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https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYwww.laex.incivilsprep.com1Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYwww.laex.incivilsprep.comWebsite https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYindex1. GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT AND FRONTIERS. 012. STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA . 023. DRAINAGE SYSTEM . . 114. CLIMATE . . 165. INDIAN MONSOON. . 196. NATURAL VEGETATION . . 237. SOILS. . 378. AGRICULTURE. 319. MINERALS . . 3210. INDUSTRIES. . 3411. NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER. 36www.laex.incivilsprep.comWebsite https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYINDIAGEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT AND FRONTIERS Bihar, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,Sikkim and West Bengal.Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab,Rajasthan and GujaratNepalPakistanIndia as a Geographical Unit:Geographical Extent: 8 4′ N to 37 6′ N latitude and68 7′ E to 97 25′ East longitude.Northen most point–Indira col, Siachen glacier inkarakoram range.Easternmost Point – The tiny town of Kibithu inArunachal Pradesh.Westernmost Point –GhuarMoti, located in the KutchDistrict of Gujarat.Southernmost Point – Indira Point in Great most in Indian mainland.India has 15106.7 Km of land border and a coastlineof 7516.6 Km.Important PassesStateJammu and KashmirHimachal PradeshUttarakhandSikkimArunchal PradeshWestern ghatsPassZoji La it is in Zaskar range,Banihal passShipki La ,Bara-Lacha Pass,Rohtang passMana, lipulekh,Niti passNathu la , Jelep laBom di la,Dihang passThalghat , Bhorghat, Pal ghatImportant boundary lineBoundary LineRadcliffe LineMac Mohan LineDurand Line49thParallel38th ParallelHidenberg LineMaginot lineOder Neisse LineCountriesBetween India and PakistanBetween India and ChinaBetween Pakistan and AfghanistanBetween USA and CanadaBetween North and South KoreaBetween Germany and PolandBetween France and GermanyBetween Germany and PolandTropic of cancer lies at 23.50 degree North in India passesthrough 8 states and nearest cities to it are,1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.India’s Frontiers: India’s longest border is with BANGLADESHandshortest border is with Afghanistan (PoK p.comBordering StatesGandhinagar (Gujarat) Jaipur (Rajasthan)Bhopal (M.P)Raipur (Chattisgarh) Ranchi (Jharkhand)Kolkata (W.B)Agartala(Tripura)Aizawl (Mizoram)-23.10 N26.55 N23.16 N21.16 N23.11 N22.34 N23.51 N23.36 NIndian Standard Time:GMT 05:30 or 82.5 longitude Eastof Greenwich passing through Mirzapur of Uttar Pradeshis Indian Standard line which passes through 5 states ofIndia.1. Uttar Pradesh2. Madhya Pradesh3. Chhattisgarh4. Odhisa5. Andhra PradeshJammu and Kashmir (PakistanOccupied Area).Jammu and Kashmir, HimachalPradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim andArunachal Pradesh.West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya,Tripura and Assam.West Bengal, Sikkim, ArunachalPradesh and Assam.ArunachalPradesh,Nagaland,Manipur and Mizoram.1Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYImportant cities through which IST line passes are,Mirzapur, Handi,Korba, Chunar ,Junagarh, Jaunpur etc.In India meeting point of Tropic of cancer and IST line is atthe Sanjay Gandhi National Park forest land of Chattisgarh. Over millions of years, this plate broke into manyparts and Eurasianplate moved towards southeastern direction and Indian plate to the north. This northward movement of the Indian plate is stillcontinuing and it has significant consequences onphysical environment of Indian subcontinent. It is primarily through the interplay of theseendogenic and exogenic forces and lateralmovements of plates that present geologicalstructure and geomorphologic processes active in theIndian subcontinent came into existence. Based on the variations in its geological structure andformations, India can be divided into three geologicaldivisions. These divisions follow the physical features:India as a tropical country:The temperate part (north of Tropic of Cancer) is twicethe area of tropical part.But India has always beentreated as a tropical country for two different reasons –physical and cultural:Physical Reasons:The country is separated from the rest of Asia byHimalayas. Its climate is dominated by the tropicalmonsoons and the temperate air masses are blockedby Himalayas.Entire area south of Himalayas is essentially tropicalfrom climatic point of view: Although the night temperatures in winter at severalplaces in North India may come down to the level ofthose prevailing in temperate lands, yet clear skiesand intense insolation raise the day temperatures to atropical level.Cultural Reasons: Settlements, diseases, agricultural andeconomic activities are all tropical in nature. primary(i) The Peninsular BlockHence, It is primarilybecause of Himalayas that Indiais a tropical country.