Homestead Gardening: A Manual For Program

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Homestead GardeningA Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and Practitioners

Homestead GardeningA Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and Practitioners

Catholic Relief Services228 W. Lexington StreetBaltimore, MD 21201 USAwww.crs.org 2008 Catholic Relief Services—United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.Written by Adam Weimer, food security program manager for CRS Lesotho, withcontributions from CRS Lesotho management and staff. Special thanks to MotsotengMothunyane, Bartholomew Mofolisa, and Caritas Lesotho, whose efforts to refine and adaptthe techniques described through implementation in the field and drafting of various trainingmaterials contributed to the writing of this manual. CRS would also like to acknowledgethe contribution of C-SAFE Lesotho members, World Vision Lesotho and CARE for theircontribution to the design and development of homestead gardening techniques.This manual was funded through the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) as a part of the 2007 Input Trade Fairs project. Methods and techniques describedwere developed over three years by CRS and members of the Consortium for Southern AfricaFood Emergency (C-SAFE) in Lesotho. Implementation of Homestead gardening activitieswere conducted under Single-Year Assistance Programs (SYAP) with funding from the U.S.Agency for International Development from 2005 to 2008. Views and opinions expressed inthis document represent those of the authors and not necessarily of C-SAFE Lesotho or thedonor.

TIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vChapter 1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2 Keyhole Gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Chapter 3 Trench Gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Chapter 4 Potholing (Conservation Agriculture) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Chapter 5 Soil Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Chapter 6 Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Appendix A Seed Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Appendix B OPV vs. Hybrid Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Appendix C Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

IThis manual is intended for use by food security, nutrition, and livelihood programmers andpractitioners for improved household food production and income generation. It representsa compilation of techniques and lessons learned from homestead gardening programssuccessfully implemented through the Consortium for Southern Africa Food Emergency(C-SAFE) in Lesotho. Many of the techniques described have been developed over timein a variety of countries and programs, and have been adapted in semi-arid and mountainclimates in the southern lowlands of Lesotho. The success of the methodology has promptedCatholic Relief Services (CRS), Caritas Lesotho, and other partners to apply homesteadgardening activities in other programs, such as the Mountain Orphan and VulnerableChildren Empowerment (MOVE) project.This manual is not intended as a one-stop shop for improved farming practices, nor does itcover all the potential techniques used in homestead gardening. Rather, it is a compilationof best practices and successful activities implemented over a three-year period by C-SAFELesotho, the MOVE project, and various other food-security related projects implemented byCRS and Caritas Lesotho. Many of the techniques and methods described are based on theprinciples of permaculture and organic farming. However, while many of the methods areapplicable or adaptable to a variety of settings, not all the techniques enclosed are appropriatefor all projects and contexts. Programmers and practitioners should carefully consider the goalsand objectives of their projects as well as the cultural, environmental, and climatic context ofthe area where homestead gardening activities will be implemented. Appendix D lists additionalreferences and suggested reading on agriculture and homestead gardening techniques.As stated above, the manual is written for use by program managers, implementers, andpractitioners. Each chapter attempts to set the stage for the reader to understand fundamentalprinciples of homestead gardening in order to better understand how the techniques may beadapted to unique environmental challenges, climate conditions, and overall context in whichthe activities are implemented. Chapter 1 is intended to help homestead gardeners plan theirgardens to maximize the use of space. Chapters 2 to 4 are detailed descriptions of specifictechniques implemented under C-SAFE Lesotho, including keyhole gardens, trench gardens,and conservation agriculture. These chapters outline the materials and steps in preparing,planting, and maintaining these gardens. Chapters 5 and 6 describe other methods ofsustainable gardening in resource-limited settings and of reducing dependence on expensiveinputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. These chapters include information about soil fertilityand pest management, for early detection and prevention of potential problems such asinadequate moisture or acidity.Each chapter includes helpful programming and gardening tips to improve the performanceimplementation of homestead gardens. These are designed to provide insight into some of thelessons learned from implementing homestead gardening activities in Lesotho and to suggestpossible adaptations or replacement materials.v

