Biodiversity Of Tropical Tuber Crops In India

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Withers L A.1993. New technologies for the conservation of plantgenetic resources. International Crop Science 1. Crop ScienceSociety of America, Madison, USAACRONYMSCIP:International Centre for PotatoCIAT:International Centre for Tropical AgricultureIITA:International Centre for Tropical AgricultureAVRDC:Asian Vegetable Research and Development CentreIPGRI:International Plant Genetic Resources InstituteNBPGR:National Beureau of Plant Genetic ResourcesNATP:National Agricultural technology ProjectMSSRF:M.S.Swaminathan Research FoundationCTCRI:Central Tuber Crops Research InstituteBA:Benzyl adenineNAA:Naphthalene acetic acidMS:Murashige and SkoogLN:Liquid NitrogenDMSO:Dimethyl sulfoxideBiodiversity ofTropical Tuber Crops in IndiaS.Edison, M.Unnikrishnan, B.Vimala, Santha V.Pillai,M.N.Sheela, M.T.Sreekumari and K.AbrahamCentral Tuber Crops Research Institute, Sreekariyam,Thiruvananthapuram2006National Biodiversity Authority60Chennai, TamilNadu, India

NBA Scientific Bulletin Number - 7Thankamma Pillai, P.K and Unnikrishnan, M. 1993. Genetic ResourcesTaro. Vol. II.Catalogue Senes – 4. CTCRI Publication. Trivandrum.Copyright: National Biodiversity AuthorityThinh, T .N., Takagi, H. and Sakai ,A. 2000.Cryopreservation of in vitrogrown shoot tips of five vegetatively propagated monocots byNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system orvitrification. In: Cryopreservation of tropical plant germplasm.transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,Current Research progress and application (F. Engelmann andrecording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.H. Takagi (Eds.) JIRCAS/IPGRI, pp.227-232.Unnikrishnan ,M .and Sheela, M. N.2000.Biotechnology in conservationand improvement of tuber crops. In: Biotechnology inCitation : Edison S., M.Unnikrishnan, B.Vimala, Santha V.Pillai,M.N.Sheela, M.T. Sreekumari and K.Abraham. 2006. Biodiversityof Tropical Tuber Crops in India. NBA Scientific Bulletin Number - 7,National Biodiversity Authority, Chennai, TamilNadu, India, p60.Horticultural and Plantation Crops:Chadha K L, P N Ravindranand Leela Sahijram(Eds.), Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi,IndiaUnnikrishnan, M., S. Edison and Sheela, M. N. 2005. Tuber Crops andtheir wild relatives. In: Tamil Nadu Biodiversity strategy andaction plan (ed.) R. Annamalai, Tamil Nadu Biodiversity strategyand action plan Published by Tamil Nadu Forest DepartmentChennai, pp 159-168.Velayudhan, K.C., Muralidharan, V.K., Amalraj, V.A. and T.A. Thomas.1993. Genetic resources of taro. Scientific Monograph No.2.NBPGR Regional Station, Thrissur,pp. 1-187.For further information, please contactThe ChairpersonNational Biodiversity Authority475, 9th south cross street,Kapaleeswarar Nagar,Neelangarai,Chennai – 600 041.Velayudhan, K.C.; Muralidharan, V.K.; Amalraj, V.A. and T.A. Thomas.1991.Genetic resources of Dioscorea alata.ScientificMonograph No.1., NBPGR Regional Station, Thrissur,pp. 1-73.Viswanathan,M.B.2004. Ethnobotanically important plants. In: TamilNadu Biodiversity strategy and action plan (ed.) R. Annamalai,Tamil Nadu Biodiversity strategy and action plan Published byPrinted by :Frontline Offset Printers26, New Street, Llyods Road,Triplicane, Chennai - 600 005.Ph : 28470052Tamil Nadu Forest Department Chennai, pp 177-231.Watt, G. 1889. Dictionary of the economic plants of India. Supdt.Goot. Printing , Calcutta 2 : 509-513.59