(ii) The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA Earth is approximately 4600 million yearsold.Overtime it has undergone many changes broughtabout primarily by the endogenic and exogenic forces. These forces have played a significant role in givingshape to various surface and subsurface features ofearth. Indian plate was south of equator, millions ofyears ago. It was much larger in size and theAustralian plate was a part of it.www.laex.incivilsprep.com2Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY(i) The Peninsular Block: Peninsular Block Extension: Various landforms like gorges, V-shaped valleys,rapids, waterfalls, etc. are indicative of this stage.(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra PlainThe northern boundary of the Peninsular Block - linerunning from Kachchh along the western flank of theAravali Range near Delhi and then roughly parallel tothe Yamuna and the Ganga as far as the RajmahalHills and the Ganga delta.KarbiAnglong and Meghalaya Plateau in the northeastand Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of thisblock.The north-eastern parts are separated by Malda faultin West Bengal from Chotanagpur plateau. The third geological division of India comprises theplains formed by the river Indus, Ganga andBrahmaputra. Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression whichattained its maximum development during the thirdphase of the Himalayan mountain formationapproximately 64 million years ago. Since then, it has been gradually filled by thesediments brought by the Himalayan and Peninsularrivers.The relief and physiography of India has been greatlyinfluenced by the geological and geomorphologicalprocesses active in Indian subcontinent.(i) Peninsular block formation The Peninsula is formed by a great complex of veryancient gneisses and granites, which constitutes amajor part of it. As a part of the Indo-Australian Plate, it has beensubjected to various vertical movements and blockfaulting. The rift valleys of the Narmada, the Tapi andthe Mahanadi and the Satpura block mountains aresome examples of it.Physiography: The Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residualmountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala hills,the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the Palkondarange and the Mahendragiri hills, etc.The river valleys here are shallow with low gradients.Most of the East flowing rivers form deltas beforeentering into the Bay of Bengal. The deltas formed bythe Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Kaveri and theGodavari are important examples.(ii) The HimalayasMountainsandotherThe Himalayas are young, weak and flexible in theirgeological structure unlike the rigid and stablePeninsular Block. Consequently, they are still subjected to the interplayof exogenic and endogenic forces, resulting in thedevelopment of faults, folds and thrust planes. These mountains are tectonic in origin, dissected byfast-flowing rivers which are in their youthful stage.www.laex.incivilsprep.comPhysiography of an area is the outcome of structure,process and the stage of development. The north has a vast expanse of rugged topographyconsisting of a series of mountain ranges with variedpeaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges. The south consists of stable table land with highlydissected plateaus, denuded rocks and developedseries of scarps. In between these two liesvast north Indian plain.Based on these macro variations, India can be dividedinto following physiographic divisions:Peninsular A) The Northern and North-eastern MountainsB) The Northern PlainC) The Peninsular PlateauD) The Indian DesertE) The Coastal PlainsF) The Islands.A. The North and North-eastern Mountains The North and North-eastern Mountains consist ofHimalayas and the North-eastern hills.3Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel mountainranges.The general orientation of these ranges is fromnorthwest to the southeast direction in thenorthwestern part of India.Himalayas in the Darjiling and Sikkim regions lie in aneast west direction, while in Arunachal Pradesh theyare from southwest to the northwest direction. In Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, they are in thenorth south direction. The approximate length of the Great Himalayan range,also known as the central axial range, is 2,500 kmfrom east to west, and their width varies between160-400 km from north to south. Himalayas stand almost like a strong and long wallbetween the Indian subcontinent and the Central andEast Asian countries. Himalayas are not only thephysical barrier, they are also a climatic, drainage andcultural divide. The width of the Shiwaliks varies from 50 km inHimachal Pradesh to less than 15 km inArunachalPradesh. They are an almost unbroken chain of low hills exceptfor a gap of 80-90 km which is occupied by the valleyof the TistaRiverandRaidak River. Valleys are part of synclines and hills are part ofanticlines or anti-synclinesMiddle Himalayas or Himachal:Some of the important ranges are the GreaterHimalayan range( which includes the Great Himalayasand