Civil Litigation - Pearson

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Civil LitigationFourth EditionThomas F. Goldman, JDAttorney at LawProfessor EmeritusBucks County Community CollegeAlice Hart Hughes, JDAttorney at LawAdjunct ProfessorBucks County Community College330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 103/11/17 8:56 PM

Vice President, Portfolio Management: Andrew GilfillanPortfolio Manager: Gary BauerEditorial Assistant: Lynda CramerField Marketing Manager: Bob NisbetProduct Marketing Manager: Heather TaylorDirector, Digital Studio and Content Production: BrianHylandManaging Producer: Jennifer SargunarContent Producer: Rinki KaurManager, Rights Management: Johanna BurkeOperations Specialist: Deidra SmithCreative Digital Lead: Mary SienerManaging Producer, Digital Studio: Autumn BensonContent Producer, Digital Studio: Maura BarclayFull-Service Management and Composition: IntegraSoftware Services Pvt. Ltd.Full-Service Project Manager: Yohalakshmi SegarCover Designer: Studio MontageCover Art (or Cover Photo): David GrahamPrinter/Binder: LSC Communications, Inc.Cover Printer: Phoenix Color/HagerstownText Font: GoudyOldStyleMTPro-RegularCopyright 2019, 2015, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Manufactured inthe United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained fromthe publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or byany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions,request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights and Permissions department,please visit of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text.PEARSON and ALWAYS LEARNING are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates inthe U.S. and/or other countries.Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks, logos, or icons that may appear in this work are theproperty of their respective owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, icons, or other trade dressare for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship,endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationshipbetween the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., authors, licensees, or distributors.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Goldman, Thomas F., author. Hughes, Alice Hart, author.Title: Civil litigation: process and procedures / Thomas F. Goldman, JD,Attorney at Law, Professor Emeritus, Bucks County Community College;Alice Hart Hughes, JD, Attorney at Law, Adjunct Professor, Bucks County Community College.Description: Fourth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, [2019] Includes index.Identifiers: LCCN 2017037332 ISBN 9780134831046 ISBN 0134831047Subjects: LCSH: Civil procedure—United States. Legal assistants—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc.Classification: LCC KF8841 .G65 2019 DDC 347.73/5—dc23LC record available at 10: 0-13-483104-7ISBN 13: 978-0-13-483104-6A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 203/11/17 8:56 PM

BRIEF CONTENTSUNIT ONEINTRODUCTION TO CIVIL LITIGATIONCHAPTER 1The Paralegal in Civil Litigation   3CHAPTER 1AAppendix Building Your Professional Portfolio andReference Manual  18CHAPTER 2Ethics and Professional Responsibility   27CHAPTER 3Litigation Management and Technology   47UNIT TWOPLANNING THE LITIGATIONCHAPTER 4The Court System, Settlement, and Alternative DisputeResolution  81CHAPTER 5Causes of Actions and Litigation Strategies   121CHAPTER 6Evidence  143CHAPTER 7Interviews and Investigation in Civil Litigation   167UNIT THREEDOCUMENTS IN CIVIL LITIGATIONCHAPTER 8Pleadings: Complaint, Summons, and Service   203CHAPTER 9Motions Practice  237CHAPTER 10Pleadings: Responses to Complaint   265iiiA01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 303/11/17 8:56 PM

iv  BRIEF CONTENTSUNIT FOURFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODSCHAPTER 11Introduction to Discovery   281CHAPTER 12Issues in Electronic Discovery   301CHAPTER 13Interrogatories and Requests for Production   335CHAPTER 14Depositions  361CHAPTER 15Other Forms of Discovery   381UNIT FIVETRIAL OF THE CASECHAPTER 16Trial Preparation—Postdiscovery to Pretrial   395CHAPTER 17Trial  421CHAPTER 18The Electronic Courtroom and Trial Presentation   443UNIT SIXPOSTTRIAL ISSUESCHAPTER 19Posttrial Procedures  461CHAPTER 20Enforcement of Judgments   485APPENDIX 1Chapter Opening Case Study   502APPENDIX 2Comprehensive Case Study: School Bus-Truck Accident CaseStudy  504APPENDIX 3Supplemental Case Studies   507Glossary  525Case Index  542Subject Index  543A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 403/11/17 8:56 PM