CONTENTSRajendran, P.G, Hrishi, N and Maini, S. B. 1977. Genetic Variability onAmorphophallus Seedlings. J. Root Crops. 3: 55-56.Rajendran, P.G., Sreekumari, M.T., Nair, R.B., Pillai, K.S., Nair, N.G. andMoorthy, S.N. 1993. Catalogue of Genetic Resources in Cassava.S.No.ParticularsPage No.1.Introduction1-22.Origin and Distribution of major tuber crops in India2-13Technical Bulletin No.7. CTCRI, Thiruvananthapuram.Roy, B., Halder , A.C., Pal, D.C . 1988. Plants for human consumptionin India . Flora of India series 4: pp. 63–65.Sabapathy, S and Nair, H.1995. In vitro propagation of taro, withspermine, arginine and ornithine; Plantlet regeneration via2.1. Cassava52.2. Sweet potato52.3. Yams6-72.4. Aroids8-92.5. Minor tuber crops10-14callus. Pl. Cell Rep. 14: 520-524Santha V. Pillai, Thankamma Pillai, P.K, Geethakrishnan Nair, P. andHore, H.K. 1999. Collecting taro and other tuber crops fromNEH Region of India. Indian J. Plant Genetic Resources. 13(2).Shiotani, I. 1988. Genomic structure and gene flow in sweet potatoand related species.In.3.Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization153.1. In situ conservation153.2. Ex situ conservation16-173.3. On farm Conservation183.4. In vitro conservation19-25Exploration, maintenance andutilization of sweet potato genetic resources. Report of theFirst Sweet Potato Planning Conference 1987. InternationalPotato Centre. Lima, Peru. P.61-73.Staritsky G., Dekkers, A .J., Lowwaars, N. P. and Zand voort, E .A.1986.In vitro conser vation of aroid germplasm at reducedtemperature and under osmotic stress. In: Withers, L. A. and4.Hot spots of Biodiversity of Tuber Crops in India:Exploration and Collection264.1. The Western Ghats31-324.2. The Eastern Ghats334.3. The interior plains344.4. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands355.National Regeneration Centre for Root and Tuber Crops356.Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) on Tuber Crops in India36-43Anderson, P. G. (Eds.) Plant Tissue Culture and its Agricultureapplications. Butterworth, London, pp. 277-283Takagi ,H, Tien Tninh, N., Islam, O. M., Senboku, T. and Sakai,A,.1997.Cryopreservation of in vitro- grown shoot tips of taro6.1. Tuber crops in rituals447.Utilization of ronyms60(Colocasia esculenta (L.)Schott) by vitrification. 1. Investigationon basic conditions of the vitrification procedure. Pl. Cell Rep.16:594-599.58

(eds.) Cryopreservation of tropical plant germplasm: Current researchprogress and application, JIRCAS proceedings of Internationalworkshop 20th -23rd Oct, Japan/ IPGRI, Rome Italy. pp. 233237.Morishita M and Yamada K.1978.Studies on tissue culture of taro(Colocasia esculenta Schott) (1) Inducing plantlets from apicalmeristem. Bull. Osaka Agri. Res. Cent. 15:9-12Nair, N. G and Chandrababu, S.1996. In vitro production andmicropropagation of three species of edible yams. In: KurupGT, Palaniswami MS, Potty VP, Padamaja G, Kabeerathumma Sand Pillai SV(Eds.) Tropical Tuber Crops: Problems, prospectsand future strategies, pp.55-60, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.Pvt. Ltd., New DelhiNg,S.Y.C and Hahn, S.K.1985. Application of tissue culture to tubercrops at IITA. In: Biotechnology in International AgirculturalResearch, pp. 27-40, International Rice Research Institute,Manila, PhilippinesNg, S.Y.C. and Ng, N.Q.1997.Germplasm conservation in food yams(Dioscorea spp.): constraints, applications and future prospects.In:Razdan, M.K. and Cocking, E.C(Eds.) Conservation of PlantGenetic Resources in vitro. Vol. 1: General Aspects, pp. 257286, Scientific Publishers Inc., USAOlsen,K.M., and Schaal,B.A. 1999. Evidence on the origin of cassava :phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. Proceedings of theNational academy of Sci.,96: 5586-5591.Prain D, Burkill IH. 1936. An account of the Genus Dioscorea in theEast. Annals of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Culcutta. Longman,London , UK .57