the Trans-Himalayan range), the MiddleHimalayas and the Shiwalik. In between the Shiwaliks in the south and the GreaterHimalayas in the north. The Lower Himalayan ranges are 60-80 km wide andabout 2400 km in length. Elevations vary from 3,500 to 4,500 m above sea level. The Lower Himalayas have steep, bare southernslopes (steep slopes prevent soil formation) andgentler, forest covered northern slopes.Great Himalayas: Shiwalik Range: Located in between the Great Plains and LesserHimalayas.The altitude varies from 600 to 1500metres. Runs for a distance of 2,400 km from the PotwarPlateau (west) to the Brahmaputra valley (east).www.laex.incivilsprep.comAlso known as Inner Himalaya, Central Himalaya orHimadri.It is mainly formed of the crystallines (granites tone).This mountain arc convexes tothe south just like the other two ranges.The Himadri terminates abruptly at the syntaxialbends. One in the Nanga Parbatin the north-west andthe other in the NamchaBarwain the north-east.4Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHYHimalayas can be divided into the following subdivisions:1.2.3.4.5.Kashmir or Northwestern HimalayasHimachal and Uttaranchal HimalayasDarjiling and Sikkim HimalayasArunachal HimalayasEastern Hills and Mountains. The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous forKarewaformations, which are useful for thecultivation of Zafran, a local variety of saffron. Some of the important passes of the region are ZojiLa on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the PirPanjal,Photu La on the Zaskar and Khardung La on theLadakh range. Some of the important fresh lakes such as Dal andWular and salt water lakes such as PangongTso andTsoMoriri are also in this region. This region is drained by the river Indus, and itstributaries such as the Jhelum and the Chenab.Jhelumin the valley of Kashmir is still in its youth stage andyet forms meanders – a typical feature associatedwith the mature stage in the evolution of fluvial landform.1. Kashmir or North-western Himalayas: It lies betweenthe Indus and the ravi river.Comprise aseries of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh,Zaskar and PirPanjal.2. Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas:The northeastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is acold desert, which lies between the GreaterHimalayas and the Karakoram ranges. Between the Great Himalayas and the PirPanjal range,lies the world famous valley of Kashmir and thefamous Dal Lake. Important glaciers of South Asia such as the Baltoroand Siachen are also found in this region.www.laex.incivilsprep.com It lies betweenthe Ravi in the west and the Kali (atributary of Ghaghara) in the east. Drained by two major river systems of India, i.e. Indusand Ganga. Himalayas is an extension of the Ladakh cold desert,which lies in the Spiti subdivision of district Lahul andSpiti. All the three ranges of Himalayas are prominent inthis section also. These are the Great Himalayan range, the LesserHimalayas (which is locally known as Dhaoladhar inHimachal Pradesh and Nag tibha in Uttarakhand) andthe Shiwalik range from the North to the South.5Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY 4. The Arunachal HimalayasThe two distinguishing features of this region fromthe point of view of physiography are the Shiwalik and‘Dun formations‘. Some important duns located in this region are theChandigarh-Kalka dun, Nalagarh dun, Dehra Dun,Harike dun and the Kota dun, etc. Dehra Dun is the largest of all the duns with anapproximate length of 35-45 km and a width of 22-25km. In the Great Himalayan range, the valleys are mostlyinhabited by the Bhotia‘s. These are nomadic groupswho migrate to Bugyals‘ (the summer glasslands inthe higher reaches) during summer months andreturn to the valleys during winters. The famous ‘Valley of flowers‘ is also situated in thisregion. The places of pilgrimage such as the Gangotri,Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath and Hemkund Sahibare also situated in this part. The region is also knownto have five famous Prayags. Extend from the east of the Bhutan Himalayas up tothe Diphu pass in the east. The general direction of the mountain range is fromsouthwest to northeast. Some of the important mountain peaks of the regionare Kangtu and NamchaBarwa. These ranges are dissected by fast-flowing rivers fromthe north to the south, forming deep gorges.Bhramaputa flows through a deep gorge aftercrossing NamchaBarwa. Some of the important riversare Kameng,Subansiri,Dihang,Dibang andLohit.These are perennial with the high rate of fall,thus, having the highest hydro-electric powerpotential in the country. An important aspect of the Arunachal Himalayas isthe numerous ethnic tribal community inhabiting inthese areas. Some of the prominent ones from west to east arethe Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and the Nagas.Most of these communities practise Jhumming. It isalso known as shifting or slash and burn cultivation.3. The Darjiling and Sikkim Himalayas Bordered by Nepal Himalayas