CHaPter 1GettinG startedA homestead garden is intended to utilizethe space around a house to grow vegetablesand limited food crops. In Lesotho, fieldsfor growing crops are typically located onthe outskirts of a village or community.Competition for agricultural lands has forcedmany to establish fields on marginal landsfar from the house. By focusing food cropproduction near the house, farmers are betterable to manage crops and space for foodproduction without having to travel longdistances.Starting a homestead garden can be intimidating, especially for those without muchgardening experience. Preparing fields and plots can take a lot of time and hard work, but,once established, homestead gardens can flourish with minimal labor or inputs.Planning a Homestead GardenCareful planning is important for a successful homestead garden. There are a number offactors to consider.1. Space. The amount of space around a house will determine what techniques can be usedand how many vegetables can be produced. However, even houses with small plots canbuild homestead gardens. With careful planning, a garden can maximize the efficient useof the space available by alternating rows of vegetables that need a lot of space with cropsthat do not.2. Shade versus full sun. All plants need sunlight to grow, but too much sun and heat candry out the soil and burn plants. Trees are good for adding shade to a garden, coolinghot summer temperatures and helping to prevent moisture evaporating from the soil,especially in dry areas. However, too much shade prevents sunlight from reaching theplants and obstructs the photosynthesis process that all plants need to grow, flower, andproduce fruit. Some crops like some shade, while others prefer full sun. Seed packetsusually provide instructions for planting the seeds and indicate how much sun is requiredfor healthy growth. This information will help in organizing a homestead garden accordingto the amount of sun and shade required.3. Trees and competition. While trees are good for shade and moisture retention, they requirea lot of water and can rob the garden vegetables of vital moisture and nutrients.7

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and Practitioners4. Access to water. While the techniques used in homestead gardening are designed to enhancemoisture retention in the soil, water is still a vital ingredient of any garden. Plants need tobe watered regularly, especially in dry areas. Therefore, access to water must be consideredwhen planning a homestead garden.5. Household labor capacity. Building and maintaining a homestead garden requires a lot ofwork. A household’s labor capacity can be affected by the number of household members,chronic illness, age, and disabilities. While many of the techniques outlined in thismanual save labor, not all will be appropriate for all households. Ultimately, it is up to thehouseholds to choose what is appropriate and reasonable for themselves.By planning ahead, farmers and gardeners can better utilize the limited space around a houseand maximize the production of vegetables and other food crops. The layout of the garden isespecially important.In Lesotho, CRS has encouragedhomestead gardens with four majorcomponents:CompostHouseTrench Garden1. Two to three keyhole gardens toproduce small leafy crops, suchas spinach, and small root crops,such as carrots and onions.Keyhole Gardens2. Minimum of four trench gardensfor producing either small cropsor larger crops such as tomatoesand green beans.Down Slope3. 30 m. by 30 m. conservationagriculture plots for small-scaleproduction of maize, sorghum, orbeans.Conservations Farming Plot–30m x 30m4. Compost pit for fertilizing soil.Figure 1.1 shows a typical layout fora homestead garden in CRS Lesothofood-security projects. The details ofthese techniques will be explainedin later chapters.Figure 1.1 Typical Homestead Garden Layout8

Getting StartedTips for Getting Started1. Start small and expand gradually. Smaller gardens are easier to manage, especiallyfor those without much experience. As a gardener gains experience they cangradually expand their garden.2. Protect the garden with a stick enclosure to shelter it from wind, cold, and animals.3. Keep soil covered with mulch or ground cover to protect against erosion andmoisture loss.4. Start collecting materials (manure, bones, weeds, ash, grass, urine) to make compostearly, and continuously nourish the soil.5. Where water is scarce or access is limited, use wastewater and harvest rainwater toirrigate.6. Plant only a little at a time but plant often, to ensure continuous production.7. Aim to feed the family first, then look for a market. With good water and cropmanagement, one will be able to sell when it is dry and prices are high.8. Be creative, and experiment with new techniques.9. Try to work the garden daily. Make it a habit, even if just for a few minutes each day.Working in the garden helps to monitor the progress and identify problems early.10. Ask Ministry of Agriculture officers and other extension workers for advice.9

