Analytical Chemistry 1 Practice Introduction

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Analytical Chemistry 1PracticeQualitative Analytical Chemistry (Cation-AnionAnalysis)

Course objectivesThis course provides a one semester study of basicanalytical laboratory techniques, used in qualitativeanalysis.At the end of the semester students should; use analytical glasswares and associated labequipments properly, discover the chemical principles of systematic analysisof cations-anions, operate basic qualitative analytical techniques likeprecipitation, filtration, flame tests, color observationetc., apply laboratory safety rules strictly.

Course TopicsWeekTopics1Lab meeting and introduction to qualitative analysis23th September2Anion analysis (demonstration)30th September3Anion analysis7th October45. group cation anion analysis14th October54. group cation (demonstration)64. group cation anion analysis73. group cation (demonstration)83. group cation anion analysis9Mid-term exam102. group cation (demonstration)112. group cation anion analysis9th December121. group cation anion analysis16th December13Rest of anion analysis23th December21th October4th November11th November18th November2nd December

Grading Midterm exam 20% Lab performance quizzes 20% Final exam 60%Attendances In case of 30% or more absences you will be graded F Medical excuse is not valid for the course as it is a practical course

Analytical ChemistryWhat is Analytical Chemistry?"Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicatinginformation about the composition and structure of matter. In other words, it isthe art and science of determining what matter is and how much of it exists. "What Do Analytical Chemist Do?"Analytical chemists use their knowledge of chemistry, instrumentation,computers, and statistics to solve problems in almost all areas of chemistry and forall kinds of industries. For example, their measurements are used to assure thesafety and quality of food, pharmaceuticals, and water; to assure compliance withenvironmental and other regulations; to support the legal process; to helpphysicians diagnose diseases; and to provide measurements and documentationessential to trade and commerce."American Chemical Society, Analytical Chemistry Definition

Analytical Chemistry Qualitativeanalyticalchemistryidentifiessubstances (determines presence or absence of asubstance) while quantitative analytical chemistrymeasures amount of a particular substance orsubstances.

Qualitative AnalysisIn qualitative analysis, an analytical reaction has to be:1.Observable: Precipation, dissolution of a precipitate, color change, gasevolution or heat exchange.2. Sensitive: Low amount of samples need to be detected.3. Specific: Only intended analyte should be reacted. Other substancesthat possibly exist in the sample should not be reacted.

General Terms Solution: a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Solvent: a substance that is in excess amount comparing othersubstances and dissolves them in a solution. Solute: a substance dissolved in solvent. Precipitation: formation of a solid in a solution. Separation of a precipitate Filtration: precipiate can be separated from supernatant using a filter paperand a funnel . Decantation: heavy, large-grained particles can be separated from supernatantby transferring liquid part to another tube. Centrifugation: is a process which involves the application of the centripetalforce for the sedimentation of heterogeneous mixtures with a ation

Best conditions for high-yieldprecipitation Reagents need to be added slowly and mixture should bemixed well. Heating yields better precipitates. Reactant should not be added in excess amount as it mayresult complex formation and increased solubility. Some substances can form colloids which is dispersion ofsolid particles in solvent. Colloids do not precipitate becauseof electrical charge that they carry on their surfaces. They canbe precipitated by electrolyte addition. At the end of precipitation, add one drop of reactant tosupernatant to check whether precipitation is completed. Precipitates need to be washed after separation fromSolution (left) and colloid (right)supernatant: After filtration wash precipitate on the filter paper with distilled water After decantation or centrifugation add some distilled water to test tube,mix the tube and wait for precipitation, discard water.

Labwares in Analytical Chemistry IPracticePipettesupportBunsen burnerWashing bottleErlenmeyer flaskTest tubesTriangleBeakerCruciblesTripod

Labwares in Analytical Chemistry IPracticePlatinum wireWatch glassSpatulaForceptCentrifugeWooden tongsCentrifuge tubeRubber BulbWireGauze

Tips Transferring precipitate: use spatula Mixing solution: use stirring rod Heating solution: use water bath for safe andhomogeneous heating Solvent evaporation: apply flame to directlycruicible containing solution and turn theflame off when very little liquid left in thecruicible. Distilled water: obtained by distillation ofwater. Always use distilled water in yourexperiments. Cleaning glasswares: Wash with tap water afew times and then use a little amountdistilled water.

Rules Be punctual! Never come late. (Late comers are not allowed to come in!) Lab coats, googles and gloves must be worn at all times whilst working inthe lab. Do not shout in the laboratory. Eating and drinking is forbidden in the laboratory (including chewing gum). If you have an urgent issue, you may go outside with the permission of theteaching assistants (T.A.) (talking with cellulars are not allowed use in thelab, you may only take photos) Work slowly and carefully. Don’t try to rush things in the laboratory. Absolutely no fooling around or horse play will be tolerated in thelaboratory Shoes must be worn in the laboratory at all times. These must be coveredtop. NO sandals or spaghetti-strap high-heels are permitted.

Rules Do not mouth-pipet; use a rubber bulb. The wearing of shorts is forbidden in all Analytical Chemistry labs In case of chemical burns, Immediately run copious amounts of coolwater to the affected area. Never apply an acid (base) to neutralizeany base (acid) you may have gotten on you. Always wash with largeamounts of cold water. Never point the top of a test tube, beaker, flask etc., at yourself oranyone else. Loose long hair can be a danger as open flame is used in AnalyticalChemistry Lab. Please try to keep your hair bound in some manner. For wastes, ask your T.A. for disposal (container or sink) Clean up all spills immediately.

1 Lab meeting and introduction to qualitative analysis 2 Anion analysis (demonstration) 3 Anion analysis 4 5. group cation anion analysis 5 4. group cation (demonstration) 6 4. group cation anion analysis 7 3. group cation (demonstration) 8 3. group cation anion analysis 9 Mid-term exam 10 2. group cation (demonstration)

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