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The University of the State of New York THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Albany, New York 12234 www.nysed.govcm 1Earth Science Reference Tables21414KUranium-238URubidium-87Rb5.7 1040Ar40Ca401.3 103Water94.5 10874.9 10Pb87Sr100. released during freezing.Energy released during condensation.540 calories/gram540 calories/gram1.00 gram/milliliterrate of change Density of a substancedensity change in field valuetimemassvolume21Rate of changechange in field valuedistance20gradient 19Gradient18eccentricity distance between focilength of major axis17Eccentricity of an ellipse16deviation (%) 15difference from accepted value 100accepted valuePercent deviationfrom accepted value14EQUATIONS13Density at 3.98 C.80 calories/gram12Energy gained during vaporization80 calories/gram11Energy gained during melting10Properties of Water9Dry as8Potassium-40NSPECIFIC HEAT(calories/gram C ON4RADIOACTIVEISOTOPE3Specific Heats of Common MaterialsRadioactive Decay DataCAUTION: Based on your printer settings, ruler may not have printed exactly to scale.PHYSICAL CONSTANTS22EURYPTERUS24New York State Fossil2594-095 ESRT pdf 1,2 CDC232001 EDITIONThis edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables should be used in theclassroom beginning in the 2000–2001 school year. The first examinationfor which these tables will be used is the January 2001 RegentsExamination in Earth Science.


}}limestones, shales, sandstones, and dolostones}CAMBRIAN and EARLY ORDOVICIAN sandstones and dolostonesModerately to intensely metamorphosed east of the Hudson River.CAMBRIAN and ORDOVICIAN (undifferentiated) quartzites, dolostones, marbles, and schistsIntensely metamorphosed; includes portions of the Taconic Sequence and Cortlandt Complex.TACONIC SEQUENCE sandstones, shales, and slatesSlightly to intensely metamorphosed rocks of CAMBRIAN through MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ages.MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC gneisses, quartzites, and marblesLines are generalized structure trends.Intensely Metamorphosed Rocks(regional metamorphism about 1,000 m.y.a.)MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC anorthositic rocksORDOVICIANCAMBRIANCRETACEOUS, TERTIARY, PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and claysLATE TRIASSIC and EARLY JURASSIC conglomerates, red sandstones, red shales, and diabase (in Palisades Sill)PENNSYLVANIAN and MISSISSIPPIAN conglomerates, sandstones, and shalesDEVONIANlimestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomeratesSilurian also contains salt, gypsum, and hematite.SILURIANGEOLOGICAL PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORKmodified fromGEOLOGICAL SURVEYNEW YORK STATE MUSEUM1989Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York Stateara RiveragNiEarth Science Reference Tables — 2001 dimentaryOriginNGLOO UNDAND SISLN

Surface Ocean Currents4Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition5KEY:FijiPlateMid-Ocean RidgeDivergent Plate Boundary(usually broken by transformfaults along mid-ocean ridges)PhilippinePlateConvergent Plate Boundary(Subduction Zone)subductingplateoverridingplateTransform Plate Boundary(Transform Fault)SandwichPlateTectonic PlatesMid-Atlantic RidgeRelative Motionat Plate BoundaryMantleHot SpotNOTE: Not all plates and boundaries are shown.Complex or UncertainPlate Boundary