in the west and BhutanHimalayas in the east.It is relatively small but is amost significant part of the Himalayas. Known for its fast-flowing rivers such as Teesta, it is aregion of high mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga(Kanchengiri), and deep valleys. The higher reaches of this region are inhabited byLepcha tribes while the southern part, particularly theDarjiling Himalayas, has a mixed population of Nepalis,Bengalis and tribal from Central India. The British, taking advantage of the physicalconditions such as moderate slope, thick soil coverwith high organic content, well distributed rainfallthroughout the year and mild winters, introduced teaplantations in this region.Absence of the Shiwalik formations. In place ofShiwaliks here, the ‘duarformations‘ are important,which have also been used for the development oftea gardens.www.laex.incivilsprep.com6Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY This region is rich in biodiversity which has beenpreserved by the indigenous communities. Due to rugged topography, the inter-valleytransportation linkages are nominal. Hence, most ofthe interactions are carried through the duar regionalong the Arunachal-Assam border. The alluvial plains can be further divided into theKhadar and the Bhangar. Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 kmparallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of theslope. As a result of this, the streams and riverscoming from the mountains deposit heavy materialsof rocks and boulders, and at times, disappear in thiszone. South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with anapproximate width of 10-20 km where most of thestreams and rivers re-emerge creating marshy andswampy conditions known as the Tarai. Bhangar old alluvium deposit and khaddar newalluvium deposit. These plains have characteristic features of maturestage of fluvial erosional and depositional landformssuch as sand bars, meanders, ox- bow lakes andbraided channels. The Brahmaputra plains are knownfor their riverine islands and sand bars. Most of these areas are subjected to periodic floodsand shifting river courses forming braided streams. The mouths of these mighty rivers also form some ofthe largest deltas of the world, for example, thefamous Sunderbans delta.C.The Peninsular Plateau Rising from the height of 150 m above the river plainsup to an elevation of 600-900m is the irregulartriangle known as the Peninsular plateau. Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravalis),the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west5. The Eastern Hills and MountainsPart of Himalayan mountain system having their generalalignment from the north to the south direction. They are known by different local names. In the north,they are known as Patkai Bum, Naga hills, theManipur hills and in the south as Mizo or Lushai hills. These are low hills, inhabited by numerous tribalgroups practising Jhum cultivation. The Barak is an important river in Manipur andMizoram. The physiography of Manipur is unique by thepresence of a large lake known as ‘Loktak‘ lake at thecentre, surrounded by mountains from all sides.Mizoram which is also known as the‘Molassisbasin‘which is made up of softunconsolidated deposits. Most of the rivers in Nagaland form the tributary ofthe Brahmaputra. While two rivers of Mizoram and Manipur are thetributaries of the Barak river, which in turn is thetributary of Meghna. Rivers in eastern part of Manipur are tributaries ofChindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawadyof Myanmar.B.The Northern Plains: Formed by the alluvial deposits brought by therivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.Extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to thewest. Average width of these plains varies between150-300 km. From the north to the south, these can be divided intothree major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and thealluvial plains.www.laex.incivilsprep.com7Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY and the Cardamom hills in the south constitute theouter extent of the Peninsular plateau.However, an extension of this is also seen in thenortheast, in the form of Shillong and Karbi-Anglongplateau.1. The Deccan Plateau2. The Central Highlands3. The North-eastern Plateau.The Peninsular India is made up of a series of patlandplateaus such as the Hazaribagh plateau, the Palamuplateau, the Ranchi plateau, the Malwa plateau, theCoimbatore plateau and the Karnataka plateau, etc. This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west,Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikalrange and Mahadeo hills in the north. Western Ghats are locally known by different namessuch as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills inKarnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills andCardamom hills in Kerala. Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevationand more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with theheightincreasingfromnorthtosouth.