL QUANEqual*NestedAnalysisQual within QUANEither dominantQUAL QUANQUAN QUALEither dominant orboth equalQuan within QUAL*TransformativeRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2009Usually, analysis, canbe interpretationQUAL QUANEither dominant orboth equalCreswell,J. W.,Plano Clark,V. L.,Guttman,M.,& Hanson,W. (2003). Advanced mixed methodsresearchdesigns. In A. Tashakkori &36C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioralresearch (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks,CA:Sage

Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014Creswell & Plano Clark (2007)Designing & Conducting Mixed MethodsResearch, Sage.

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Mixed Method TypologiesProcedureMixed MethodMixed ModelConcurrentConcurrent mixedmethodConcurrent mixedmodelSequentialSequential mixedmethodSequential mixedmodelConversionConversion mixedmethodConversion mixedmodelTashakkori & Teddlie (2003)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 200940

Sequential Mixed ModelExploratory using 1 methodConfirmatory using other methodPurposePurposeData CollectionData CollectionData AnalysisData AnalysisInferenceInferenceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2009Meta Inference41

Figure 3.3.2b Sequential Mixed Method design - appliedPhase IPurpose/questionPhase IIPurposeQuantitative DataCollectionLearning SurveyModelDevelopment andField TestQuantitative DataAnalysisLearning SurveyMixed MethodData CollectionQualitativeData AnalysisDataPresentationQualitative matoryRoslyn Cameron Copyright 200942

Conversion Mixed MethodResearchpurposeData CollectionData AnalysisData AnalysisInferenceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2009431 type or questionexploratory orconfirmatory-QUAN orQUAL1 type of data collected &transformed (qualitized /quantitized)Predominantly QUAL orQUAN –data istransformed andreanalyzed in anotherapproach to aid finalinferences

Concurrent Mixed MethodPurposeData CollectionData CollectionData AnalysisData AnalysisInference1kind of question simultaneously addressed by both QUAN & QUALdata. One type of inference is made on the basis of both data setsRoslyn Cameron Copyright 200944triangulation mixed method design (Creswell,2002)

Leech & Onwuegbuzie 2009 Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie,A. J. (2009). A typology of mixed methods research design, Quality &quantity, 43(2), 265-275. ), 265-275.Roslyn Cameron Copyright 200945

Visual Diagrams MMRFigure 3: Explanatory Sequential Design-Study AQUANQUALSource: Adapted from Creswell and Plano Clark (2007, p. 73)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014Interpretationbased onQUAN QUAL results

Cameron (2012) Extended MMR NotationSystemFigure 4: Application of the extended MMR notation system to Study AQUANQUALDS: Primary(1)S-SIZE 1: (n 246)DS: Primary(1) sub-set*S-SIZE 2: (n 6)INST: QT (Survey)INST: QL (Focus group Qs)ANSIS: QT-1 (Descriptive)ANSIS: QT-2 (Factor analysis)ANSIS: QL (Open coding)Interpretationbased onQUAN to qualresults*FG1 (n 7); FG2 (n 8), FG3 (n 6); FG4 (n 8); FG5 (n 9); FG6 (n 7)Roslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

Figure 4: Sequential Mixed Model DesignPhase IPhase IIPurpose/questionPurposeQUAN Survey(n 250)ModelDevelopment &Field TestAnalysis:QUAN QUAL*MMRefer to footnotequal Focus Groups(n 12)Analysis: QTAnalysis: QLInferenceInferenceMetaInference:Confirmatory* MMProgram participants (n 19) Pre-program survey with Analysis: QT QLPost program survey with Analysis: QT QLProgram trainers (n 3) Post program evaluation with Analysis: QLRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014Source: Adapted from Cameron (2009)

Opportunities Traps/Risks Bi-skilled in both QUANT& QUAL methods, datacollection, analysis &software applications Tri-skilled- QUANT, QUAL& MMR Work in diverse researchteams & acrossdisciplinesRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014 Superficial treatment ofmixed methods instead oftrue integrative designs Resource and expertiseintensive Answer criticism frompurists Politics of publishing

Contentious Issues Paradigmatic issuesData integration attempts can be problematic - integration rulesNeed for basic definitions and new set of languageLogistics-researcher has to be competent in both QUAN & QUALand extensive resources required & Superficial claims to the use of mixed methods Rigorously defend methodological choices Explicitly document methodological congruenceRoslyn Cameron Copyright 2014

ReferencesCameron, R (2011), ’Mixed Methods Research: the Five Ps Framework’, Electronic Journal of BusinessResearch Methods, Vol. 9, No. 2, September, pp. 96-108. ISSN: meron, R and Miller, P, (2011), ‘Mixed method research designs: a case study of their adoption in adoctor of business administration program’, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, Vol.5, No. 3, December, pp. 293-308. ISBN 978-1-921348-95-2.Cameron, R, and Molina-Azorin, J, (2011), ‘The acceptance of mixed methods in business andmanagement’, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 256-271. ISSN:1934-883

Mixed Methods Research: Philosophy, Policy and Practice in Education (Vol. 7, Issue 1) Mixed Methods in Genders & Sexualities Research (Vol. 7, Issue 2) Mixed Methods in Education 2012 Vol 6 (3) Mixed Methods in Business & Management 2011 Vol5 (3) Mixed Methods in Health Sciences 2011 Vol 5 (1)

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A mixed methods research study means the use of quantitative and qualitative methods as components of a research design (Caruth, 2013; Ponce, 2011; Creswell, 2009; Greene, 2007) or a research program (Phillips, 2009). Most of the literature on mixed methods research could be considered generic (Creswell, 2009). This means that the discussion

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