Rock Cycle in Earth’s CrustRelationship of TransportedParticle Size to Water VelocityDepos itionSEDIMENTSn/or Pressuret a ndHea tamorphismMereio nlift)os(Up & ErringtheWealtingMeMeltingli dPEBBLES0.2 cm0.1SAND0.010.006 cm0.001SILT0.0004 cm0.00010.00001IGNEOUSROCKSo1.0CLAY0100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800STREAM VELOCITY (cm/sec)*This generalized graph shows the water velocity needed tomaintain, but not start, movement. Variations occur due todifferences in particle density and shape.ificMETAMORPHICROCKBOULDERS25.6 cmCOBBLES6.4 cm10.0MAGMAPumiceVesicular Basaltic GlassVesicular aspockets)FineCoarseNonvesicularVeryCoarseMAFIC (Fe, Mg)100%100%Potassiumfeldspar(pink to white)75%Quartz(clear towhite)75%Plagioclase feldspar(white to IZENoncrystallineBasaltic bsidian(usually appears black)FELSIC (Al)MINERAL COMPOSITION(Relative by Volume)CHARACTERISTICSIGNEOUS ROCKSENVIRONMENT OF FORMATIONScheme for Igneous Rock Identification10 mm 1 mmless thanorto1 mmlarger 10 mmMeltingHeat and/or Pressu(UpWelift)athering& ErosioErosionSEDIMENTARYROCKMetamorphismPARTICLE DIAMETER (cm)100.0(Uplift)Weathering & Erosioneonat h Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Scheme for Sedimentary Rock IdentificationINORGANIC LAND-DERIVED SEDIMENTARY ROCKSTEXTUREGRAIN SIZECOMPOSITIONCOMMENTSROCK NAMEaMAP SYMBOLaPebbles, cobbles,and/or bouldersembedded in sand,silt, and/or clayClastic(fragmental)Sand(0.2 to 0.006 cm)Silt(0.006 to 0.0004 cm)Clay(less than 0.0004 cm)Rounded fragmentsMostlyquartz,feldspar, andclay minerals;may containfragments ofother rocksand mineralsConglomerateBrecciaAngular fragmentsFine to coarseSandstoneVery fine grainSiltstoneCompact; may spliteasilyShaleCHEMICALLY AND/OR ORGANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKSTEXTUREGRAIN iteMicroscopic to coarseCalciteCemented shellfragments or precipitatesof biologic originLimestoneVariedCarbonFrom plant remainsCoalCrystallineBioclasticCOMMENTSROCK NAMERock SaltCrystals fromchemicalprecipitatesand evaporitesRock GypsumDolostoneScheme for Metamorphic Rock IdentificationGRAINSIZETYPE OFMETAMORPHISMRegionalFinetomedium(Heat andpressureincreasewith QuartzFinetocoarseLow-grademetamorphism of shaleFoliation surfaces shiny frommicroscopic mica crystalsROCK NAMESlatePhyllitePlaty mica crystals visible frommetamorphism of clay orfeldsparsSchistHigh-grade metamorphism;some mica changed to feldspar;segregated by mineral typeinto bandsGneissVarious rocks changed byheat from nearbymagma/lavaHornfelsMetamorphism of quartzsandstoneQuartziteMetamorphism oflimestone or dolostoneMarbleRegionalCalcite and/ordolomiteorContactCoarseCOMMENTSVarious mineralsin particlesand matrixEarth Science Reference Tables — 2001 EditionPebbles may be distortedor stretchedMetaconglomerate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAP SYMBOLMAP SYMBOL7

GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF NEW YORK riodEpochLife on EarthMillions of years agoMESOZOICCRETACEOUSImportant GeologicEvents in New YorkInferred Position ofEarth’s TEOldest microfossilsEarliest reptilesExtensive coal-forming forestsMIDDLE418LATESILURIANEARLYCFEarliest insectsEarliest land plants and animalsPeak development of eurypteridsELATEORDOVICIANInvertebrates dominant– mollusks become abundantDiverse coral and echinodermsMIDDLE490Estimated time of originof Earth and solar systemLATEMIDDLEGraptolites abundantEarliest fishAlgal reefsBurgess shale faunaEarliest chordates, diverse trilobitesEarliest trilobitesEarliest marine animals with shellsEARLYGI443Oldest known rocksPassive MarginRiftingAppalachian (Alleghanian) Orogenycaused by collision of North Americaand Africa along transform margin,forming PangeaBDHKNMQPEarth’s firstcoral reefXZVYUTWJA1300Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 EditionPassive MarginRiftingEdiacaran faunaSoft-bodied organismsCRETACEOUS119 millionyearsagoTRIASSIC232 millionyearsagoCatskill Delta formsErosion of Acadian MountainsR54458059 millionyearsagoEarth’sfirst forest362EARLYGeochemical evidencefor oldest biologicalfixing of carbonAbundant sharks and amphibiansLarge and numerous scale treesand seed fernsEarliest amphibians, ammonoids, sharksExtinction of armored fish, otherfish abundantTERTIARYExtensive erosionTransform CollisionLATEPENNSYLVANIANZIntrusion of Palisades sillPangea begins to break upContinental Collision290YInitial opening of Atlantic OceanNorth America and Africa ansition toatmospherecontainingoxygenModern coral groups appearEarliest dinosaurs and mammals withabundant cycads and conifersExtinction of many kinds of marineanimals, including trilobitesFirst mammal-like reptilesXDevelopment of passive continental marginVASCULAR PLANTSPALEOZOICLATEMIDDLEEARLY 251LATEWSands and shales underlying Long Island and StatenIsland deposited on margin of Atlantic OceanPLACODERMFISHTRIASSIC206CAMBRIAN8VUAdvance and retreat of last continental iceUplift of Adirondack regionEarliest birdsAbundant dinosaurs and ericaLATEJURASSICEARLYEarliest flowering plantsDecline of brachiopodsDiverse bony fishesEARLYFirstappearanceof olepisNaples tiphyllumTime Distribution of FossilsRockRecord (Including Important Fossils of New York)inLettered circles indicate the approximate time of existence of a specificNYS index fossil (e.g. Fossillived at the end of the Early isHOLOCENE 00.01PLEISTOCENE 1.6 Humans, mastodonts, mammothsPLIOCENE 5.3 Large carnivoresAbundant grazing mammalsMIOCENE24 Earliest grassesOLIGOCENELarge running mammalsEOCENE 33.7 Many modern groups of mammals54.8PALEOCENE65 Extinction of dinosaurs and ammonoidsEarliest placental mammalsLATEClimax of dinosaurs and ammonoidsEARLYLATEARCHEANP R E C A M B R I A illions of years ITESBADINOSAURS(Fossils not drawn to scale)Acadian Orogeny caused by collision ofNorth America and Avalon and closingof remaining part of Iapetus OceanDEVONIAN/MISSISSIPPIAN 362 millionyearsagoSalt and gypsum deposited in evaporite basinsErosion of Taconic Mountains; Queenston Delta formsTaconian Orogeny caused by closing ofwestern part of Iapetus Ocean andcollision between North America andvolcanic island arcORDOVICIAN458 millionyearsagoIapetus passive margin formsRifting and initial opening of Iapetus OceanErosion of Grenville MountainsGrenville Orogeny: Ancestral AdirondackMtns. and Hudson Highlands formedStromatolites99-098 CDK(rev) 8/2000Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition9


Average Chemical Compositionof Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and TroposphereCRUSTELEMENT(symbol)Oxygen (O)Silicon (Si)Aluminum (Al)Iron (Fe)Calcium (Ca)Sodium (Na)Magnesium (Mg)Potassium (K)Nitrogen (N)Hydrogen (H)OtherPercent byMassPercent 80.480.491.181.110.331.42HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHEREPercent byPercent uake P-wave and S-wave Travel Time24232221201918S17TRAVEL TIME (minutes)16151413121110P9876543211Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition2345673EPICENTER DISTANCE ( 10 km)891011