‘Anaimudi‘ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsularplateau is located on the Anaimalai hills of theWestern Ghats followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) onthe Nilgiri hills. Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in theWestern Ghats. This is one of the oldest and the most stable landmassof India. The general elevation of the plateau is from the westto the east, which is also proved by the pattern of theflow of rivers. Some of the important physiographic features of thisregion are tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs,bare rocky structures, series of hummocky hills andwall-like quartzite dykes offering natural sites forwater storage. The western and north-western part of the plateauhas an emphatic presence of black soil. This Peninsular plateau has undergone recurrentphases of upliftment and submergence accompaniedby crustal faulting and fractures. (The Bhima faultneeds special mention, because of its recurrentseismic activities). 1. The Deccan PlateauThe north-western part of the plateau has a complexrelief of ravines and gorges. The ravines of Chambal,Bhind and Morena are some of the well-knownexamples.On the basis of the prominent relief features, thePeninsular plateau can be dividedinto three broad groups:www.laex.incivilsprep.com8Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY Eastern Ghats comprising the discontinuous and lowhills are highly eroded by the rivers such as Mahanadi,the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, etc. Some of the important ranges include the Javadi hills,the Palconda range, the Nallamala hills, theMahendragiri hills, etc. The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet each otherat the Nilgiri hills.movement of the Indian plate at the time of theHimalayan origin, a huge fault was created betweenthe Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau. Later, this depression got filled up by the depositionactivity of the numerous rivers. Today, the Meghalayaand Karbi Anglong plateau stand detached from themain Peninsular Block. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in easternIndia, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well asadjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal andChhattisgarh. The Meghalaya plateau is further sub-divided intothree: (i) The Garo Hills; (ii) The Khasi Hills; (iii) TheJaintia Hills, named after the tribal groups inhabitingthis region. An extension of this is also seen in the KarbiAnglonghills of Assam. Similar to the Chotanagpur plateau, theMeghalaya plateau is also rich in mineral resourceslike coal, iron ore, sillimanite, limestone and uranium. This area receives maximum rainfall from the southwest monsoon. As a result, the Meghalaya plateauhas a highly eroded surface.Cherrapunji displays abare rocky surface devoid of any permanentvegetation cover.2. The Central Highlands They are bounded to the west by the Aravali range. Central Highlands of India are a biogeographic regionin India formed by the disjunct ranges of the Satpuraand Vindhya Hills The Satpura range is formed by a series of scarpedplateaus on the south, This forms the northernmostboundary of the Deccan plateau. It is a classicexample of the relict mountains which are highlydenuded and form discontinuous ranges. The extension of the Peninsular plateau can be seenas far as Jaisalmer in the West, where it has beencovered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescentshaped sand dunes called barchans. This region has undergone metamorphic processes inits geological history, which can be corroborated bythe presence of metamorphic rocks such as marble,slate, gneiss, etc.D. The Indian Desert:3. The North-eastern Plateau: To the northwest of the Aravali hills lies the GreatIndian desert. It is a land of undulating topographydotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans. This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm peryear; hence, it has arid climate with low vegetationcover. It is because of these characteristic featuresthat this is also known as Marusthali.Lowprecipitation and high evaporation makes it a waterdeficit region. Luni river flowing in the southern part of the desert isof some significance. There are some streams which disappear after flowingfor some distance and present a typical case of inlanddrainage by joining a lake or playa.It is an extension of Peninsular plateau.It is believedthat due to the force exerted by the north-eastwardwww.laex.incivilsprep.com 9Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY Because of its emergent nature, it has less number ofports and harbours. (The continental shelf extends upto 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for thedevelopment of good ports and harbours). The lakes and the playas have brackish water which isthe main source of obtaining salt.E.The Coastal Plains On the basis of the location and active geomorphological processes, it can be broadly divided into two:F. The Islands:a. Western coastal plains.b. Eastern