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3Tropical Root andTuber CropsCassava (Tapioca), Sweet Potato,Aroids, Yams, Yam bean, ColeusPublished by:AGROBIOS (INDIA)Agro House, Behind Nasrani CinemaChopasani Road, Jodhpur 342 002Phone: 91-0291-2642319, Fax: 2643993E. mail: agrobios@sify.comAGROBIOS (INDIA) All Rights Reserved, 2006All rights reserved. No part of the book or part thereof, including the title ofthe book, be reprinted in any form or language without the writtenpermission of the author and the publishers. The copyists shall beprosecuted.R. C. MANDALISBN No.: 81-7754-199-4Price: Rs. 795.00 / US 40.00AGROBIOS (INDIA)Published by: Dr. Updesh Purohit for Agrobios (India), JodhpurLasertypeset at: Shriya Computers and Printers, JodhpurCover Design by: ReenaPrinted at: Bharat Printers, Jodhpur

These tuber crops have very high biological efficiency as energyconverters and due to this high potentiality, the production per unit areacan be increased substantially. The production of cassava (tapioca) perunit area could now be doubled with the use of improvedselections/hybrids evolved at CTCRI, Trivandrum; CIAT, Colombia; andelsewhere, coupled with scientific crop management.PrefaceThe rate of productivity in terms of calories per unit land area per unittime and carbohydrate content of tuber crops as compared to cereals,are estimated and considered to be appreciably high in tuber crops asper evidence on the table.CropsThe pressure on, demand for food by rapid growth of human population,stressed the importance of tropical root and tuber as non-conventionalfood in the diet, especially of lower income groups in developingcountries. Those parts of the World where tropical tuber crops areimportant in diet, are precisily. The parts where population growth ishighest. These root and tuber crops include: Casssava and Sweet Potato(root tubers); aroids, yams, coleus (Stem tubers), which are consideredas staple foods for the tropical and subtropical regions like Africa,Carabbeams, South America, India and South East Asia.Eventhough such root and tuber crops provide subsistance food formillions of people; but research and developmental efforts in tropicalcountries have been more vigorous in the cash and export-larningplanation crops, because the tuber crops mostly enjoy localconsumption and importance and also do not earn much foreignexchange however, only in recent years various internationalorganisations like CIAT, Colombia; IITA, Nigeria; AVRDC, Taiwan; CTCRI,Trivandrum; National Root Crops Researh Centre, Nigeria; Root Cropsbranch of Agriculture Department, Thailand; Sukami Research Institute,Indonesia; Philippines Res & Training Centre; TPI, London; IDRC,Canada, have shown considerable interest in research and developmentactivities of these crops. Among these, CIAT has started ambitiousresearch programme on Cassava improvement.In many developing countries, root crops are important energy sourceswhich are very easy to produce and which have a processing or exportpotential. The underground tubers are used as food, as animal food andalso being increasingly used as a source of raw material in certainindustries.CarbohydratePer Ha (T)Food CaloriesPerKg (G)Cassava rawSweet Potato rawYams rawCocoyams rawPotato rawRice dry6.703.873.753.251.990.87Wheat dry0.78EnergyPer Ha(Miln)Per KgProd.Per ,2407103.8334703,190Source : Agriculture Situation in India, Jan 1975Due to obvious reasons, the tropical root and tuber crops have, withinthe past decades, increased in both local and international importanceby the research workers, agriculturists, various agricultural colleges andinstitutions.The rich experience gained through research activities more than adecade by the author made to bring out a book on tropical root andtuber Amorphophallus, Yams, Yam bean and Colius. Each crop or groupof crops cover topics such as origin, botany, climatic requirment,production of planting material, variety, genetics and cyto-genetics,breeding, agro-techniques, disease and pests, chemical compositionstorage and utilization.This has been written as a reference book for the agricultrists, researchworkers and a text book at the under-graduate and post-graduate level.In the compilation of this comprehensive volume, published matter ofresearchers, various research and development agencies have beenconsulted, materials used and have been duly acknowledged.AhemdabadR.C. Mandal

