Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 225International Conference on Business, Economic, Social Sciences and Humanities (ICOBEST 2018)Semiotic Analysis of Space and Time in the FilmWantoroVisual Communication Design ProgramUniversitas Komputer IndonesiaBandung, Jawa Barat - Indonesiawantoro@email.unikom.ac.idAbstract— Time Machine is a science-fiction film producedin 2002, which is an adaptation of the same novel titled HG Wellswritten in 1895. Time Machine film tells of a scientist, andinventor named Alexander Hartdegen living in Manhattan, NewYork who is determined to prove that time travel is somethingthat is possible to do. The determination to make the journeyacross time itself is caused by the despair of the past personaltragedy that prompted him to change the past. Through testinga number of theories ultimately Hartdegen found the timemachine and can travel time began to return to his past untilgliding into the next 800,000 years and find new reality and newrealities that are much different from his time. In this research,the writer will review and analyze Time Machine film throughsemiotic method, especially Space and Time Semiotics. In theapplication, the author will select some scenes in the film to beanalyzed. This research is important to do as an effort to knowthe existence of space and time as a marker and marker in a filmwork.Time Machine film tells the story of a scientist and inventornamed Alexander Hartdegen (played by Guy Pearce) who livesin Manhattan, New York who is determined to prove that timetravel is something that is possible to do.Determination of traveling across time alone is caused by adesperate attitude because of a bad personal tragedy in the pastthat encouraged him to change the past. The bad tragedy wasthe death of her lover named Emma who was shot by a robberin 1899 in a park. Through testing a number of theories,Hartdegen finally found a time machine that could travel timeback to its past. Not only in the past, the time machine can alsobring it to the next few years like 2030, 2037 to 800,000 yearsinto the future, where it finds reality and new realities that arefar different from its time. This film is very interesting to watchbecause there are many leaps of space and time.Keywords—Semiotic, Space, Time, Film, MachineI. INTRODUCTIONFilm is a form of narrative that is built by sequences ofscenes that form a story. As a product of popular culture, filmis one of the favorite pastimes of the people. Films usually tellthings that have happened or will happen. The telling of timein the film can be through forward or backward grooves. Somefilms even directly tell things in the past and in the futurethrough a combination of back and forth grooves.One film that tells the past and the future is a TimeMachine. This film is a science fiction film produced in 2002and is an adaptation of the same titled novel by HG Wells(1895) published by the publisher William Heinamann.Fig. 2. Time Machine Film PosterFig. 1. First Edition Cover Novel Time MachineThe article, entitled “Semiotic Analysis of Space and Timein the Time Machine”, will analyze the phenomenon of spaceand time experienced by Alexander Hartdegen. A journalentitled "Perjalanan Fantasi Menembus Ruang dan Waktu"written by Sudjadi Tjipto R , actually raised the same thing.But in the journal, the research only focuses on the space andtime that occurred in 2030 and did not elaborate on the overallflow of the film. In addition, research on time space that is areference is research conducted by Siswanto , andTandyonomanu & Bahfiarti .This research will usesemiotics methodology specifically related to space and time.It is hoped that with this methodology, it can be seen how TimeMachine's film as a narrative builds messages from manyCopyright 2018, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license 98
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 225spatial signs and phenomena and their relationship to thephenomena of life today. Some other studies on films that usesemiotics include Roszainora with the title Semiotic Analysisof a Media Text of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship ofthe Ring published by Canadian Social Sciences Vol. 5 No.42009 . and Alvior . titled Semiotic Analysis on JamesCameron Selected Science Fiction Movies.II. METHODIn this study, the author will use semiotics. The wordsemiotics comes from the Greek, which is "Semeion" whichmeans sign. Semiotics itself is a study of a sign. Semiotics isthe study of signs and the way the sign works (John Fiske,2007). Semiotics studies systems, rules, conventions thatallow signs to have meaning. Understanding the sign itself issomething that can conventionally replace or representsomething else. According to F. de Saussure, the sign has 2(two) entities namely signifier (sign) and signified (sign) ormeans of sign and meaning . The relationship between themarker and this marker is arbiter (free). In general, semioticsis divided into 3 basic concepts, namely pragmatic semiotics(describing the origin of the sign, the sign function by theimplementer, and the effect of the sign for interpreting, withinthe limits of subject behavior), synthetic semiotics (describingthe combination of signs without regard to their meaning orrelationship towards subject behavior) and semantic semiotics(describing the meaning of a sign according to the 'meaning'conveyed). Semiotics, as a sign of science, was chosen as amethodology for analyzing Time Machine films because ingeneral films were designed with several signs. These signswork together in an effort to achieve the expected impact bythe filmmaker in the form of a specific message to theaudience.The first stage in this study was to collect data in the filmof "Time