1y ago
789.59 KB
21 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 11m ago
Upload by : Axel Lin

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonCICR TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO: 5WILD AND CULTIVATEDSPECIES OF COTTONDr V GotmareDr P SinghBN TuleCentral Institute for Cotton ResearchNagpurDownloaded from www.cicr.org.inTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)1

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonWILD AND CULTIVATED SPECIES OF COTTONIntroductionThe genus Gossypium which belongs to the family Malvaceae and tribe Gossypieae, includes about50 species, out of which four species are cultivated for their spinnable fibre. The remaining 46 species aredistributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world in wild forms (Table-1). The wild species ofGossypium are important sources of useful traits such as special of Gossypium are important sources ofuseful traits such as special and superior fibre properties, cytoplasmic male sterility, resistance to biotic andabiotic stresses etc. which can be introgressed into the cultivated species for improvement (Table-2). Sincethe variability available in cultivated germplasm is limited and has been exhaustively utilized in breedingprogrammes, it has become a necessity to develop basic germplasm materials enriched with rare usefulgenes from wild species through introgression.Species of GossypiumThere are 43 diploid species with 2n 26 chromosomes which have been classified into 7 genomesfrom A to G, and 7 tetraploid species with 2n 52 chromosomes with genome designation AD (Table-1). Ofthe 50 species, two diploids viz. G.arboreum and G.herbaceum and two tetraploids viz. G.hirsutum andG.barbadense are cultivated for their spinnable fibre and the remaining 46 are wild species. In India, all thefour species are commercially cultivated. At CICR, Nagpur we are maintaining a species garden with 25species and the description of each of the 25 species is given in this bulletin.Table-1: SPECIES OF GOSSYPIUMS.No. Species ofDIPLOID (2n 26)1. G.africanum2. G.herbaceum (cultivated)3. G.arboreum (cultivated)4. G.anomalum5. G.triphyllum6. G.barbosanum7. G.capitis-viridis8. G.sturtianum9. G.nandewarense10. G.robinsoni11. G.australe12. G.pilosum13. G.costulatum14. G.populifolium15. C.cunninghamii16. G.pulchellum17. G.nelsonii18. G.enthyle19. G.londonderriense20. G.marchantii21. G.exiguum22. G.rotundifolium23. G.fryxellii24. G.binatum25. G.nobile26. rma, China and ArabAfricaAfricaCape VeredeCape AustraliaAustraliaAmericaTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)2

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cotton27. G.armouianum28. G.harknessii29. G.klotzschianum30. G.davidsonii31. G.aridum32. G.raimondii33. G.gossypioides34. G.lobatum35. G.trilobum36. G.laxum37. G.turneri38. G.stocksii39. G.somalense40. G.areysianum41. G.incanum42. G.longicalyx43. G.bickiiTETRAPLOID (2n 52)44. G.hirsutum (cultivated (AD)45. G.barbadense (cultivated)46. G.tomentosum47. G.lanceolatum48. G.mustelinum49. G.darwinii50. caTable-2: Characters of breeding value found in different species.Characters of Breeding ValueI.Donors for Fibre Quality1.Fibre length2.Fibre strength andelongationSpeciesG.anomalum, G.stochsii,G.raimondii, G.areysianum,G.longicalyxG.stocksii, G.areysianum,G.thurberi, G.anomalum,G.sturtianum, G.raimondii,3.Fibre finenessG.longicalyxG. longicalyx , G.anomalum,G.rainmondii4.Fibre yieldG.anomalum, G.sturtianum,G.australe, G.stocksii, G.areysianum5.High ginningII.G.australeDonors for Resistance to Insect Pests1.Bollworms2.3.HelicoverpaJassidsG.thurberi, G.anomalumG.raimondii, G.armourianum,G.somalenseG.somalenseG.anomalum, G.armourianum,Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)3