Kundu, B.C. 1967. Some edible rhizomatous and tuberous crops inINTRODUCTIONIndia. In. Proc. Int. Symp. Trop. Root Crops,. 124-130.Root and Tuber Crops are the most important food crops afterMalaurie B, Trouslot M, Engelmenn F and Chalvillange N.1998. Effectof pretreatment conditions on the cryopreservation of in vitrocultured yam (D. alata ‘Brazo fuerte’ and D. bulbifera ‘Noumeaimboro’) shoot apices by encapsulation-dehydration. Cry-lett.19: 15-26cereals. They have the highest rate of dry matter production per dayand are major calorie contributors. Tuber crops find an important placein the dietary habits of small and marginal farmers especially in thefood security of tribal population. Tuber crops not only enrich the dietof the people but also possess medicinal properties to cure manyMandal, B. B. and Chandel, K. P. S. 1991. Utilization of tissue cultureailments or check their incidence. Many tropical tuber crops are usedtechnique in preservation of sweet potato germplasm. J. Rootin the preparation of stimulants, tonics, carminatives and expectorants.Crops 17:291-295The tuber crops are rich in dietary fibre and carotenoids viz. â caroteneMandal, B. B. and Chandel, K. P. S. 1996. Conservation of geneticand anthocyanin. India holds a rich genetic diversity of tropical rootdiversity in sweet potato and yams using in vitro strategies. Inand tuber crops viz. Cassava, Sweet potato, Aroids, Yams and severalG.T.Kurup, M.S. Palaniswami, V.P. Potty, G.Padmaja,minor tuber crops. The Indo-Burma region is the centre of origin ofS. Kabeerathumma and Santha V. Pillai, (Eds.) Tropical Tubertaro and Asiatic edible yams. The two hot spots of global biodiversityCrops: Problems, Prospects and Future Strategies Oxford andviz. North Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats are particularly rich inIBH, New Delhi p.49-59.wild relatives of tropical root and tuber crops. Safe conservation andMandal ,B B and Sonali Dixit. 2000. Cryopreservation of shoot-tips ofsustainable use of plant biodiversity is essential for meeting the presentDioscorea deltoidea Wall. - An endangered medicinal yam, forand future needs of tuber crop improvement in India. The Central Tuberlong-term conservation. IPGRI News Letter for Asia, the PacificCrops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram initiated collection ofand Oceania. No. 33. Sept.-Dec.2000. pp. 23.tuber crops germplasm and wild relatives from all over India from 1963Mandal, B. B., Chandel, K .P. S. and Dwivedi, S. 1996. Cryopreservationof yams (Dioscorea spp.) shoot apices by encapsulation dehydration. Cryo-Letters 17: 165-174onwards. The gene bank was subsequently enriched throughinternational exchange of germplasm from CIP,CIAT, IITA, AVRDC etc.The total germplasm holding of tuber crops was about 2000 until1980’s. With the major support of the Jai Vigyan Programme of theMandal, B. B. 1999. Conservation biotechnology of endemic and othereconomically important plant species of India. In: E.E. Benson(ed.) Plant Conservation Biotechnology, Taylor and Francis,London. pp. 211-225.National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) since 1998-99 and thespecial efforts by the ICAR’s ad-hoc schemes, explorations were carriedout in several unexplored regions in Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, MadhyaPradhesh, Orissa, Tripura, Mizoram and Andaman & Nicobar islands.Mandal, B. B. 2000. Cryopreservation of yam apices: comparative studywith three different techniques. In: F. Engelmann and H. Takagi56Collections were also made several times from the evergreen WesternGhats also. This has resulted in the collection of more than 10001