Machine" (2002) produced by DreamWorks &Warner Bross Pictures. The first approach is observation ordirect observation of Time Machine films by watching it. Inobservation or direct observation, researchers will record andrecord some important things in the film. Researchers will alsodocument several important scenes by capturing them. Thenext approach used is literature study. Literature study is thestudy of data collection using media such as books, articlesand scientific research on the design of visual communication,films, signs and related research methodologies. Some articlesfrom related print and internet media sources are also used.After data is collected, the next step is to process data byselecting, classifying and preparing data. At this stage, thewriter will choose several scenes that represent space and timemarks in the film. The selected scene will be analyzed in thenext stage. The film analysis process will be carried out by identifyingchanges in space and time markers in several scenes. Changesin time and space will arise from the visual differences thatarise where the figure (Alexander Hartdegen) is likearchitecture, life, and so on. Visualization of space and time isa representation of the era visited by Alexander Hartdegenusing the time machine he made. The author will selectseveral scenes selected from the film. After the object data isanalyzed, and obtained temporary results, the next thing to dois to check the validity of the results. The purpose of this is sothat the research carried out results in objective and scientificdata, so that results can be accounted for and useful.III. RESULTSTime Machine is a film (narration) that presents severaldifferent space and time settings. This is because the maincharacters in the film make several time trips for both the futureand the past. The story of time travel itself began whenAlexander Hartdegen (the main character & inventor of thetime machine) made his first trip back to the past 1899 (4 yearsback) using a time machine from his findings from his officein Manhattan, New York. to correct a grim story about thedeath of of chairs and numbers is created with fullconfidentiality.Fig. 7. Spiders that build their nestsIn addition, the camera also highlights the changing shapeof the city to modern and sophisticated. This can be seen fromthe sign of the emergence of tall buildings and airplanes.Fig. 4. Alexander Hartdegen with Time MachineWhen the first time the engine is used, the camera framehighlights a classic clock whose clock rotates rapidlybackwards.Fig. 8. Illustration of changes in the shape of the cityD. 2030When Alexander Hartdegen and his time machine landedin 2030, it was seen how environmental changes occurred. Thiswas further strengthened by the sign of the emergence ofdigital billboards with the words "The Future is Now".Fig. 5. Illustration when goes back to 1899It also looks at the time-numbered machine in the setting togo back to 1899.400
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 225Fig. 9. Alexander Hartdegen arrived in 2030Fig. 12. Time Machine from 2037 to 802,721Buildings in 2030 also look more minimalist and modern.Very busy human life is also raised with the crowds of peoplewho walk and use bicycles in their activities.The journey of time that is too far results in thevisualization of extreme changes in the environment aroundthe time machine. Changes are marked by the growth of trees,climate change, changes in topography of the earth and so on.G. 802.721The journey of the main character up to the year 802.721was marked by the numbers on the time machine he made.Fig. 10. Differences in clothing with the earth's community in 203Another thing that marks the time difference betweenAlexander Hartdegen and the people at that time was clothing.Public clothing in 2030 is more minimalistic and functionalthan what is worn by him. This is also reinforced byconversations in the film.E. 2037The space travel of Alexander Hartdegen, which continuedto 2037, led to a state of war. This is marked by the conditionof the city being destroyed with cars and buildings damagedand burned.Fig. 13. Alexander Hartdegen arrived in 802.701But the time travel that was too far and great made himunconscious. When he realized, he found that he had been in acommunity called Eloi with the uniqueness of the house helived in. In addition to buildings, the Eloi community also usesclothes and language that have actually been past.Fig. 11. Alexander Hartdegen arrived in 2037Fig. 14. Eloi Community BuildingF. 2037 to 802.721To avoid the war, Alexander Hartdegen hurried away withhis time machine. Unfortunately his journey to the futurebecame unsuccessful because the time machine he createdcould not be controlled. Alexander Hartdegen went too far intothe future in 802,721.At this time, Alexander Hartdegen became acquainted withMara. Mara is a woman who finds herself and her timemachine. Besides Emma, he also met with Kalen and the entirepopulation of Eloi. Unexpectedly, the Eloi community turnedout to store past artifacts in the form of building inscriptionscontaining the letters of the building's name. AlexanderHartdegen's encounter brought him to remember the past hehad passed.401