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cotton4.5.G.raimondii, AphidsG.davidsoniiIII.Donors for Resistance to Diseases1.Bacterial BlightG.anomalum, G.armourianum,G.raimondii2.Verticillium WiltG.hirsutum race mexicanum,var.nervosum, G.harknessii3.Fusarium WiltG.sturtianum, nors for Other CharactersCytoplasmic malesterility2.Drought resistance3.Frost resistance4.Delayed morphogenesisOf Gossypol glandG.harknessii, G.trilobum,G.aridumG.darwinii, G.tomentosum,G.stocksii, G.areysianum,G.anomalum, G.australe,G.harknessii, G.aridum,G.raimondiiG.thurberiG.australe, G.bickii.G.africanum (Hutch and Ghose)Genome:APloidy level:2n 26Distribution:AfricaMorphological features:Perennial shrub, 2.5m tall, finely tomentose, hair on shoot tip,leaf thin, constricted at the base. Plantsare bushy, well branched. Leaves are light green and leathery. Chromosomes belong to A genome. Leaflobes round with smooth surface, bract with very small serrations. Locules – 3-4, bolls are small, round anddeeply pitted. Seeds are small and linted.Characters of breeding value :Disease, insects and drought resistance.Key character for identification:Leaf lobes round shape with onethird cit. Bright yellow flower withmaroon petal spot. Seed is linted.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)4

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.herbaceum (cultivated)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::A12n 26AfghanistanMorphological features:Annual herd stems and branches round, faintly striated, bent slightly at the joints, sparsely hairy.Leaves leathery, prominently reticulate, deeply cordate, less than half cut into 5-7 broad ovate rotund,suddenly acute or apiculate lobes, below distinctly pilose, especially along the veins. Bracteoles large, greencoloured, broadly ovate rotund obtuse, only very slightly united at the bottom, but profoundly cordate, gashedacross the top into 7-9 fairly long teeth. Flowers not very large, yellow with purple claws and rotating to right;calyx large, loose, undulate, and with large glands. Capsule small, round, pitted with 3-4 valves, seeds large,angled beaked, coated with grey fuzz and harsh grayish-white wool.Characters of breeding valueKey character for identification::Disease, insects and drought resistance.Bushy annual. Bracteoles flaring widelyfrom the flower bud, usually broader than long, upper marginusually serrated into 6-8 teeth. Capsule small, round with 3-4loculesRaces of G.herbaceum:Persicum, Kuljianum, Acerifolium andWightianum.G.arboreumGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::A22n 26Indo-Burma, China and ArabMorphological features:A perennial, usually 6 to 10 feet in height, having long trailing thin branches, stems and moreespecially the young branches, petioles, peduncles and bracteoles of a deep glossy purple colour, apeculiarity sometimes even possessed by the young leaves, especially on the under surface. Leaves of athick and leathery consistence, gland dotted, sub-glabrous or having short, abortively stillate hairs on theblade, especially more under surface, and a few younger spreading hairs on the petiole and young shoots,blade of the leaf mostly five lobed. Flowers yellow with purplish red petal spot. Capsules round to taperingwith 3-4 loculi.Characters of breeding value :Disease, insects and drought resistance.Key character for identification:Bracteoles closely investing the flower bud,entire or with 3-4 coarse teeth near the apex,longer than broad. Capsule round to tapering with 3-4 loculi.Races of Arboreum:Soudanense, Sinense, Burmanicum,Cernuum, Bengalense and Indicum.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)5