CONTENTSUNIT ONEINTRODUCTION TO CIVILLITIGATIONCHAPTER 1The Paralegal in CivilLitigation  3Learning Objectives  2Introduction to Civil Litigation   4The Role of the Paralegal in Civil Litigation   4Managing Client Relationships   4Members of the Legal Team   5Corporate Paralegals in Litigation   6Litigation Support Manager   6Skills of the Paralegal   7Soft �8Analytical Skills  8Interpersonal Skills  9Creating an Impression   9Communication Skills  10Professionalism  11Tasks of the Civil Litigation Paralegal   11Interviewing Clients and Witnesses   11Investigating Facts  11Conducting Discovery  12Drafting Pleadings and Other Documents   12Assisting at Trial   13Administrative Tasks  13Organizing and Managing Case Files   14Productivity and Cost-Effectiveness   14Key Terms 15Chapter Summary 15Review Questions and Exercises 16Internet and Technology Exercises 16Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study 16Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual 17Virtual Law Office Experience 17CHAPTER 1 APPENDIXBuilding Your Professional Portfolio andReference Manual  18Opening Scenario  18Portfolio Exercises: Legal Team at Work   18Reference Manual: Civil Litigation Teamat Work  19Law Office Reference Manual   19Creating the Reference Manual   20Examples of a Policy, Form, Procedure, and ocedures  24Contacts and Resources   25CHAPTER 2Ethics and ProfessionalResponsibility  27Learning Objectives  26Introduction to Ethics and ProfessionalResponsibility  28Regulation of the Practice of Law   29The Paralegal and Licensing   29Penalties for the Unauthorized Practiceof Law  31Avoiding UPL: Holding Oneself Out   32Avoiding UPL: Giving Advice   33Avoiding UPL: Filling Out Forms   33Avoiding UPL: Representing Clients   34Avoiding UPL: Guidelines  35Ethical Obligations  36Duty to Supervise   36Ethical Guidelines and Rules   37Conflict of Interest   37Ethical Wall  38Freelance or Independent Paralegal   39vA01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 503/11/17 8:56 PM

vi  CONTENTSConfidentiality  39Candor and Fairness in Litigation   39Fairness to Opposing Party and Counsel   40Duty to Report Unethical Conduct   41Key Terms  42Chapter Summary  42Review Questions and Exercises   43Internet and Technology Exercises   44Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   44Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   44Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  44Virtual Law Office Experience   45CHAPTER 3Litigation Management andTechnology  47Learning Objectives  46Introduction to Litigation Management andTechnology  48Technology in Civil Litigation   48Online Data Storage and Collaboration   49Electronic Database Basics   50Data Repositories  50Navigating Electronic Databases   52Database Example  54Database Issues in Litigation   56Searches—Constructing the Query   56The Reality of Using Databases   56Organizing and Managing Case Files   58Case and Practice Management Software   60Using Case Management Systems   65Office Management Software   70Office Management Program Functions   71Calendar Maintenance Programs   72Calendar Program Overview   73Time-Keeping Software  74Key Terms  75Chapter Summary  75Review Questions and Exercises   77Internet and Technology Exercises   77Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   78Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   78Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  79Virtual Law Office Experience 79A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 6UNIT TWOPLANNING THE LITIGATIONCHAPTER 4The Court System, Settlement,and Alternative DisputeResolution  81Learning Objectives  80Introduction to the Court System, Settlement, andAlternative Dispute Resolution   82Sources of American Law   ive Regulations and Adjudications   83Case Law  83Cause of Action and Remedies   84Jurisdiction  86Standing  86Case or Controversy   86Authority of the Court   86Venue  89Removal and Remand   89Organization of the Court System   89Trial Courts  91Intermediate Appellate Courts   91Highest Appellate Court or the Supreme Court   92Settlements  93When to Settle   94Negotiation of a Settlement   95Settlement Documents  95Settlement Letters  95Settlement Brochures  95Ethical Considerations  98Documents for Settling and Terminatinga Lawsuit  99Minors’ Settlements  100Settlement Documents  100Confidentiality and Settlements   103Termination of Lawsuits   105Alternative Dispute Resolution   106Types of ADR  107Private ADR  107Key Terms  113Chapter Summary  113Review Questions and Exercises   11503/11/17 8:56 PM