CHaPter 2KeyHole GardensOriginally developed by for use bythe chronically ill, keyhole gardenshave proven an effective way togrow vegetables year round insemi-arid climates because theynourish the soil and help it retainmoisture. In Lesotho, C-SAFE haspromoted keyhole gardens amongpopulations vulnerable to hungerand food insecurity as a way toimprove household resiliency toexternal shocks, such as drought.The raised beds, surroundedby stones, and built up of layers of organic material that serve the dual purpose of addingnutrients to the soil and retaining moisture, make the keyhole garden extremely productiveeven in the cold, dry winter months.As stated above, the keyhole garden was originally developed for use by the chronically ill.The original design was a relatively small, round garden with a low outer wall. A space wasleft in the middle of the keyhole garden to allow a person to sit or squat while they worked thegarden around them. This proved an effective way to work the garden with minimal effort forpeople who were disabled or physically weak due to illness. Once built, the garden requiresonly limited maintenance and few additional inputs (such as fertilizer). In addition, thelayer-based design helps the garden retain moisture, so it requires less water reduces the laborburden of collecting water for irrigation.Under C-SAFE in Lesotho, keyhole gardens were recognized for their potential productivityin dry, semi-arid climates with poor soil. However, the original design was too small to allowfor growing enough produce to make a meaningful contribution to household food security.Furthermore, despite the moisture retaining properties of the design, households found itincreasingly difficult to access water for irrigation during a severe drought. Therefore, thekeyhole garden design was modified by expanding the size, adding more layers, buildinghigher, and replacing the center space with a basket allowing for the effective use of graywater and ensuring that moisture reaches all layers. However, because the elderly andpeople living with HIV and AIDS make up a disproportionate share of the vulnerable, foodinsecure population, the keyhole garden retained its round shape, which allows the physicallychallenged to lean against the outer walls to reach the middle of the garden.11

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and PractitionersBenefits1. Soil enrichment. Layers of organic materials break down over time to become humus,adding nutrients to the soil. In addition, the use of natural fertilizers, such as manure andcompost, helps to feed the plants with vital nutrients.2. Moisture retention in arid or semi-arid climate. Layers of organic material soak up andretain moisture, acting as a sponge. Greater retention means that the garden requires waterless frequently and in smaller quantities.3. Labor saving. Households affected by chronic illness and HIV, and households headedby children or the elderly, often have limited labor capacity. Keyhole gardens reducethe labor required to produce food for the household. The slow breakdown of organicmaterial reduces the need for added inputs. In addition, the central basket allows for useof gray water left over from washing dishes or clothes and bathing, reducing the need tocollect water for irrigation. The layer-based design also helps retain moisture, reducing theamount of water that needs to be collected to irrigate the garden.4. Reducing dependence on external inputs. One of the keys to success is using locally availableresources for construction and maintenance. All the materials used in the construction ofthe keyhole garden should be sourced from the community or surrounding area. Differentlivelihood zones may have different materials available. For example, access to stonemay be difficult in urban settings, but old tires may be readily available to construct theouter wall. Likewise, cardboard and paper may be easily available to urban populationsto build up the first layer but less readily available in isolated rural communities. Usinglocally available resources decreases the cost of constructing a keyhole garden and reducesdependence on outside materials that have to be purchased or transported long distances.5. Year-round vegetable production. The stones lining the keyhole garden retain heat from thesun and keep the soil from freezing during winter months in Lesotho. Keeping the soilwarm encourages root growth and, when combined with a cover at night, will help preventfrost from damaging the vegetables. Frost covers are removed during the day to allow theplants and soil to absorb sunlight and replaced at night to trap in heat.12

Keyhole GardensConstructing a Keyhole GardenMaterialsWhile keyhole gardens are relatively easyto construct and emphasize the use oflocally available resources, they do requirea lot of materials in construction.Below is a list of the materials needed:2m1. Stones, medium to large in size, butnothing smaller than a fist2. Spades3. Thatching grass for the central basket4. Agave aloe leaves or small tree branches5. Manure—10 to 20 wheelbarrows (the moremanure used, the more productive thegarden will be)Figure 2.1 Dimensions of the Keyhole Garden6. Wood ash, 3 to 4 wheelbarrows7. Soil, 10 to 20 wheelbarrowsProgramming Tips:8. String or rope, 10 meters.1. Having participants collect materials9. 2 meter by 2 meter space to build thekeyholeSteps in Construction1. Collect stones, aloe leaves, manure, ash,and grass or leaves.2. Lay out the space for the garden.Determine where the center of thegarden should be. Use a spade tomeasure one meter in four directionsfrom the center, and mark those points.Then draw a circle connecting the fourpoints, which will be two meters (twospade lengths) in diameter (fig. 2.1).prior to demonstrations or trainingswill save time.2. Some of the materials above canbe replaced depending on what isavailable in targeted communities.Thatching grass can be replacedwith reeds, palms, small bamboo, oraerated sacks.3. Weave a simple basket of thatching grass1 meter (one spade length) high andplace it in the center of the circle. Forma frame around the basket with three orfour large sticks, to hold it in place andprevent it from collapsing as layers ofsoil and organic material are added.13