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.anomalum (Wawra and Peyritsch)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::B2n 26AfricaMorphological features:Perennial shrub, 2 m tall,stem hairy, leaf five lobed, entire,pubescent, foliar nectarines present,flowers and fruits solitary, pedicelpubescent, bracts of involucel three,reflexed, 20 mm long, dull violet withdark red spot at the base, glanded,staminal column non-glandular,anther white, style exceeding theandroecium,sparselyglanded,stigmatic lobe decurrent, capsulesovoid, beaked 15 to 22 mm long,glabrous, trilocular glanded, seeds 5mm long with brown fibre.Characters of breeding value:Fibre yield, fineness, strength, maturityand length, rust, mites, jassid, bollworm,and bacterial blight resistance.Key character for identification:Leaves lobed, round in shape and joined atthe base. Pedicel 0.5 cm long. Few bracteole serrationspresent.G.triphyllum (Hochreutiner)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::B22n 26AfricaMorphological features:Perennial weak shrub, 2 mtall, stem with tomentose hair,leaves with short petiole,palmatelytrifoliate, hairy, leaf nectarinespresent, bracts three, calyx fivelobed, petals 35 mm. long dullviolet, dark purple spot on lowerhalf, glanded, staminal columnpurplish glanded, style slenderexceeding the androecium, nonglandular style exceeding theandroecium,capsulesovoid,Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)6

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cottonbeaked, trilocular, pubescent, seeds 6 mm long, fibres creamy.Characters of breeding value:Jassid, bollworm resistance highly resistantto bacterial blightKey character for identification:Leaves 3-5 lobed with deep cut for 3 majorlobes. The two extra lobes at the bottomjoint,sepals 1.5 to 2 cm long, stigma entire.Pedicel 0.7 cm long, bracteole serrationsabsent.G.triphyllum (Hochreutiner)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::B32n 26Cape VeredeMorphological features:Shrub, 1.5 m tall, stem pubescent, glanded, leaves petiolate, deeply five lobed, basically constrictedpubescent, one to three minute foliar nectarines, flowers and fruits solitary, pedicels pubescent, bracts three,calyx five lobed, pubescent, glanded, petals smaller than that of Capitis viridis ( 25 mm), dull violet withdarkred spot at base, sparsely glanded, staminal column non- glandular style exceeding the androecium, sparselyglanded, stigmatic lobes decurrent, capsules ovoid.Characters of breeding value:Bacterial blight and jassid resistanceKey character for identification:Sepals smaller in size as compared to thatof G.triphyllum. Petioles smaller than that of Capitis viridis( 25 mm).G.capitis viridisGenomePloidy levelDistributionVerede:::B42n 26CapeMorphological features:Shrub, 1.5 m tall, bed,basically constricted pubescent,onetothreeminutefoliarnectarines, flowers and fruitssolitary, pedicels pubescent, bractsthree, calyx five lobed, pubescent,glanded, petioles about 25 mmlong, yellow with dark red spot atbase, sparsely glanded. Staminalcolumnnonglandularstyleexceeding the androecium, sparselyTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)7

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cottonglanded, stigmatic lobes decurrent, capsules ovoid, beaked, 20 mm long, 3 to 5 locular glanded, seed 6 mmlong, fibres brownish.Characters of breeding value:Immune to bacterial blightKey character for identification:Stigma bifurcated at the tip, petioles about25 mm long.G.sturtianum (J.H.Wills)GenomePloidy levelDistribution: C1: 2n 26: AustraliaMorphological features:Shrub widely branching,2 to 2.5 m tall, stem sent,stipules caduceus, nectarinesreddish, bracts three, calyxprominentlyglanded,petalsviolet with dark maroon spot atthebase, nonglandular,staminal column pallid, glabrousnon-glandular, pinkish anther,pollen yellow to orange. Styleexceeding the androecium, sparsely glanded, capsules ovoid, five loculed, glanded, seeds denselypubescent, brownish fibre.Characters of breeding value:Fibre strength and elongation, resistance tofrost, cold and wilt. Insensitivity to photoperiod.Key character for identification:Flowers violet in colour with dark maroonspot at the base. Anther and filament maroon coloured,highly susceptible to bacterial blight.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)8