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 225Fig. 15. Eloi Community BuildingFig. 18. Two times running togetherOn the other hand, the Eloi community turned out to facethreats from the Marlock people who kidnapped and preyed onit. In this condition, Alexander Hartdegen finally intended tohelp and fight the Marlock nation. The only way he can do isto use a time machine.Two places and times that run together are marked by thedivision of the film visualization frame in two different scenes.H. 635.427.810To change the fate that occurred in 802,721, AlexanderHartdegen slid into the future to see what happened using histime machine. As a result of an increasingly uncontrollabletime machine, he reached the year 635,427,810 but in the samespace.Time Machine film clearly demonstrates a time machinetool born of ratio and intellect. With this tool, the maincharacter (Alexander Hartdegen) can determine the directionof space, time and destiny according to his wishes. Throughthis Time Machine film, the maker (who in fact the UnitedStates, as the originator of modernism) seems to want to spreadthe view that ratio, intellectuality, science are the only meansto progress. The aim was to persuade all spectators to agree tothis view, so that universalism as one of the characteristics ofthe modernist narrative was achieved. The marker of themessage is a time machine with all its capabilities. Of course,in the film all of them are designed and presented veryimplicitly using visual signs so that the audience does not feellike being patronized, indoctrinated or influenced. This is all inorder to facilitate the delivery of the message slowly andembedded in the minds of the audience. The message in thisfilm shows the desire of US power (in general the West) thatnever ends. Human desire by relying on the advancement ofscience technology that continues to be developed today topenetrate space and time to change history. History accordingto them is true, in accordance with their expectations not justdestiny. Humans the greater the desire to correct history,change the destiny that has happened as played by AlexanderHartdegen when he wants to change the destiny of the death ofEmma, his lover. This desire finds distribution in the filmmedia, because with the film everything has not been achievedcan be projected easily, quickly and possible.Fig. 16. The condition of the earth in the year H. 635,427,810In that time and space, he saw the destruction that occurredat the Murlock nation's headquarters. This can be seen from thevisual sign of the destruction of the place.I. Time Machine EndsTo change destiny and destroy the Murlock nation,Alexander Hartdegen was forced to destroy the time machine.The destruction of a time machine is characterized by a greatlight explosion.V. CONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTFig. 17. Destruction of time machinesPraise & thank to Allah SWT, so that the writer can finishthis article. The author also thanked: UNIKOM ChancellorAssoc. Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Eddy Soeryanto Soegoto, Dean of theFaculty of Design at UNIKOM Prof. Dr. Yusuf AffendiDjalari, DKV Staff and lecturer and UNIKOM DirectorateGeneral and UNIKOM ICOBEST Team. Finally, the authorsrealize that this article is still lacking. Therefore, the authorsask for constructive suggestions and criticisms. Hopefully thisarticle will benefit us all.After the destruction of the Murlock nation and the engineof his creation, Alexander Hartdegen decided to remain in hisfuture with Mara and the Eloi community. At the same timeand place, colleagues (Mr. Philby) and Mrs. Watchit areworried about their existence.REFERENCESTjipto, Sudjadi. (2015). Perjalanan Fantasi Menembus Ruang danWaktu. Jurnal Rekam : Yogyakarta.Siswanto, Joko. (1989). Laporan Penelitian Konsep Ruang Dan WaktuDalam Filsafat Barat. Universitas Gadjah Mada402
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 225Tandyonomanu, Danang & Bahfiarti, Tuti. (2013). Seni Ruang danWaktu dalam Mappacci Pada Upacara Perkawinan Adat Bugis.Universitas Negeri Surabaya & Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar.Setia, Roszainora. (2009). Semiotic Analysis of a Media Text The Lordof the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring. Canadian Sosial Sience Vol.5No.4.Emberga, Gerald Alvior . (2016). Semiotic Analysis on James CameronSelected Science Fiction Movies. Central Mindanao University,Musuan, Maramag Bukidnon.Noth, W. (1995). Handbook of Semiotics. Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press.Adam, Barbara (1998). Timescapes of Modernity: The Environment andInvisible Hazards. London : Routledge.Amir Piliang, Yasraf. (2004). Dunia yang Dilipat: Tamasya MelampauiBatas-batas Kebudayaan. Jalasutra : Yogyakarta Bard, Alexander & Soderqvist, Jan.(2002). Netocracy: The New PowerElite and Life After Capitalism. Great Britain : Pearson Education. Gleick, James. (1999). Faster: The Acceleration of Just AboutEverything. New York : Hachette Book Group. Levebfre, Henry. (1991). The Production of Space. Oxford : BlackwellPublisher Ltd. Prasetia Tugas Jaya, Eka. (2016). Analisis Semiotika Film 99 Cahaya diLangit Eropa. Universitas Pasundan : Bandung403
One film that tells the past and the future is a Time Machine. This film is a science fiction film produced in 2002 and is an adaptation of the same titled novel by HG Wells (1895) published by the publisher William Heinamann. Fig. 1. First Edition Cover Novel Time Machine Time Machine film tells the story of a scientist and inventor
being objectified in Bollywood item songs down the ages with the help of lyrics. The primary texts for the analysis are Bollywood item songs. And the researcher has done a semiotic content analysis of the lyrics studying the various metaphors and symbols used in such songs to show how various metaphors are used to objectify women reducing
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semiotic analysis utilization, particularly in connotative, is to seek the advertisement meaning in an advertisement. For instance, an advertisement from Indonesian e-commerce, i.e., Bukalapak, with its agate advertisement where the connotative meaning of such a scene is that the buyer buys something from an online transaction that
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