Stomatal Distribution . 11Stipule. 12Petiole. 12Petiole Colour . 13Leaf Retention and Leaf Fall. 13Flower and Seed Characters. 13Flowering . 13Environmental Effect on Flowering . 13Growth Regulator Effect on Flowering. 14Flower Morphology . 14Capsule Formation . 15Seed . 15Root and Tuber Characters. 15Root . 15Tuber . 16ContentsCASSAVA (MANIHOT SPP.)1CASSAVA (MANIHOT SPP.) . 3Introduction . 3Manihot spp. . 4Wild Relatives of Manihot . 42ORIGIN AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION(MANIHOT SPP.). 53CASSAVA: BOTANY . 7Distinction of Cassava Cultivars. 7Varieties / Cultivars . 8Nomenclature. 8Morphological Characters . 8Plant Type . 8Stem Characters. 8Stem Colour . 9Nodal Pattern. 9Internal Stem Structure. 9Girth of Stem. 9Branching Pattern . 10Leaf Characters . 10Phyllotaxy. 10Lobes . 10Leaf Shape . 11Leaf Lamina. 11Lamina Colour. 114CASSAVA: CYTOGENETICS. 18Karyo-Morphology. 18Induced Polyploidy . 20Tetraploidy . 20Triploidy . 21Heritability. 21Path Analysis . 22Sterility. 22Male Sterility . 22Female Sterility . 23Stigma Receptivity. 235CASSAVA: IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY. 24Introduction . 24Germplasm Collection, Evaluation, Identification. 24Germplasm . 24Collection and Conservation. 25Evaluation . 26Indespensible. 26Highly Valuable . 26Identification. 27Selection . 28Indigenous Selection. 28CO-1. 29MVD-1 . 29

Exotic Selection. 29M-4 (Malayan-4) . 29Selections in other Countries. 30Inter-Varietal Hybridization . 30H-97 . 31M-165 . 31H-226 . 32H-1687 (Sree Visakham) . 32H 2304 (Sree Sahya) . 33Mutation Breeding in Cassava . 34Mukibat System for Yield Improvement . 34Biotechnology. 35Elimination of Cassava Mosaic. 35Micropropagation. 35Cryopreservation . 356CASSAVA: PHYSIOLOGY . 36Leaf Area Index (LAI) . 36Productivity of Cassava. 36Source Sink Relationship . 36Partitioning and Dry Matter Production . 37Photosynthesis and Dry Matter Production . 37Light Intensity and Shade Effect . 38Moisture Stress and Tuber Yield . 38Drought Tolerance . 38Physiological changes on Sprouting. 40Spray of Growth Regulators on Flowering, Yield and Quality . 40Harvest Index (HI). 407CASSAVA: MICROBIAL SYSTEM . 42Vasicular Arbusucular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi . 428CASSAVA: CLIMATE AND SOIL . 45Environmental Condition for Cassava Growth. 45Climate . 45Rainfall . 45Altitude . 45Latitude . 46Soil Characteristics. 469CASSAVA: AGRO-TECHNIQUES. 47Introduction . 47Planting Cassava . 48Land Preparation . 48Time and Method of Planting . 48System of Planting. 49Production/Generation of Planting Material . 49Selection of Planting Material . 50Age of Stem Cutting. 51Rooting of Cutting . 51Depth of Planting. 52Number of Setts/Hill . 52Thinning of Sprouts . 52Gap - Filling. 52Time of Planting . 53Spacing and Plant Population . 53Inter-Cultural Operation and Weed Control. 54Weed Control. 54Topping or Defoliation. 55Nutrients and their Requirment. 55Nutrient Uptake . 55Organic Manuring . 56Effect of Nitrogen (N) . 56Effect of Potash (K) . 57Effect of Lime (Ca) . 60Effect of Magnesium (Mg) . 61Effect of Sulphur . 61Micro-Nutrients. 62Effect of Zinc . 62Effect of Aluminium. 6210 CASSAVA: WATER MANAGEMENT. 6311 CASSAVA: BASED CROPPING SYSTEM . 64Agro-Economic Survey on Inter-Crapping Practices . 65Growing Annuals in Inter-Cropping System . 66Inter-Cropping Groundnut (Peanut). 67Inter-Cropping Beans, Cowpea and French Bean . 68Inter-Cropping Pigeonpea . 69Inter-Cropping Onion, etc. . 69Growing Cassava with Perennials . 70

Cassava-Biennials Association . 70Cassava - Perennials Association at Early Stage . 70Rubber Plantation . 71Forest Species . 71Cassava - Coconut Association. 71Sequential Cropping . 72Fertility Management in Inter Cropping System . 72Protecting Soil Loss by Inter-Cropping . 72Pest/Disease Reduction in Inter-Cropping System . 7212 CASSAVA: HARVESTING AND YIELD . 73Stage of Harvest. 73Harvest Index (HI). 74Harvesting Method of Cassava . 74Yield.

stressed the importance of tropical root and tuber as non-conventional food in the diet, especially of lower income groups in developing countries. Those parts of the World where tropical tuber crops are important in diet, are precisily. The parts where population growth is highest. These root and tuber crops include: Casssava and Sweet Potato

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