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.nandewarenseGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::C1-n2n 26AustraliaMorphological features:A perennial shrub, widelybranching, 1.0 to 1.5 m tall, stemglabrous, glanded, leaves glabrous,glanded, nectary present, stipulescaduceus, nectarines reddish, bractsthree, calyx prominently glanded. It hasnot flowered under the climaticconditions prevailing at Nagpur (Onlyplant photograph is available).Characters of breeding value:Resistance to frost and coldKey character for identification:Plant is similar to that of G.sturtianumbut is shorter i.e. 1.0-1.5 m tallsG.australe (F.Von.Muller)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::C32n 26AustraliaMorphological features:Shrub 2 to 3m tall, stemsoftly stellate, tomentose, glanded,leaves ovate elliptical, stillate,tomentose hairs, elongate reddishfoliar nectary present, involucellarnectaries 1-3, bracts three, calyxbasally constricted, glands presentor absent, petals pink with dark redspot at base, mimutely gland dotted,staminal column pallid, glabrous,without glands, anther pinkish, styleexceeding the androecium, glandeddensely, capsule 3 or 4 celled,glanded,fibrebrownishandstraight. Immune to bacterial blight.Characters of breeding value:Glandless seeds (delayed morphogenesis ofgossypol gland), high GOT and drought resistanceTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)9

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonKey character for identification:Thick and succulent leaf with three lobes.Pinks flowers with dark red spot at thebase.G.thurberi (Todaro)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D2n 26AmericaMorphological features:Perennial upright shrub 2m tall,stem gland dotted pentangular whenyoung, glabrous, leaves with two ridgedpetiole, 3 to 5 deep lobes, glabrous, thecentral lobe basally constricted, singlefoliar nectary near base of the midrib,pedicel surrounded by triangularnectarines, bracts three, calyx glanded,glabrous, petals cream spot present atthe base, bracteole size 0.8 cm longand 0.4 cm wide. Bracteole serrations –nil. Minutely gland dotted, pollen brightyellow, style slightly exceeding theandroecium, capsules glabrous, threeloculed, seeds blackish naked. Bollshape round to oval with pointed tip, smooth surface.Characters of breeding value:Fibre fineness, strength and elongation,resistance to Fusarium wilt, frost andbollworms. Prolific boll bearing, highginning out turn, better spinningKey character for identification:Leaf with distinguished three lobes. Flowerswith cream coloured petals with a spot present at the base.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)10

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.harknessiiGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D2-22n 26AmericaMorphological features:Perennial spreading herb,leaves small, ivy-like, thick, quiteglabrous, faintly 3 lobed, bracteolesbroadly ovate acuminate, entireleaves thick, leathery, prominentlyreticulated, 1.5 inches, ovate rotundcordate, petiole an inch or morelong and equaling the length of theblade. Twigs round, woody, withfirm red bark, wrinkled on dryingglabrous but young shoots, as alsothe petioles prominently glanddotted, bracteoles free, broadlyovate acuminate, entire, less thanhalf the length of the corolla,bracteole 1.1 cm wide. Bracteole serrations nil, apparently caduceus as the fruit ripens. Flowers sulphuryellow in colour, twice the length of the bracteoles, petals with purple spots at the base, calyx truncate,persistent, but ruptured by the fruit, glabrous, many veined, prominently gland dotted. Extra floral and intrafloral nectaries absent. Fruit ovate rotund only slightly pointed, cells three, with four seeds in each cell semiadherent together, woolly coating exceeding short and not separable into two layers or coats.Characters of breeding value :Resistance to Verticillium wilt, Fusariumwilt, drought, source for cytoplasmic male sterility, lustrousfibre, caduceus and narrow bract, fertility restorerKey character for identification:Bushy plant with bright green smoothleaves. Sulphur yellow coloured flower with purple spot atthe base.G.davidsonii (Kelogg)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D3-d2n 26AmericaMorphological features:Perennial upright shrub, stem round, bright red,wrinkled, glabrous and very minutely hairy above.Leaves 1.5 x 5 inches broad, ovate cordate, suddenlyacute but sometimes showing a tendency to be threeangled on upper half, minutely stellately hairy,especially on the veins, petiole nearly as long as theTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)11