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and Practitioners4. Scratch the surface of the soil within the circleto loosen the surface.5. Place stones around the edge of the circle. Asyou build up your layers of soil and organicmaterial, you will add to the stone wall as yougo, and keep the basket up right in the centerof the garden.Programming Note:1. Additional layers such as driedgrass and leaves can be addedbetween the aloe and the ashto increase moisture retention.6. Place the first layer of aloe leaves, branches,cardboard, or tin cans.2. Thin layers of soil (enoughto cover the material used)7. Add a layer of soil on top of the aloe, then add athin layer of ash.should be used betweenevery layer to help start the8. Add another thin layer of soil, then a thick layerof manure.biodegrading process.9. Add the top layer where the seeds will be sown,using a healthy mixture of soil and manure orcompost (approximately a one-to-one ratio).10. Slope the top layer slightly, like the roof of a house, to keep it from sinking toward themiddle of the keyhole.HowHowto BuildUseyourKeyholeto Buildandand UseyourKeyholeCompost Basket:Throw kitchenrubbish such asvegetable waste,egg shells, etc. toadd nutrients to soil.Water through thebasket to allownutrients fromcompost to filterthrough to soil.Soil and ManureManureSoilAshSoilAloe/Tins/BonesFigure 2.2 Keyhole Garden Layers14

Keyhole GardensCompanion PlantingCompanion planting is the preferredmethod of planting in any homesteadgarden. Companion planting is aconcept similar to intercropping,whereby vegetables or crops are chosenfor their complementary properties.Space, soil-nutrient needs, and pestmanagement should be consideredwhen choosing the crops to plant. Somevarieties will take up a lot of space,water, and nutrients, creating too muchcompetition. In a small garden, consideralternating rows of upward growing crops withshallow root systems, such as spinach, anddownward-growing root crops, such as carrotsand beetroot, which have deeper roots andsmaller surface growth.Other varieties complement each other bythe types of nutrients they consume and thenutrients they return back into the soil. Forexample, intercropping beans and maize in afield is often considered a desirable practicebecause beans put nitrogen into the soil andmaize requires a lot of nitrogen to grow.Companion planting is also a way of controllingpests and reducing the risk of losing one’sentire garden to an infestation. Insects thatare attracted by certain plants may be repelledby others. Alternating rows of different plantsreduces the risk of pests spreading throughoutyour garden. Some plant varieties can be usedspecifically for their pest-resistant properties.Intercropping chilies, onions, or garlic will helpto repel insects or keep them from spreading toother crops.Programming Tips:When choosing or advising onvarieties to be cultivated in thekeyhole gardens, programmersshould carefully consider culture,climate conditions, and diets of thetargeted population. Experiencehas shown that households maynot be used to certain varieties ofvegetables, may not know how toprepare them and may be skepticalof their benefits. Introducing newvarieties that do not normallycontribute to the typical diet of thetargeted population may requireadditional training in nutritionand preparing the vegetablesgrown.It is preferable to grow a minimum of four types of crops, to promote a diversified diet andhelp to control pests. Alternating rows between the four, with root crops followed by leafycrops, uses space efficiently and reduces the strain on soil fertility. In addition, alternatingrows helps to control pests, which may attack one type of plant but not the others.15