accessions of different tropical tuber crops. In addition, morethan 700 accessions were acquired through International ConsultativeGroup on Agricultural Research (CGIAR) support during 1990’s. Severalunique collections and indigenous technical knowledge could beof sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) utilizing sucrose precultureonly. Cryo-lett. 18: 77-80.Chandel, K.P.S., Arora, R.K. and Joshi, B.S. 1978. Vigna capensis Walp.An edible root legume. Curr. Sci. 41 : 537.gathered.Dixit Sonali, Mandal B B, and Srivastava P S. 2000. Cryopreservation ofAmong the tuber crops, Cassava is the most important one inthe tropics and it ranks fourth, after rice, sugarcane and maize, as asource of calories for human consumption. It is a major carbohydratefood for about 500 m people in the world, and in Africa, it is the mostsomatic embryos/ embryogenic tissues: Application inConservation and Biotechnology. Abst. In: National symposiumon Prospects and Potentials of Plant Biotechnology in India inthe 21 st Century. Jodhpur, Oct. 18th -21st 2000. pp. 161.important source of calories in the human diet. Cassava is cultivatedin 16 million hectares, spread over the continents of South America,Dodds J H and Roberts L W. 1985. Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture,Africa and Asia, producing 158 mt of tubers. The average productivity2nd edn., Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University the world is 10.88 t ha-1and that in India is 27.42 t ha-1 from an areaEaswari Amma, C.S., Sheela, M.N. and Rajendran, P.G. 1999. Evaluationof 0.24 m ha. However in sweet potato, average productivity in India isfor variability and Association of characters in sweet potato-1-1only 8-9 t ha as against the world average of 16 t ha . Area undergermplasm. In : Tropical Tuber Crops in Food Security andcultivation under tuber crops in India is 4 lakh ha under cassava andNutrition. Eds. C. Balagopalan, TVR Nair, S. Sundaresan, T.sweet potato besides approximately 2 lakh ha in elephant foot yam,Premkumar and K,R, Lakshmi. Pp.144-149.Colocasia, Xanthosoma etc.Edison, S., K. C. Velayudhan, C. S. Easwari Amma, Santha. V. Pillai, B.2.Origin and Distribution of Major Tuber Crops in IndiaB. Mandal, M. N. Sheela, B. Vimala, M. Unnikrishnan and ZakirThere are five major areas of distribution of root and tuberHussain. 2005. Tropical Root and Tubers In: Plant Geneticcrops in India. These are (i) South-western hilly and coastal region, (ii)Resources: Horticultural Crops (eds.) B. S.Dhillon, R. K. Tyagi,Southern peninsular region, (iii) Eastern coastal region, (iv) North-S. Saxena, G. J. Randhawa , Narosa Publishing House New Delhi,eastern region and (v) North-western region. The important tuber cropspp228-250.grown in India and the regions of biodiversity are given in Table 1.The economically and socially important tropical tuber cropsEngelmann F.1991. In vitro conservation of tropical plant germpalsma review. Euphytica 57: 227-243.are Cassava (Manihot esculenta), Sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas), YamsHanson J.1986.Methods of storing tropical root crop germplasm with(Dioscorea alata, D.esculenta and D.rotundata), Aroids which includespecial reference to yam. FAO/IBPGR Pl. Genet. Res. Newsl. 64:Elephant foot yam, Taro and Tannia ((Amorphophallus, Colocasia or24-32.Taro, Xanthosoma or Tannia) and other minor tuber crops namelyChinese potato, Arrow root, Yam bean, Canna etc (Table 1.)2Henry. A.N., Kumari, G.R.and Chithra, V. 1989. Flora of Tamil Nadu,India, Volume 2, BSI, Coimbatore.55

Arora RK, Anjula Pandey. 1996. Wild edible plants of India , Diversity,Conservation and Use. National Bureau of Plant geneticresources, New Delhi .Ashmore S E.1997. Status report on the development and laces/AreasGrownMaracheeni kizhangu &Kappa(M) ;Maravalli kizhangu &Ezhalai kizhangu(T) ;Maraganasu(K) ;Karrapendalamu(TE)Southern regionOccasionally inNorth eastern &western regionsConvolvulaceae Mitha alu &Shakarkand(H);Cheeni kizhangu &Madhura kizhangu(M);Shakkareivalli kizhangu(T); Genasu(K);Chelagada(TE);Ratalu(MR);Lal alu &Ranga alu(B)Introduced andfound all overbut mostlyconcentrated inEastern U.P,Bihar, WestBengal andOrissaFamilyCASSAVA Manihot esculenta EuphorbiaceaeCrantz2n 36of in vitro techniques for the conservation and use of plantgenetic resources. IPGRI, RomeAustin and Huaman, Z. 1996. A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae)SWEETPOTATOin the Americas. Taxon 45 (1) : 3-38.Ipomoea batatus(L.)Lam.2n 90Austin, D.F. 1988. The taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity ofsweet potatoes and related wild species. In : Exploration,maintenance and utilization of sweet potato genetic resources.Report of the first sweet potato Planning Conference 1987.International Potato Centre, Lima, Peru. P.27-59.GREATER Dioscorea alataYAM(L.)2n 40, 60, 80DioscoreaceaePind Aaluk(H); Kachil & South & NorthKavithu(M); PeruvalliEastern regionkizhangu & Vetrilaivallikizhangu (T)WHITEYAMDioscorearotundata (Poir.)2n 40DioscoreaceaeSafed Aaluk (H);Introduced toAfrican kachil(M);India andAfrican valli kizhangu(T), spread to Southand NorthEastern regionLESSERYAMDioscoreaesculenta (Lour.)Burk.2n 30-100DioscoreaceaeKayu(H) ; Cheruvallikizhangu,Cherukizhangu ,Nana kizhangu,Mukkizhangu(M) ;Siruvalli kizhangu (T)South, N.E &Eastern regionPOTATOYAMD. bulbifera var.sativa2n 40,60DioscoreaceaeMekkachil &Erachikachil (M)Southern, NorthEast andEastern regionTAROColocasiaesculenta (L.)Schott2n 28,42AraceaeArvi , Kachalu &Ghuiya(H); Kachu(S);Chempu(M);Seppan-kizhangu (T);Kachchi(K);Shamagadde(K);Chamadumpa &Chemagadda(TE);Alu(MR); Kachu(B)ThroughoutIndia withgreater diversityin North east,Eastern regionand SouthBajaj, Y P S.1987. Cryopreservation of potato germplasm. In:Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 3: Potato, YPSBajaj (Ed.), Berlin, pp.472-486, Berlin: Springer-VerlagBalakrishnan ,V.,Ratheesh Narayanan ,M.K. and Anil Kumar ,N.2003. Ethno taxonomy of Dioscorea among the Kattunaikkapeople of Wayanad District, Kerala, India IPGRI News letter,135: 24-32.Bessembinder, J.J.E, Stritsky, G. and Zandvoort, E.A.1993. Long termin vitro storage of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott under minimalgrowth conditions. Pl. Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 33: 121-127Bhatti, M.H., Percival,T., Davey,C.D.M., Henshaw, G.G. and Blakesley,D. 1997. Cryopreservation of embryogenic tissue of a range ofgenotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) usingan encapsulation protocol. Pl. Cell Rep. 16: 802-806.Blackesley D., Percival, T., Bhatti M H and Henshaw G G. 1997. Asimplified protocol for cryopreservation of embryogenic tissue543