CONTENTS  viiInternet and Technology Exercises   116Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   117Comprehensive Case Study   117Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  117Virtual Law Office Experience 118CHAPTER 5Causes of Actions andLitigation Strategies  121Learning Objectives  120Introduction to Causes of Actions and LitigationStrategies  122Litigation Strategy and Options   122Torts  125Defenses to Tort Actions   127Products Liability and Strict Liability   128Contracts  129Elements of Common Law Contracts   129Defense to Contracts   130The Uniform Commercial Code   131Damages  134Monetary Damages  134Equitable Remedies  134Calculating Damages  135Key Terms  137Chapter Summary  138Review Questions and Exercises   140Internet and Technology Exercises   140Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   141Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  141Virtual Law Office Experience   141CHAPTER 6Evidence  143Learning Objectives  142Introduction to Evidence   144Evidence  144Fact  144Introduction to the Rules of Evidence   145Admissibility of Evidence—Relevant, Reliable, andReal  145Relevant Evidence  145Reliable Evidence  146Real Evidence  146A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 7Probative Value  147Judicial Notice  147Inadmissible Evidence  147Types of Tangible Evidence   148Tangible Evidence  149Documentary Evidence  149Demonstrative Evidence  150Physical Evidence  150Testimony of Witnesses   151Giving Testimony  151Form of Questions   152Lay Witnesses  152Expert Witnesses  153Prerecorded Testimony  154Challenging the Credibility of Witnesses   154The Hearsay Rule   156Statements That Are Not Hearsay   156Exceptions to the Hearsay Rule   157Residual Exception  160Raising Objections  160Key Terms 161Chapter Summary  161Review Questions and Exercises   163Internet and Technology Exercises   163Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   164Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   164Comprehensive Case Study   164Building Your Professional Portfolio   164Virtual Law Office Experience   165CHAPTER 7Interviews and Investigationin Civil Litigation   167Learning Objectives  166Introduction to Interviews and Investigations   168Initial Contacts  168The Screening Interview   168Letters of Engagement and Termination ofEngagement  169Preparing for the Interview   172Investigation Checklists  172Physical Surroundings  175Dress and Appearance   176Communication Skills in a MulticulturalSociety  176Gender Differences  17703/11/17 8:56 PM

