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Chapter 6 Operating Systems - FTMS

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CSCA0201FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTINGChapter 6Operating Systems1

Operating Systems1. SystemsTypes of Operating SystemMajor FunctionsUser InterfaceExamples of Operating System2

Operating SystemsOperating Systems The operating system is the most important programthat runs on a computer.Operating system is an interface between computerand user.It is responsible for the management andcoordination of activities and the sharing of theresources of the computer.3

Operating SystemsOperating Systems4

Operating SystemsOperating Systems5

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating System Real-timeMulti-user vs. Single-userMulti-tasking vs. Single-taskingDistributedEmbedded6

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating SystemReal-Time A real-time operating system is a multitaskingoperating system that aims at executing real-timeapplications.Responds to input instantly.7

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating SystemMulti-user vs. Single user A multi-user operating system allows multiple usersto access a computer system concurrently.Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-usersystems as they enable a multiple user access to acomputer through the sharing of time.Single-user operating systems, as opposed to amulti-user operating system, are usable by a singleuser at a time.8

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating SystemMulti-tasking vs. Single-tasking When a single program is allowed to run at a time,the system is grouped under a single-tasking systemWhile in case the operating system allows theexecution of multiple tasks at one time, it isclassified as a multi-tasking operating system.9

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating SystemDistributed A distributed operating system manages a group ofindependent computers and makes them appear tobe a single computer.The development of networked computers that couldbe linked and communicate with each other, gaverise to distributed computing.10

Operating SystemsTypes of Operating SystemEmbedded Embedded operating systems are designed to beused in embedded computer systems.They are designed to operate on small machineslike PDAs with less autonomy.They are able to operate with a limited number ofresources.11

Operating SystemsMajor Functions of Operating System Resource managementData managementJob managementStandard means of communication between Userand Computer12

Operating SystemsMajor Functions of Operating SystemResource Management The resource management function of an OSallocates computer resources such as CPU time,main memory, secondary storage, and input andoutput devices for use.13

Operating SystemsMajor Functions of Operating SystemData Management The data management functions of an OS governthe input and output of data and their location,storage, and retrieval.It also is responsible for storing and retrievinginformation on disk drives and for the organization ofthat information on the drive.14

Operating SystemsMajor Functions of Operating SystemJob Management The job management function of an OS prepares,schedules, controls, and monitors jobs submitted forexecution to ensure the most efficient processing.A job is a collection of one or more related programsand their data.15

Operating SystemsMajor Functions of Operating SystemStandard Means of Communication between Userand Computer The OS also establishes a standard means ofcommunication between users and their computersystems.It does this by providing a user interface and astandard set of commands that control thehardware.16

Operating SystemsUser Interface A program that controls a display for the user(usually on a computer monitor) and that allows theuser to interact with the system) .The user interface allows the user to communicatewith the operating system.17

Operating SystemsUser Interface The user interface provides means of:– Input - allowing the users to manipulate asystem– Output - allowing the system to indicate theeffects of the users' manipulation.18

Operating SystemsTypes of User Interface Command line interfaceGraphical user interface19

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceCommand Line Interface (CLI) A command-line interface is a mechanism forinteracting with a computer operating system orsoftware by typing commands to perform specifictasks.This method of instructing a computer to perform agiven task is referred to as "entering" a command.Accept input via keyboard only.Not suitable for beginners.20

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceCommand Line Interface (CLI)21

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceCommand Line Interface (CLI) Examples of command:CommandDescriptionDIRTo display list of files or folderCOPYTo copy file or folderMDTo make new folderCLSTo clear screenQuitTo quit22

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceGraphical User Interface (GUI) Is a type of user interface which allows people tointeract with computer with images rather than textcommands.Accept input via keyboard and pointing devices.Easy to learn.23

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceElements of Graphical User Interface PointerIconsDesktopWindowsMenus24

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfacePointer A symbol that appears on thedisplay screen and that youmove to select objects andcommands.Usually, the pointer appearsas a small angled arrow.25

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceIcons Smallpicturesthatrepresentcommands,files, or windows.26

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceDesktop The area on the display screen where icons aregrouped is often referred to as the desktop becausethe icons are intended to represent real objects on areal desktop.27

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceDesktop28

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceWindows Used to divide the screen into different areas.In each window, you can run a different program ordisplay a different file.29

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceWindows30

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceMenus Most graphical user interfaces let you executecommands by selecting a choice from a menu.Two types of menu:– Pull-down menu– Pop-up menu31

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceMenus32

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceCLIGUIEaseBecause of the memorization andfamiliarity needed to operate acommand line interface, newusers have a difficult timenavigating and operating acommand line interface.Although new users may have adifficult time learning to use themouse and all GUI features, mostusers pick up this interface mucheasier when compared to acommand line interface.ControlUsers have much more control oftheir file system and operatingsystem in a command lineinterface. For example, users cancopy a specific file from onelocation to another with a one-linecommand.Although a GUI offers plenty ofcontrol of a file system and operatingsystem, the more advanced tasksmay still need a command line.33

Operating SystemsTypes of User InterfaceMultitaskingSpeedCLIGUIAlthough many command lineenvironments are capable ofmultitasking, they do not offer thesame ease and ability to viewmultiple things at once on onescreen.GUI users have windows thatenable a user to view, control, andmanipulate multiple things at onceand is much faster to navigatewhen compared with a commandline.Command line users only need touse their keyboards to navigate acommand line interface and oftenonly need to execute a few linesto perform a task.A GUI may be easier to usebecause of the mouse. However,using a mouse and keyboard tonavigate and control youroperating system for many thingsis going to be much slower thansomeone who is working in acommand line.34

Operating SystemsExamples of Operating System MS-DOSWindowsMac OSLinuxSolarisAndroid35

Operating SystemsMicrosoft DOS DOSstandsforDiskOperating System.Developed by Microsoft Inc.Usingcommandlineinterface.It does not support multipleusers and multitasking.First version: MS-DOS 1.0(1981)Final version: MS-DOS 7.0(1995)36

Operating SystemsMicrosoft DOS37

Operating SystemsWindows Produced by Microsoft,Inc.Using graphical userinterface.Support multitasking andmultiuser.First version: Windows1.0 (1985)Latest version: Windows838

Operating SystemsWindows39

Operating SystemsMac OS The official name of theMacintoshoperatingsystem.Created by Apple Inc.OperatingSystemforApple Macintosh computer.First version: Mac System1 (1984)Latest version: Mac OS10.8.340

Operating SystemsMac OS41

Operating SystemsLinux A freely-distributable opensource operating system thatruns on a number of hardwareplatforms.Linuxhasbecomeanextremely popular alternativetoproprietaryoperatingsystems.First version: Linux (1992)Latest version: Linux 3.9.642

Operating SystemsLinux43

Operating SystemsAndroid Android is a Linux-basedoperating system for mobiledevices such as smartphonesand tablet computersIt is developed by the OpenHandset Alliance, led byGoogle, and other companiesFirst version: Android 1.0(2008)Latest version: Android 4.2.244

Operating SystemsAndroid45

Operating SystemsSolaris Solaris is a Unix operatingsystem originally developed bySun MicrosystemsSolaris can be installed fromphysical media or a network foruse on a desktop or serverUsedonserverandworkstationFirst version: Solaris 1 (1991)Latest version: SunOS 11.146

Operating SystemsSolaris47

A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single