coastal plains. There are two major island groups in India – one inthe Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea. The Bay of Bengal island groups consist of about 572islands/islets. These are situated roughly between 6 N-14 N and92 E -94 E. The entire group of island is divided into two broadcategories – the Andaman in the north and theNicobar in the south. However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin.Barren island, the only active volcano in India.a. Western Coastal Plains: Submerged Coastal Plain. It is believed that the city ofDwaraka which was once a part of the Indianmainland situated along the west coast is submergedunder water. Because of this submergence it is a narrow belt andprovides natural conditions for the development ofports and harbours.Kandla, Mazagaon, JLN portNavhaSheva, Marmagao, Mangalore, Cochin, etc. aresome of the important natural ports located along thewest coast.Western coast may be divided into following divisions.,1. Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat.2. Konkan coast in Maharashtra.3. Canara coast and Malabar coast in Karnataka andKerala respectively. The rivers flowing through this coastal plain do notform any delta. The Malabar coast has got certain distinguishingfeatures in the form of ‘Kayals‘ (backwaters), whichare used for fishing, inland navigation and also specialattraction for tourists.b. Eastern Coastal Plains.The eastern coastal plain is broader and is an exampleof an emergent coast. There are well- developed deltas here, formed by therivers flowing eastward in to the Bay of Bengal.Theseinclude the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, theKrishna and the Kaveri.www.laex.incivilsprep.com10Website https://upscpdf.com9121 41 29 29 / 9121 44 29 29 (Bangalore)9052 29 29 29 / 9052 49 29 29 (Hyderabad)

https://t.me/UPSC PDFWebsite https://upscpdf.comhttps://t.me/UPSC PDFREADY RECKONER OF GEOGRAPHY These islands receive convectional rainfall and havean equatorial type of vegetation.The islands of the Arabian Sea: Include Lakshadweep and Minicoy.These arescattered between 8 N-12 N and 71 E -74 E longitude,they are coral origin. There are approximately 36 islands of which 11 areinhabited. Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq.km. The entire group of islands is broadly divided by theEleventh degree channel, north of which is the AminiIsland and to the south of the Canannore Island.DRAINAGE SYSTEM Perennial (always with water)Ephemeral (water during rainy season, and dry A river drains the water collected from a specific area,which is called its ‘catchment area‘. An area drained by

East Asian countries. Himalayas are not only the physicalbarrier,theyarealsoaclimatic,drainageand culturaldivide. Some of the important ranges are the Greater Himalayanrange(whichincludestheGreatHimalayas and the Trans-Himalayan range), the Middle HimalayasandtheShiwalik. ShiwalikRange: Located in between the Great

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associated UPSC current affairs. 2. General Studies II or CSAT (Generally conducted between 2:30 PM to 04:30 PM) This UPSC Prelims syllabus for CSAT intends to assess the aptitude of the candidate in solving ‘Reasoning and Analytical’ questions, apart from ‘Reading Comp

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Jul 12, 2010 · UPSC CSAT – READING COMPREHENSION www.upscmantra.com SYNERGY STUDY POINT Page 6 D. Main Idea Questions: These questions revolve around the basic theme of the passage. You need to understand the idea or concept which the passage speaks about. In most cases, the main idea will be expressed in one or two sentences in the first paragraph.File Size: 1MBPage Count: 14

UPSC EPFO Syllabus & Exam Pattern Exam Pattern Subject Question Marks Time English 100 100 02 Hours Indian Freedom Struggle Current Affairs Indian Polity & Economy General Accounting Industrial Relations & Labor Laws General Science & Knowledge of Computer Mental Ability & Qua

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United Nations: UPSC Notes The United Nations (UN) is a global organisation tasked with maintaining international peace and security while fostering friendly relations among nations. It is the largest, most recognized and most powerful intergovernmental organisation in the world. The United N

The lessons of Buddha were against the development of art as it leads to desire and avoid the man from reaching the final goal, so the monks were prohibited to paint the pictures on the walls of the monasteries or to indulge in the art of sculpture. So we find no traces of sculpture art in this period (Swarup, 1968).

Introduction to Quantum Field Theory John Cardy Michaelmas Term 2010 { Version 13/9/10 Abstract These notes are intendedtosupplementthe lecturecourse ‘Introduction toQuan-tum Field Theory’ and are not intended for wider distribution. Any errors or obvious omissions should be communicated to me at j.cardy1@physics.ox.ac.uk. Contents 1 A Brief History of Quantum Field Theory 2 2 The Feynman .