ium2n 26VernacularNameFamilyAraceaePalchempu(M)YAM BEANWINGEDBEANWESTINDIANARROWROOTSouth and Northeastern regionThe indigenous technical knowledge held by the tribals andethnic groups is another valuable resource integrated with biodiversityand this needs to be documented and validated for the fuller exploitationof biodiversity. An integrated approach on biodiversity conservationELEPHANT Amorphophallus AraceaeFOOT YAM paeoniifolius(Dennst.) Nicolson2n 28CHINESEPOTATOPlaces/AreasGrownZamim-kand &Gimmikand(H);Arsaghna &Balukand(S); Chena(M)Karnai-kilangu(T);Suvarna gadde(K);Kanda(TE);Suran(MR); Ol(B)Southern, NorthEast and r.) J.K. MortonPlectranthusrotundifolius2n 60Koorka kizhangu(M);Sim kizhangu(T)Southern partsof IndiaPachyrrhizuserosus (L.) Urban2n 26Misri Kand (H); Pachikizhangu (M)and sustainable utilization can pave the way for bioprospecting for novelplant products. Search for new life-support species of minor tuber cropsfrom natural habitats of hot spots has to be initiated. India, with itsimmense wealth of natural biodiversity can take the lead inbioprospecting and new drug discoveries, if a concerted and integratednational approach is adopted.Concerted effort has to be made by the different agencies likeCTCRI, NBPGR, the State Agricultural Universities and NGO’s like MSSRFwith the support and guidance from the National Biodiversity Authorityof India for the preservation and sustainable utilization of this naturalLeguminosaeNorth Easternregionwealth. Efforts made in this direction will be of great service to thenation as well as in the protection of the food basket of the tribal .2n 26Chadhura payar &Goa payar (M)Marantaarundinaceae L.2n 48Koova (M)South & NorthEastand rural poor.Advances in agricultural technology could have its greatestimpact as an effective instrument against poverty , hunger, malnutritionMarantaceaeAdapted to plainareas with highrain fall;shade lovingand environmental degradation. Root and tuber crops have tremendousimportance as a means of agricultural development to serve theimmediate needs of individuals for food and income. Structuring thegenetic diversity is necessary to optimize the use of germplasm byH – Hindi, S- Sanskrit, M-Malayalam, MR-Marathi, TE-Telugu, T-Tamil,K-Kannada, B-Bengala, NE – North east.breeders for which molecular level screening is highly warranted.BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hot spots of Biodiversity of Tuber Crops in India: Exploration and Collection 26 4.1. The Western Ghats 31-32 4.2. The Eastern Ghats 33 4.3. The interior plains 34 4.4. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands 35 5. National Regeneration Centre for Root and Tuber Crops 35 6. Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) on Tuber Crops in India 36-43 6.1. Tuber .

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