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cottonblade 1.6 cm, stipules very minute linear acuminate, caduceus, inflorescence, short axillary shoots, one tothree flowered, peduncle 2 to 3 inches long, bracteoles ovate quite free from each other, extrafloral nectariespresents, glands not visible within, membranous, turning red brown, accrescent, flowers-medium sized, brightyellow with purple claws, calyx, open loose, companulate, many veined with rows of glands and very fewhairs on the veins. Fruit ovate rounded acute, 4 celled, seeds large free, flattened on the face, closelycompacted, golden coloured floss.Characters of breeding value:Resistance to aphids, salinity and bacterialblightKey character for identification:Petiole as long as the blade. Flowers brightyellow with prominent red spot at the baseG.klotzschianumGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D3-k2n 26AmericaMorphological features:Perennial upright shrub to smalltree, having long spreading branches,the twigs smooth, reddish brown andminutely tomentose when young. Stemtip glabrous. Leaves 2.5 inches longand 2 inches broad, gland dotted veryobscure, stellately pubescent, especiallybelow, inflorescence auxillary, lateralshoots with peduncle twice the length ofthe subtended petiole, petiole size 0.6cm on e of to three flowered, bracteolessoftlytomentose,broad,deeplyauriculate, scarcely ovate, the apexbeing rounded, no glands on the pedicelnon extrafloral nectaries absent within the bracteoles, pedicel about 1 inch long, angled and furrowed.Flowers fairly large, 1.5 inches broad, 1/3 exceeding the bracteoles in length, corolla pale yellow, withconvolvulate, petal spot inconspicuous to absent, calyx cut almost square across or with 5 shallowundulations, fruits ovate rounded, 4 celled, seeds large free and flattened on the face.Characters of breeding value:Resistance to sucking pestsKey character for identification:Flowers with pale yellow petals and a veryfaint spot (dotted) at the base; inconspicuousto absent.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)12

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.aridum (Skovsted)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D42n 26AmericaMorphological features:Trees 4 to 8 m tall, black glanded, stemsminutely pubescent, eventually glabrate, leavespetiolate, ovate, pubescent, flowers solitary, orpaired in the leaf axels, nectaries present, 3bractlets, calyx yellowish, corolla funnel shaped,rose, anther purplish, pollen yellow orange, styleexceeding the androecium, gland dotted,stigmatic lobes decurrent, capsules prominentlyblack gland dotted, 3 to 4 celled, seed withdense brown fibres.Characters of breeding value:Resistance to drought, high seed number,seed index, cytoplasmic male sterility and fibre strength.Key character for identification:Tree with upright branches. Flowers pinkwith purplish anthers, corolla funnel shaped.G.raimondii (Ulbrich)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D52n 26AmericaMorphological features:Perennial upright shrub tosmall tree, stem tip densely hairy.Leaf nectaries absents, stem softlytomentose, gland dotted, pentangular,leaves broadly ovate, tomentoseglanded, with one to three foliarnectaries,pubescent,bracteoleserrations generally 20 in number,narrow, long and prominently marked,calyx truncate, gland dotted, corollacream with petal spot, staminalcolumn sparsely glanded, purplish,style exceeding the androecium,anther dark red, non-glandular. Largecream coloured flowered with purplish pink spot spread at the base of each petal. Stigma protruding about 1.5cm long. Capsules four celled, densely glanded, seeds densely pubescent, fibres tan, more or lessappressed. Bolls elongated with pointed tip, surface slightly pitted.Characters of breeding value :Fibre length, fibre strength and elongation,fibre fineness, resistance to bollworm,Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)13