viii  CONTENTSConducting the Interview   179Listening Skills  180Leading Questions  181Open-Ended Questions  181Privileged Communication  182Moral versus Ethical Obligations   182Expert Witnesses  183Investigating Claims  184A Defense Perspective   186Obtaining Official Reports   186Fact Analysis  186Locations  188Tangible Evidence  189Timelines  189Freedom of Information Act   190Locating Witnesses  192Directories  193Common Sense Analysis   194Key Terms  196Chapter Summary  196Review Questions and Exercises   197Internet and Technology Exercises   197Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   198Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   198Comprehensive Case Study   198Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  199Virtual Law Office Experience   199UNIT THREEDOCUMENTS IN CIVIL LITIGATIONCHAPTER 8Pleadings: Complaint,Summons, and Service   203Learning Objectives  202Introduction to Pleadings   204Rules of Court   204Statute of Limitations   205Pleadings  207Preparing the Summons   210Civil Cover Sheet   212Drafting the Complaint   213Filing and Serving the Complaint   223Filing Fees  223Electronic Filing  224Service of Process   224A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 8Deadlines and Time Constraints   229Calculating Deadlines  229Amendment or Supplement to the Complaint   230Key Terms  230Chapter Summary  230Review Questions and Exercises   232Internet and Technology Exercises   232Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   233Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   233Comprehensive Case Study   233Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  234Virtual Law Office Experience   234CHAPTER 9Motions Practice  237Learning Objectives  236Introduction to Motions   238Form of Motions   238Motions in the Pleading Phase   238Motion to Enlarge Time to Respond   239Motion for Default Judgment   241Entry of Default on the Docket   242Entry of Default Judgment   242Setting Aside Default   245Rule 12(b) Motions   246Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings   248Discovery Motions  250Motion to Compel   250Motion for Sanctions   250Motion for Protective Order   252Pretrial Motions  252Motion for Summary Judgment   253Motion in Limine or Pretrial Motion   255Posttrial Motions  256Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law   256Motion to Mold the Verdict   257Motion for a New Trial   259Key Terms  259Chapter Summary  259Review Questions and Exercises   261Internet and Technology Exercises   261Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   261Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study 262Comprehensive Case Study   262Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  262Virtual Law Office Experience   26203/11/17 8:56 PM

CONTENTS  ixCHAPTER 10Pleadings: Responses toComplaint  265Learning Objectives  264Introduction to Responses to Complaint   266Responsive Pleadings  266Pleadings Allowed by Federal Rules of CivilProcedure  266Time Deadlines and Entry into Tickler System   267Responses to the Complaint   267Answer to the Complaint   269Caption  269Numbered Paragraphs  269Prayer for Relief   270Affirmative Defenses  270Causes of Action   271Prayer for Relief   272Third-Party Practice  275Third-Party Complaint  275Third-Party Answer  276Failure to Respond to Complaint   276Key Terms  276Chapter Summary  277Review Questions and Exercises   278Internet and Technology Exercises   278Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   278Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   278Comprehensive Case Study   279Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  279Virtual Law Office Experience   279UNIT FOURFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODSCHAPTER 11Introduction toDiscovery  281Learning Objectives  280Introduction to Discovery   282Purposes of Discovery   282Evaluating Your Client’s Case   282Evaluating Your Opponent’s Case   282Preparing for Trial   282Preserving Oral Testimony   282Impeaching Witness Testimony   283Facilitating Settlement  283A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 9Rules of Court and Rules of Evidence   283Scope of Discovery   284Privilege  284Claim of Privilege   285Exceptions and Limitations to the Work ProductDoctrine  287Exception to the Third-Party DocumentException  287Internal Investigations and EvidentiaryPrivileges  288Forms of Discovery   duction of Documents or Things   291Physical and Mental Examinations   291Requests for Admission   291Sequence of Discovery   292Discovery Timing  292Rule 26(a) Disclosure Requirements   293Information Subject to Mandatory Disclosure   293Experts and Witnesses   294Compliance and Court Intervention   294Seeking Compliance as the Issuer of DiscoveryRequests  294Seeking Compliance as the Recipient of DiscoveryRequests  295Key Terms  296Chapter Summary  296Review Questions and Exercises   297Internet and Technology Exercises   297Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   297Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   298Comprehensive Case Study   298Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  298Virtual Law Office Experience   298CHAPTER 12Issues in ElectronicDiscovery  301Learning Objectives  300Introduction to ElectronicDiscovery  302Discovery in the Technological Age   302E-Discovery under the Federal Rules of CivilProcedure  303Changes in Traditional Discovery   304Ethical Issues in Document Delivery   305Preserving Electronic Materials   30503/11/17 8:56 PM