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and PractitionersPlanting seeds in circular or curved rows helps keep the topsoil from running off whenwatering the garden. However, curved lines are generally preferred to make it easier to weedbetween the rows. As a general rule of thumb, rows should be spaced approximately 50 cmapart.The table below outlines some preferred crops for keyhole gardens. Generally smaller plants,such as carrots and spinach, are preferred over larger ones, such as tomatoes or cabbage,which require more space, water, and nutrients for healthy growth.Preferred Crops for Keyhole gardensRoot CropsLeafy CropsCarrotsSpinachBeet rootSwiss chardRadishLettuceTurnipsMustard SpinachGarlicHerbsCrops NOT Recommended for Keyhole GardensTomatoesCabbagePeppersEgg PlantChiliesMaizePeasBeansPotatoesSquashTable 2.1 Crops for keyhole gardensMaintenanceIrrigation and Watering. Despite the moisture-retaining properties of the keyhole garden, onemust still water the garden on a daily basis in order to keep the layers and topsoil moist. Watercan be applied to the top layer as in conventional gardening, while the layers beneath can bewatered through the central basket. Kitchen scraps and manure should be placed inside thebasket to help renew the nutrients in the soil. It is generally a preferred practice to use graywater from washing dishes and clothes or bathing to irrigate through the basket, in orderto conserve water and reduce the labor burden of collecting extra water for irrigation. Thethatching grass, reeds, or other materials used to construct the basket will help to filter offchemicals in soaps and detergents from the gray water.Weeding. Plants need to be thinned out after germination to allow for enough room for growth.Thinning out the rows and weeding unwanted plants, such as grasses that grow between rows,also helps to reduce competition for moisture and nutrients, allowing the crops to grow better.Basket. The basket degrades and rots over time. It will need to be replaced every one or twoyears to allow for watering the interior layers and to prevent the keyhole from collapsing. Toreplace the basket, remove the stones from the walkway and replace the basket. The old materialcan be pushed to the bottom, as the organic matter will also decay to become humus and addnutrients to the soil.16

Keyhole GardensManure or compost application. Manure should be periodically added to the topsoil to renewthe nutrients. It is time to add manure when the manure is no longer visible in the top layer.Compost can be added instead of manure, or used between the rows as mulch. In addition,the garden will sink over time as the layers of organic material decompose. Some soil shouldbe added from time to time to maintain the level of the garden.Key HolePlantingPositionsKeyholePlanting PositionsCrops should be planted incurves from the center or ina circle, parallel to the wallsof the gardenRoot CropsUse mix cropping,alternating rows of Morrohoand root vegetables such ascarrots and beetrootLeafy CropsFigure 2.3 Keyhole Garden Planting Position17

CHaPter 3trenCH GardensTrench gardens use the sameprinciples and techniques ofa keyhole garden, but insteadof building a raised bedthe layers are dug into theground, leaving only a smallmound of topsoil raisedabove ground level. Trenchgardens have the samemoisture-retaining and soilenrichment properties, butrequire fewer materials andallow for larger plants, suchas tomatoes and eggplant.However, they require morespace than a keyhole garden, and therefore may not be appropriate in urban areas or otherareas where space is limited.Trench gardens have been used successfully under the C-SAFE program to increasehousehold production of vegetables and enhance resiliency among food-insecure households.Under the program, householdswere encouraged to build four trenchgardens, to maximize the potentialProgramming Tips:benefit through sectional planting1. Having participants collect materialsand staggered harvests—householdmembers could consume vegetablesprior to demonstrations or trainingsfrom one trench while crops in thewill save time.others were still unripe. While the2. Some of the materials above canprogram emphasized using trenchbe replaced depending on what isgardens for growing commonavailable in targeted communities.vegetables, such as spinach and carrots,the technique has proven effective forlarger vegetable crops as well, such asgreen beans, tomatoes, and peppers.19