Dewpoint Temperatures ( C)Dry-BulbTemperature ( C)– 12141618202224262830Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C )0– 121416182022242628301– 33– 28– 24– 1921232527292– 36– 28– 325273456789101112131415– 29– 22–17 – 29–13 – 20– 9 –15 – 24– 6 –11 –17– 4 – 7 –11 –19–1 – 4 – 7 –13 – 211 – 2 – 5 – 9 –141 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 – 28441 – 2 – 5 – 9 –166641 – 2 – 5 –10 –1799741 –1 – 6 –10 –1711119742 – 2 – 5 –10 –191314 12 10742 –2 – 5 –10 –19153–1 – 5 –10 –1916 14 1210851762 –1 – 5 –10 –1818 16 1412 10820960 –4 –920 18 1715 131132211941 –322 21 1917 161472412 1085124 23 2119 1816 1426Relative Humidity (%)Dry-BulbTemperature ( C)– 1214161820222426283012Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C 326295101418212549131720491216Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

PressureTemperatureFahrenheitCelsius110Water boils220Human 0.030.103101016.030.00300oneatmosphere 1012.01013.2 00035029060201032.032040Ice 9.2029.10984.0Weather Map Symbols980.0Station ModelTemperature ( F)Present weatherVisibility (mi)Dewpoint ( F)2812 27Wind speedwhole feather 10 knotshalf feather 5 knotstotal 15 knotsPresent WeatherDrizzleRainSmogHail SnowSleetFreezingRainFogHazeEarth Science Reference Tables — 2001 EditionAmount of cloud cover(approximately 75% covered)Barometric pressure196 (1019.6 mb)Barometric trend 19/ (a steady 1.9-mb risethe past 3 hours).25 Precipitation(inches past 6 hours) 0Wind direction(from the southwest)(1 knot 1.15 mi/hr)Air MassesThunderRainstorms Showers 29.00Front SymbolscA continental arcticColdcP continental polarWarmcT continental tropicalmT maritime tropicalmP maritime polarHurricaneStationaryOccluded13

Selected Propertiesof Earth’s Atmospheremikm pause5025Stratosphere100 10–410–310–210–110 00 –100 15 –90 –55 Temperature ( C)02040Concentration(g/m3)Pressure .11.0101001,000Electromagnetic Spectrum0.000,000,01cm 10–1000.000,000,001cm0.000,000,000,1Sea Level �510–410–310–210–1100101102103Gamma raysx raysVisibleMicrowavesUltravioletInfraredRadio wavesDecreasing WavelengthIncreasing WavelengthVisible Light7.0 10–5Red6.3 10–5Orange5.8 104.9 10Yellow–5Green5.3 10–5Blue–54.3 10–54.0 10–5VioletTropopausePolar Front Jet StreamDRYPolar FrontN.E.WET60 NS.W.WINDSDRY30 NN.E.WINDS0 WETSubtropicalJet StreamsS.E.WINDSDRYN.W.WINDSWET30 SPlanetary Windand Moisture Beltsin the TroposphereThe drawing to the left showsthe locations of the belts nearthe time of an equinox. Thelocations shift somewhat withthe changing latitude of theSun’s vertical ray. In theNorthern Hemisphere, the beltsshift northward in summer andsouthward in winter.60 SS.E.DRY14Polar Front Jet StreamEarth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition

Luminosity and Temperature of Stars(Name in italics refers to star shown by a )Luminosity (Relative to the geuse 10,000Luminosity is thebrightness of starscompared to thebrightness of ourSun as seen fromthe same distancefrom the observer.Supergiants Polaris Main SRed Giants Aldebaranequ100ence Sirius1Sun Alpha CentauriWhite Dwarfs Procyon B0.01RedDwarfsBarnard’sStar SmallStars0.000120,000White StarsColorBlue Stars5,00010,000Temperature ( C)Yellow Stars2,500Red StarsSolar System DataObjectMean Distancefrom Sun(millions of km)PeriodofRevolutionPeriodofRotationEccentricity EquatorialofDiameterOrbit(km)SUN——27 days—MERCURY57.988 days59 days0.2064,880VENUS108.2224.7 days243 days0.007EARTH149.6365.26 days23 hr56 min4 secMARS227.9687 daysJUPITER778.3333,000.00Density Number3of(g/cm 05.5124 hr37 min23 sec0.0936,7870.10743.9211.86 years9 hr50 min30 .78SATURN1,42729.46 yearsURANUS2,86984.0 yearsNEPTUNE4,496164.8 yearsPLUTO5,900247.7 years6 days9 hr0.2502,3000.00252.0127.3 days27 days8 hr0.0553,4760.01233.3—EARTH’SMOON149.6(0.386 from Earth)Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Editionhrminhrminhr1,392,000Mass(Earth 1)15