x  CONTENTSDocuments in Litigation   305Producing Electronic Materials   308Cost of Producing Electronic Materials   308Destruction of Electronic Records   311General Provisions  312Information Technologists as Members of the LegalTeam  313Electronic Document Formats—Comparison of PDFand TIFF  313Adobe Acrobat  314PDF Converter  315Examining a PDF for Hidden Content   315Scanning  315Scanning Software  315Optical Character Recognition   316Electronic Discovery in Litigation   316Reviewing Electronic Documents   317Obtaining Documents via Paper Discovery   317Converting Documents  318Emerging Case Law and Court Rules   318Spoliation of Evidence   318Predictive Coding/Technology-Assisted Review   322Protecting Confidential or Privileged Materials   323Inadvertent Disclosure of ConfidentialInformation  324State Courts  325Federal Courts  325Key Terms  327Chapter Summary  327Review Questions and Exercises   330Internet and Technology Exercises   331Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   331Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   331Comprehensive Case Study   332Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  332Virtual Law Office Experience   332CHAPTER 13Interrogatories and Requestsfor Production  335Learning Objectives  334Introduction to Interrogatories and Requests forProduction  336Interrogatories and Requests for Production ofDocuments and Things   336A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 10Timeframe for Discovery   341Initial Discovery Requests   341Extension of Time for Responding   341Drafting Questions and Answers toInterrogatories  343Initial Disclosures  344Drafting Questions  344Serving Interrogatories  345Preparing Responses  345Review for Objections to Questions   347Motion for Protective Order   347Meeting with the Client to AnswerInterrogatories  348Reviewing Answers to Interrogatories   350Drafting Requests for Production of Documents andPreparing Responses  350Preparing a Request for Documents   350Responding to Requests for Production   351Reviewing Responses to Requests forProduction  352Electronic Discovery—The Process   352Meet and Discuss   353Know Your Client   353Screening Clients’ Documents   354Privileged Materials  355Producing Electronic Documents   355How to Advise Clients   355Key Terms  356Chapter Summary  356Review Questions and Exercises   357Internet and Technology Exercises   358Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   358Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   359Comprehensive Case Study   359Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  359Virtual Law Office Experience   359CHAPTER 14Depositions  361Learning Objectives  360Introduction to Depositions   362Types of Depositions   362Deposition before Filing a Complaint   362Deposition on Written Questions   363Oral Deposition  363Videotaped Depositions  36503/11/17 8:56 PM

CONTENTS  xiUses of Depositions   365Witnesses’ Versions of the Events   365Preserving Testimony  366Impeachment  366Scheduling Depositions  366Notice of Deposition   367Subpoena  367Service  367Notifying Court Reporter/Videographer   367Preparing for Deposition   370Special Instructions for Clients and Witnesses   370Preparation to Depose the Opposing Party orWitness  372Paralegal Functions at Deposition   372Reviewing Transcripts and Preparing Digests   372Witness’ Right to Review and Sign   374Key Terms  374Chapter Summary  374Review Questions and Exercises   376Internet and Technology Exercises   376Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   376Comprehensive Case Study   377Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  377Virtual Law Office Experience   378CHAPTER 15Other Forms ofDiscovery  381Learning Objectives  380Introduction to Other Forms of Discovery   382Request for Physical or Mental Examination   382Preparing for and Attending a Defense MedicalEvaluation  385Requests for Admissions   387Key Terms  390Chapter Summary  390Review Questions and Exercises   390Internet and Technology Exercises   391Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   391Comprehensive Case Study   391Building Your Professional Portfolio   392Virtual Law Office Experience   392A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 11UNIT FIVETRIAL OF THE CASECHAPTER 16Trial Preparation—Postdiscovery toPretrial  395Learning Objectives  394Introduction to Trial Preparation   396Identifying Issues for Trial   396Legal Issues  396Facts  397Psychological Advantages of Stipulations   398Pretrial Memorandum  399Trial Brief  406Cost–Benefit Analysis of a Lawsuit   407Client and Witness Preparation   408Placing Witnesses on Call   409Preparation of Exhibits   412Documents and Things   412Electronic Presentations  412Jury Investigation  412Mock Jury Trial   413Trial Notebook  413Continuances  413Key Terms  414Chapter Summary  415Review Questions and Exercises   416Internet and Technology Exercises   416Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   417Comprehensive Case Study   417Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  417Virtual Law Office Experience   418CHAPTER 17Trial  421Learning Objectives  420Introduction to TrialProceedings  422Phases of Civil Trials   422Early Trial Proceedings   422Final Pretrial Conference with Judge   422Jury Selection  423Jury Charge  427Opening Statements  42703/11/17 8:56 PM