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and PractitionersBenefits of Trench Gardens1. Soil enrichment. Layers of organic materials break down over time to become humus,adding nutrients to the soil. In addition, the use of natural fertilizers, such as manure andcompost, helps to feed the plants with vital nutrients.2. Moisture retention in arid or semi-arid climate. Layers of organic material soak up andretain moisture, acting as a sponge. Greater retention means that the garden requires waterless frequently and in smaller quantities.3. Reducing dependence on external inputs.One of the keys to success is using locallyavailable resources for construction andmaintenance. All the materials used inconstruction should be sourced from thecommunity or surrounding area. Differentareas may have different materials available.For example, access to stone may be difficultin urban settings, but substitutes may bereadily available to construct the outer wall.Likewise, cardboard and paper may be easily available to urban populations to build up thefirst layer but less readily available in isolated rural communities. Using locally availableresources decreases the cost of constructing a keyhole garden and reduces dependence onoutside materials that have to be purchased or transported long distances.Constructing a Trench GardenMaterialsLike keyhole gardens, trench gardens are relatively easy to construct and emphasize the use oflocally available resources, but they require fewer construction materials.Below is a list of the materials needed:1. Stones to line the perimeter of the trench garden. Stones should be medium to large in sizebut nothing smaller than a fist.2. Spades3. Thatching grass for layers4. Agave aloe leaves or small tree branches5. Manure—10 to 20 wheelbarrows (the more manure used, the more productive the gardenwill be)6. A 1 m. by 2 m. space for the garden20

Trench GardensSteps in Construction1. Collect stones, aloe leaves, manure, and grass or leaves.2. Use the spade to lay out 1 m. by 2 m. (one spade-length by two spade-lengths) space forthe trench garden.3. Dig a trench about 60 to 70 cm. deep (approximately as deep as the blade of the spadeis long) in the 1 m. by 2 m space, putting the soil aside to use later.4. Place a layer of aloe leaves, branches, cardboard, or tin cans.5. Add a layer of soil on top of the aloe, then add dried grass or leaves.6. Add another thin layer of soil, then a thick layer of manure.8. Place the soil set aside from digging the trench on top of the layers, mixing in somemanure or compost.Building yourTrenchGardenBuildingyour TrenchGarden1Dig the trench about one spade-blade deep x 5spade lengths long, and 1 spade length wide1 spade bladedeepFigure 3.1 Trench Garden Layers21 spade bladewideFill your trench with layers of materialsand replace the soil on topProgramming Note:SoilCompost/ Manure1. Lining the trenchgardenwith stones will help prevent erosion of the topsoilGrassand retainAloeheat/forwinter gardening.Tin Cans/ Card Board2. The size of the trench garden according to needs. The length can vary from 2-5meters but extending the garden beyond 5 meters long or 1 meter wide canmake it difficult to manage.3. Thin layers of soil (enough to cover the material used) should be usedbetween every layer to help start the biodegrading process.21

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and PractitionersCompanion PlantingAs mentioned in the last chapter,companion planting is the preferredmethod for any homestead garden.Careful planning of the trenchgarden will allow for efficientutilization of space while improvingor maintaining soil fertility andcontrolling pests. See chapter 2 formore information. As with keyholegardens, it is generally preferred to grow a minim of four crops, to promote diversified diets andhelp control pests. Rows should be spaced approximately 50 cm apart, to reduce competition fornutrients and moisture while allowing enough space for the plants to grow.PlantingPositionPlantingPositionAlternate root crops such as carrots and beet root with leafy cropssuch as spinach1 Meter (1 Spade length)50-60 cm5 Meters (5 Spade lengths)By planting at least 4 varie

Homestead Gardening: A Manual for Program Managers, Implementers, and Practitioners 4. Access to water. While the techniques used in homestead gardening are designed to enhance moisture retention in the soil, water is still a vital ingredient of any garden. Plants need to be watered regularly, especially in dry areas.File Size: 1MBPage Count: 41

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och krav. Maskinerna skriver ut upp till fyra tum breda etiketter med direkt termoteknik och termotransferteknik och är lämpliga för en lång rad användningsområden på vertikala marknader. TD-seriens professionella etikettskrivare för . skrivbordet. Brothers nya avancerade 4-tums etikettskrivare för skrivbordet är effektiva och enkla att

Den kanadensiska språkvetaren Jim Cummins har visat i sin forskning från år 1979 att det kan ta 1 till 3 år för att lära sig ett vardagsspråk och mellan 5 till 7 år för att behärska ett akademiskt språk.4 Han införde två begrepp för att beskriva elevernas språkliga kompetens: BI

he American Revolution simulation is designed to teach students about this important period of history by inviting them to relive that event . Over the course of five days, they will recreate some of the experiences of the people who were beginning a new nation . By taking the perspective of a historical character living through the event, students will begin to see that history is so much .