EitherMetallic (S)MINERAL NAMECOMPOSITION*1–2 silver tograyblack streak,greasy feelpencil lead,lubricantsGraphiteC2.5 metallicsilververy dense (7.6 g/cm3),gray-black streakore ofleadGalenaPbS5.5–6.5 black tosilverattracted by magnet,black streakore ofironMagnetiteFe3O46.5 brassyyellowgreen-black streak,cubic crystalsore ofsulfurPyriteFeS21–6.5 metallic silver orearthy redred-brown streakoreof ironHematiteFe2O3white togreengreasy feeltalcum powder,soapstoneTalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2yellow toambereasily melted,may smellvulcanize rubber,sulfuric acidSulfurS1 2Nonmetallic LusterFRACTUREHARDNESSCLEAVAGELUSTERProperties of Common Minerals2 white topink or grayeasily scratchedby fingernailplaster of parisand drywallGypsum(Selenite)CaSO4 2H2O2–2.5 colorless toyellowflexible inthin sheetselectricalinsulatorMuscovite MicaKAl3Si3O10(OH)22.5 colorless towhitecubic cleavage,salty tastefood additive,melts iceHaliteNaCl2.5–3 black todark brownflexible inthin sheetselectricalinsulatorBiotite MicaK(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)23 colorlessor variablebubbleswith acidcement,polarizing prismsCalciteCaCO33.5 colorlessor variablebubbles with acidwhen powderedsource ofmagnesiumDolomiteCaMg(CO3)24 colorless orvariablecleaves in4 directionshydrofluoricacidFluoriteCaF25–6 black todark greencleaves in2 directions at 90 mineralcollectionsPyroxene(commonly Augite)(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O65.5 black todark greencleaves at56 and 124 mineralcollections6 white topinkcleaves in2 directions at 90 ceramicsand glassPotassium Feldspar(Orthoclase)KAlSi3O86 white tograycleaves in 2 directions,striations visibleceramicsand glassPlagioclase Feldspar(Na-Ca Feldspar)(Na,Ca)AlSi3O8furnace bricksand y Almandine)Fe3Al2Si3O126.5 green togray or browncommonly light greenand granular7 colorless orvariableglassy luster, may formhexagonal crystals7 dark redto greenglassy luster, often seen as redgrains in NYS metamorphic rocks*Chemical Symbols:Al aluminumC carbonCa calciumCl chlorineF fluorineFe ironH hydrogenK potassiumMg magnesiumCaNa(Mg,Fe)4 (Al,Fe,Ti)3Amphiboles(commonly Hornblende)Si6O22(O,OH)2glass, jewelry,and electronicsjewelry andabrasivesNa sodiumO oxygenPb leadS sulfurSi siliconTi titanium dominant form of breakage16DET 633 (0-00-00,000)Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition9-073587 99-098 CDK

N Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition 3 Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State modified from GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 1989 N i a g a r R i v e r GEOLOGICAL PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORK CRETACEOUS, TERTIARY, PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays File Size: 960KBPage Count: 15Explore furtherEarth Science Reference Tables (ESRT) New York State .www.nysmigrant.orgNew York State Science Reference Tables (Refrence Tables)newyorkscienceteacher.comEarth Science - New York Regents January 2006 Exam .www.syvum.comEarth Science - New York Regents January 2006 Exam .www.syvum.comEarth Science Textbook Chapter PDFs - Boiling Springs High .smsdhs.ss13.sharpschool.comRecommended to you b

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