xii  CONTENTSPresentation of Evidence   428Plaintiff’s Case-in-Chief  428Defendant’s Case-in-Chief  430Rebuttal  431Sur Rebuttal  431Sidebars and Conferences with the Judge   431How the Paralegal Can Assist in the Presentation ofEvidence  431Conclusion of Trial   432Closing Arguments  433Jury Instructions  433Jury Deliberations  434Jury Verdict  434Posttrial Motions  434Entry of Judgment   434Key Terms  435Chapter Summary  436Review Questions and Exercises   437Internet and Technology Exercises   438Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   438Comprehensive Case Study   438Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  439Virtual Law Office Experience   439CHAPTER 18The Electronic Courtroom andTrial Presentation  443Learning Objectives  442Introduction to the Electronic Courthouse   444The Electronic Courtroom   444Working with Courthouse Technology Staff   446Clearing the Right to Bring in the EquipmentBeforehand  446What Happens When the Lights Go Out   448Using Technology to Present the Case   448Presentation and Trial Graphics   448Electronic Graphics Creation   448SmartDraw  451Electronic Trial Presentation Programs   451Limitations on Presentation Graphics   451Electronic Equipment in the Courtroom   453Key Terms  455Chapter Summary  455Review Questions and Exercises   456Internet and Technology Exercises   457Civil Litigation Video Case Studies   457Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   457A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 12Comprehensive Case Study   458Building Your Professional Portfolio and LitigationReference Manual  458Virtual Law Office Experience   458UNIT SIXPOSTTRIAL ISSUESCHAPTER 19Posttrial Procedures  461Learning Objectives  460Introduction to PosttrialProcedures  462Entering Judgment  462Errors Made at Trial   464Evidentiary Rulings  464Instructions to the Jury   465Verdict Unsupported by the Evidence   465Harmless Error  467Motions Seeking Relief from the Trial Court   467Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law   467Motion for a New Trial   467Motion to Mold the Verdict   468Local Rules  469Appeal to an Appellate Court   469Final Judgment  470Interlocutory Appeals  470Procedure for Filing an Appeal with the U.S. Court ofAppeals  470Notice of Appeal   471Record on Appeal   471Trial Transcript  475Scheduling Order  475Briefs  475Oral Argument  477Rulings of the Appellate Court   477Appeal to the Highest Appellate Court   478Key Terms  479Chapter Summary  479Review Questions and Exercises   481Internet and Technology Exercises   481Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   482Comprehensive Case Study   482Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  482Virtual Law Office Experience   48203/11/17 8:56 PM

CONTENTS  xiiiCHAPTER 20Enforcement ofJudgments  485Learning Objectives  484Introduction to Enforcement of Judgments   486Terminology and Timing in JudgmentCollection  486Collection of Judgment Process   486Non-Adversarial Collection Efforts   487Adversarial Proceedings  487Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act   488The Judgment-Proof Debtor   492Statutory Limitations on Collection Efforts   493Fair Debt Collection Practices Act   493Bankruptcy  493Satisfaction  495Key Terms  497Chapter Summary  497Review Questions and Exercises   498Internet and Technology Exercises   499Chapter Opening Scenario Case Study   499Building Your Professional Portfolio and ReferenceManual  499Virtual Law Office Experience   500A01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 13APPENDIX 1Chapter Opening Case Study   502APPENDIX 2Comprehensive Case Study: School Bus-TruckAccident Case Study   504APPENDIX 3Supplemental Case Studies   507GLOSSARY  525CASE INDEX 542SUBJECT INDEX 54303/11/17 8:56 PM