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cottonjassids, drought, thrips, leaf roller, rust,bacterial blight, high lint index, high ginningout turn.Key character for identification:Flowers large with cream coloured petalsand purplish pink spot spread at the base ofeach petal, anther and filament purplishpink.G.gossypioides (Standley)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D62n 26AmericaMorphological features:A shrub 3 to 4m tall, stems pubescentwith green tip and very short dense hair, leavescordate, three lobed, glanded , nectaries absent,bracts three, calyx glanded prominently,truncate, petals light pink, dark red or purple spotat lower half, staminal column gland dotted,filaments purplish, yellow anther, style exceedingthe androecium, prominently glandular, capsule3 celled, ovoid, apiculate, glanded, seeds withsparse appressed fibre.Characters of breeding value:Resistance to jassidsKey character for identification:Flowers light pink with red or purplish petalspot and purplish filaments.G.lobatum (Gentry)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D72n 26AmericaMorphological features:Trees 3 to 7m tall, branches , obscurely gland dotted pubescent,flowers and fruits in fascieles of one to five in theleaf axils, bracts broadly triangular, glanded, calyxyellowish, densely pubescent, petals lavenderwith dark purplish spot covering lower half ofpetal, staminal column long, anther um, slender, capsules 3 celled, minutelypubescent, prominently gland dotted, seeds several per locule, fibres whitish to tan.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)14

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonCharacters of breeding value:Resistance to bollwormKey character for identification:Big tree, flowers lavender with dark purplishspot covering lower half of petal. Floweringfrom January to April. Most of the leavesshed before flowering.G.trilobum (Skovsted)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::D82n 26AmericaMorphological features:A shrub, 2.5 m tall, stem minutely dotted,stem tip green, glabrous, pentangular, pubescentleaves with quadrangular petioles, extrafloralnectaries present and intrafloral nectaries absent,bracteole size 1.2 cm long and 0.1 cm wide, calyxprominently gland dotted, petals pale yellow withsmall red spot, glanded, staminal column pallid,gland dotted, style slender, exceeding theandroecium, anther yellow and slightly protrudingstigma, capsule glabrous, 3 loculed, seedsblackish, angular with minute tan fuzz. Boll shapeoval with pointed tip and pitted surface.Characters of breeding value:Glabrous leavesKey character for identification:Leaves with distinguished three lobes andeach lobe is broader as compared toG.thurberi, petals pale yellow with small redspot at the base.G.stocksiiGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::E12n 26AmericaMorphological features:A small perennial, much branched,woody shrub, leaves usually not more than 1inch each way, more rarely three lobed orsimple. Inflorescence on lateral axillary shoots,1 to 2 inches long, arrested by the production ofone or more flowers and a few small leaves.Bracteoles 3, quite free from each othertapering below into thick prominent claws,inserted near the base of the calyx tube.Flowers large, fully twice the length of theTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)15

Wild and Cultivated Species of Cottonbracteoles, yellow, gland dotted, with faint irregular red spot at the base, the older flowers having a pinkishtinge, petals rotating to right, firmly united by their claws, and inconsequence forming a short constricted tube,sparsely hairy. Pollen grains pale yellow having the surface of the exine packed with short sharp spines. Fruitprominently dotted with black glands on a dark green blue surface, 3 celled, seeds 2 to 3 in each cell closelycompacted together, seed smooth, black coloured, slightly beaked fibre brownish in colour.Characters of breeding value:Fibre yield strength, elongation, resistanceto drought.Key character for identification:Plant very small and bushy. Flowers lightyellow with faint irregular spot at the base, petals rotating toright. Older flowers have apinkish tinge.G.somalense (Hutchinson)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::E22n 26AfricaMorphological features:Perennial upright shrub 3 m tall, stemstellate to tomentose, green, stem tip lightlyhairy, leaves petiolate, cordate, tomentose,nectary on midrib, beneath, bracts three,garlanded, clayx five lobed, tomentose, blackglands, petals yellow with prominent dark redspot at base anther and pollen yellow withprotruding stigma, non-glandular, staminalcolumn glabrous, non-glandular, styal glanddotted, capsules ovoid beaked, three or fourcelled, glanded, seeds densely pubescent,fibres brownish. Pedicel size 2.0cm extrafloral nectaries present, intrafloral nectaries absent. Bracteole size 4.0 cm long and 3.4 cm wide, serrations12-15 resembling saw teeth.Characters of breeding value:Resistance to bollworm and drought.Key character for identification:Bracts convolulated. Flowers with yellowpetals and prominent dark red spot at thebase.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)16

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonG.longicalyx (Hutchinson and Lee)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::F12n 26AfricaMorphological features:A perennial crawling shrub withslender stem, pubescent, us foliar nectary, involucellernectary lacking, bract 3 entire, pedicelsize 1.5 cm extra floral nectaries absent,pollen colour deep yellow, stigma nonprotruding,glanddottedcalyxprominently glanded, deeply dividedlobes triangular, petal long yellow,minutely glanded, pubescent, staminalcolumn pallid, glabrous, non-glandular,style exceeding androecium, capsulesovoid, 3 locule, glanded, seed 2 to 3 per locule, denely pubescent, lintless, boll shape elongated with pointedtip.Characters of breeding value:Key character for identification:Probable source of cytoplasmic malesterility, fibre length, strength, enlongationand fineness.Perennial crawling shrub with bright greenelongated leaves and yellow flowers withoutpetal spot.G.bickii (Prokhanov)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::G12n 26AustraliaMorphological features:Spreading shrub, 0.5 m tall,stems glanded, pubescent, leaves ovateelliptical, sometimes three lobed,inconspicuous foliar nectary, threeprominent involuceller nectaries, bracts3, linear, shorter than calyx, broadlycompanulate, five lobed, prominentlygland dotted, petal pink with red spot atthe base, minutely gland dotted,staminal column pallid, glabrous, nonlandular, anther pallid. Style glanded,capsules 3-5 loculed; prominentlyglanded, long beaked, seed denselypubescent with tightly appressed.Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)17

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonCharacters of breeding value:Glandless seedKey character for identification:Spreading shrub with ovate elliptical threelobed leaves. Flowers pink with red spot atthe base.G.hirsutum (cultivated)GenomePloidy levelDistribution:::(AD)12n 52AmericaMorphological features:Annual shrub, stem tip green to pigmented, glabrous to densely hairy. Leaf broad to very narrow,nectaries present, pedicel large variable, bracteole size large but variable, serrations few to several. Corollayellow, petal spot usually absent. Anther colour greenish to yellow. Stigma generally non protruding. Bollround, oval or elongated large. Locules 3-5, generally smooth, tip blunt, lint white, cream, brown, green etc.Characters of breeding value :Fibre yield, length, strength, fineness andelongation, resistance to Verticillium wiltKey character for identification:Flower yellow and petal spot usually absentsRaces of G.hirsutum:Latifolium, Punctatum, Morilli,Richmondii, Palmeri, Marie Galente, andYucatenense.G.barbadenseGenomePloidy levelDistribution:::(AD)22n 52AmericaMorphological features:A shrub, 1.5 to 2 m tall, broad leaves, slightly hairy with deep 3-5 lobes. Nectaries present, stemweak, pedicel 1.0 cm. long, bracteole size 3.0-3.5 cm, fused at base, serrations 8-13 in number. Corollayellow, size 4.5-5.5 cm, petal spot present, anther yellow, pollen yellow, stigma protruding, boll elongated,locules 3, slightly pitted, tip pointed, lint white.Characters of breeding value :Fibre finenessKey character for identification:Petal spot present, deeply pitted pointedbolls.Races of G.barbadense:BrasilienseTechnical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)18