ABOUT THE AUTHORSTHOMAS F. GOLDMAN, JD, is an experienced trial attorney who hasrepresented nationally known insurance companies and corporations. Hedeveloped the Advanced Litigation Support and Technology CertificateProgram at Thomas Edison State College, where he was a member of theParalegal Studies Program Advisory Board and a mentor. He is ProfessorEmeritus at Bucks County Community College, where he was a professor ofLaw and Management, Director of the Center for Legal Studies, and Directorof the ABA-approved Paralegal Studies Program.Professor Goldman is an author of textbooks in paralegal studies andtechnology, including The Paralegal Professional, in its fifth edition; LitigationPractice: E-Discovery and Technology; Accounting and Taxation for Paralegals;Technology in the Law Office, in its fourth edition; AbacusLaw: A Hands-OnTutorial and Guide; and SmartDraw: A Hands-On Tutorial and Guide. In addition, he is the executive producer of the Paralegal Professional video series,in which he occasionally appears.An accounting and economics graduate of Boston University and of TempleUniversity School of Law, Professor Goldman has an active international law,technology law, and litigation practice. He has worked extensively with paralegals and has received the Boss of the Year award of the Legal Support StaffGuild. He was elected the Legal Secretaries Association Boss of the Year for hiscontribution to cooperative education by encouraging the use of paralegals andlegal assistants in law offices. He also received the Bucks County CommunityCollege Alumni Association Professional Achievement Award.He has been an educational consultant on technology to educationalinstitutions and major corporations and a frequent speaker and lecturer oneducational, legal, and technology issues. He was appointed to the AmericanAssociation for Paralegal Education Board of Directors in October 2005;there, he served as the founding chair of the Technology Task Force, wherehe initiated the Train the Trainer program and the Cyber Idol competition.ALICE HART HUGHES, JD, is a practicing attorney and experienced litigator. She is a former Adjunct Professor of Paralegal Studies at Bucks CountyCommunity College, where she taught Civil Litigation, Legal Researchand Writing, Accounting for Paralegals, Introduction to Paralegal Studies,Negligence, and Family Law. She is the author of Real Estate Law Fundamentalsand participated in the production and script writing for the Video LawOffice Experience. Mrs. Hughes holds a degree in real estate and finance fromTemple University and graduated from Temple University School of Law.She has practiced civil litigation extensively, working in midsized, multi-officelaw firms. Her practice is limited to estate planning, administration, and litigation. In 2010, she was appointed to the Pennsylvania Board of Dentistry andlectures on ethical issues in the medical subspecialty of podiatry.xivA01 GOLD1046 04 SE FM.indd 1403/11/17 8:56 PM

FROM THE AUTHORS WHAT’S NEW IN THE FOURTH EDITION The Virtual Law Office Experience is now an integrated part of thetextbook. The end-of-chapter assignments use online video resources toprovide a realistic workplace experience where assignments are presentedin the form of e-mail directions from the “supervising attorney” to theparalegal. Students are assigned to watch a scenario as an observer andcomplete a task that they would be asked to do in practice.Cases include simulations of:A minor traffic accidentA major school bus injury case based on an NTSB case reportA product liability casePersonal injury of a minor injured on a school busFederal Rules of Civil and Criminal Procedure have been updated.Electronic discovery rules and decisions have been updated.Chapter Introduction Videos by the authors appear online, providing anoverview of the chapter topic.Information on paralegal regulation has be

CHAPTER 5 Causes of Actions and Litigation Strategies 121 CHAPTER 6 Evidence 143 CHAPTER 7 Interviews and Investigation in Civil Litigation 167 UNIT THREE DOCUMENTS IN CIVIL LITIGATION CHAPTER 8 Pleadings: Complaint, Summons, and Service 203 CHAPTER 9 Motions Practice 237 CH

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