Wild and Cultivated Species of CottonUTILISATION OF WILD SPECIESIn cotton, introgressive hybridisation has played significant role in transferring fibre quality; diseaseand insect resistance, drought resistance, and male sterility from various species, besides improvement inyield by releasing hybrids. These aspects are briefly discussed below: Improvement in QualityIn cotton, improvement in fibre quality has been achieved through interspecific hybridisation. Forexample, high fibre length from G.thurberi, G.raimondii and G.barbadense has been transferred toupland cotton (G.hirsutum). High fibre strength of G.thyrberi has been transferred to G.arboreum toG.herbaceum. In India, two long staple varieties of upland cotton, viz. MCU 2 and MCU 5 have beenobtained by long duration selection from G.hirsutum x G.barbadense cross followed by further seriesof multiple cross. In G.hirsutum, ginning percentage has been improved through the use ofG.armourianum. Long staple G.arboreum variety AKA 8401 has been obtained from a cross betweenG.arboreum and G.anomalum. Disease ResistanceIntrogressive hybridisation has been useful in transferrin

3 Wild and Cultivated Species of Cotton 27. G.armouianum D2-1 America 28. G.harknessii D2-2 America 29. G.klotzschianum D3-K America 30. G.davidsonii D3-d America 31. G.aridum D4 America 32. G.raimondii D5 America 33. G.gossypioides D6 America 34. G.lobatum D7 America 35. G.trilobum D8 America 36. G.laxum D9 America 37. G.turneri “D .

Related Documents:

STRUCTURAL GENOMICS OF Fragaria—WILD AND CULTIVATED STRAWBERRIES By Denise Cristina Manfrim Tombolato August 2007 Chair: Kevin M. Folta Major: Horticultural Science The extensive phenotypic variability and complex genetic makeup of the cultivated strawberry Fragaria ananassa permits advances in plant improvement, a factor breeders have

Three approaches to protecting wild species: ecosystem approach: aims to preserve balanced populations of species in their native habitats; species approach: based on identifying & protecting endangered species on a case–by– case basis; wildlife management approach: manages game species for sustained yield. 4. Protecting Wild .

2 small cold brooks. Of the trout species, wild Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were the most commonly occurring species (88% of total wild trout), followed by wild Brown Trout (Salmo trutta; 12% of total wild trout), with wild Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) being rare ( 1% of total wild trout).onnecticut's climate and landscape has changed over the approximately thirty-year period .

prior hypotheses and identify novel genome origins never before proposed. The data will be useful to help design crossing strategies to incorporate wild species germplasm into cultivated potato. The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, has about 190 wild species tuber-bearing relatives, for

such species. h) "Convention" means the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) concluded on March 3, 1973 at Washington D.C., the United States of America. i) "Vulnerable wild fauna or flora" means any species or sub-species of the wild fauna or flora referred to in Appendix -2

San Juan Rabbits, Jack Rabbits or any other species of wild rabbit or hare Any member of the family Cervidae (to include but not be limited to deer, elk, moose, caribou), species of coyote, species of fox, species of raccoon, species of skunk, wild rodent, or strain of wild turkey, from any area outside the state of Alabama.

Summary 1st species: note against note 2nd species: 2 notes against 1 3rd species: 4 (or 3 notes, in ¾ time) against 1 4th species: note against note, but syncopated (suspensions) 5th species: florid counterpoint (varied rhythms, see below) Note that repeated notes are not used in species counterpoint, with one minor exception in 5th species. In the 5th species, the rhythms of the 2nd, 3rd .

Annual Women's Day Celebration Theme: Steadfast and Faithful Women 1993 Bethel African Methodi st Epi scopal Church Champaign, Illinois The Ministry Thi.! Rev. Sleven A. Jackson, Pastor The Rev. O.G. Monroe. Assoc, Minister The Rl. Rev. James Haskell Mayo l1 ishop, f7011rt h Episcop;l) District The Rev. Lewis E. Grady. Jr. Prc. i ding Elder . Cover design taken from: Book of Black Heroes .