Hydrokinetic Energy Harnessing For River Application

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Hydrokinetic Energy Harnessing for RiverApplicationW. I. Ibrahim1, R. M. T. R. Ismail2 and M. R. Mohamed11Sustainable Energy & Power Electronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,Universiti Malaysia Pahang2Instrumentation & Control Engineering Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,Universiti Malaysia Pahangwismail@ump.edu.myAbstract—Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion System (HECS)is the electromechanical devices that able to harness theelectricity from river current, tidal stream or man-made waterirrigation system. In this work, design considerations of verticalaxis hydrokinetics turbine for Pahang river have been initiated.Double multiple streamtube (DMS) algorithm in QBladesoftware has been used to determine the rotor performance. Inthis design, NACA 0015 hydrofoils, and three blade rotorconfigurations with 0.25m chord length has been identified.Based on simulation design, the H-Darriuse turbine able toharness 200W output power at 0.582m/s water velocity with5.5m2 swept area.Index Terms—H-Darrieuse; Hydrokinetic; QBlade; VerticalAxis.I. INTRODUCTIONThe necessity of new energy sources has receivedconsiderable interest due to concerns about 𝐶𝑂2 gasemissions, greenhouse effects and environment problems.Nevertheless, the increasing of energy demand and runningout reserves of fossil fuels is also one of the major factor.Electricity generation from sustainable energy sources andenvironmentally friendly method are being considered. Oneof the sources is from kinetic energy stored in moving watersuch as river and tidal currents. The hydrokinetic energyconversion systems are the devices that able to convertthe kinetic energy of river streams, tidal current or man-madewater channels into useful energy. The systems alsorequire no special head and any physical structure to operate[1].The advantages of hydrokinetics system over theconventional hydropower is that the system requiresminimum civil works [2]. This means, the systemnot required to construct a water storage system or reservoirto accumulate the water. Compared to a conventionalhydroelectric system which is required the reservoirs andpenstocks to extract the potential energy of falling water.Besides, the system has minimal impact on biodiversities,such as people relocation or destruction of flora and fauna. Inaddition, this type of energy harvesting systems provides agood choice of electrification for off-grid remotecommunities which is transmission lines do not exist [1].Although the hydrokinetic system can harness a smallamount of energy, the amount of energy harnessing can beincreased by installing in multi-unit arrays system such awind turbine farm [3]. The system can also be predictedespecially for river streams and tidal currents. As a result, thehydrokinetic system is more valuable and predictable energycompared to the wind and solar energy system [4]. In termsof electrical hardware, turbine, concept of operation andvariable speed generator, both hydrokinetic and wind turbinehas a close similarity for optimal energy extraction [5].However, compared to a similar rate of a wind turbine, thehydrokineticsystemcanproducefour times,energy extraction at the rated speed of 2-3m/s [6]. This isbecause of fluid density in water is 800 times denser than air,hence the hydrokinetics turbines are able to extract the energyeven at low speed [7].Like the others energy production method, hydrokineticalso has several drawbacks. The turbine system has a lowerpower coefficient and relatively suitable for small-scalepower production. The maximum efficiency of thehydrokinetic turbine system can reach 59.3 %, which alsoknown as Betz limit [1]. Cavitation is also one of the biggestconstraints of hydrokinetic turbines because it able to damagethe turbine. This phenomenon occurred as the formation ofwater bubbles or voids when the local pressure falls below thevapor pressure [1]. The harsh marine environment can alsodamage the hydrokinetic system. The design of energyconversion devices must strongly withstand the high andirregular water loads [1]. Besides, the installation ofhydrokinetic systems in the river and sea can block thenavigation and fishing. Moreover, the turbine parts, chemicalagents, noise and vibration can badly affect the water habitatin the river [1]. In this paper, a design consideration forstraight blade H-Darrieuse for Pahang River has beeninitiated. The turbine design is expected to generate 200 Woutput power at 0.582 m/s water velocity. In this work,streamtube modeling of the H-Darrieus is carried out toanalyze the turbine performance.II. SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSBased on the formal literature, the first river current turbinewas developed and field tested is attributed to Peter Garman[8]. Garman turbines were used for water pumping, irrigationand to harness electricity in remote areas. The system wasdeveloped by the Intermediate Technology DevelopmentGroup (ITDG) in 1978. An assessment of various riverresources in the United States (US) was carried out byEnvironment Inc. under the US Department of Energy’s ultralow-head hydro program during the early 80s [9]. In theproject, a free rotor turbine with 15kW at 3.87 m/s watervelocity were carried and successfully installed.In 1995, Gorlov Helical Turbine(GHT) was designed bye-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3133

Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer EngineeringAlexender M. Gorlov at the Northeastern University, Boston,USA. Gorlov turbine employs twisted blades with the helicalcurvature structure. The designed gained significant attentionfor both river and tidal applications. The turbine design hasbeen claimed for better modularity, scalability and moreeconomics [2].Various rivers and tidal energy converters have beenemerging since the early 1990s in the commercial domain.UEK Corporation in the United States was developed diffuseraugmented solid pontoon for river/tidal turbines under thebrand name Underwater Electric Kite [2]. Table 1 shown thevarious companies and associated technologies in thehydrokinetic system.Table1List of Companies and Associated Technologies [10]ManufacturerLucid Energy Pty.Ltd (USA)Thropton EnergyServices (UK)Tidal Energy Pty. Ltd(Australia)Seabell Int. Co., Ltd.(Japan)New EnergyCorporation Inc.(Canada)Eclectic Energy Ltd.(UK)Alternative HydroSolutions Ltd.(Canada)Energy Alliance Ltd.(Russia)Device nameGorlov HelicalTurbineWater current turbinePower OutputUp to 20 kWDavidson-HillVenturi (DHV)TurbineStreamFrom 4.6 kWEnCurrent HydroTurbine5 kW (and 10 kW)DuoGen-38 Amps at 3.09 m/sFree StreamDarrieuse WaterTurbineSub-merged HydroUnitUp to 2-3 kWB. Basic Principle and OperationBlade Element Momentum (BEM) and Double MultipleStreamtube (DMS) algorithm are the main principles tomodel the rotating hydrokinetic turbines. The algorithmprovides a details turbine design procedure, including the liftand drag forces over a different angle of attack (AoA), thrustand power coefficient, rotational speed, twist and pitch angledistributions [1].The angle of Attack (AoA) is the angle between the relativevelocity and the blade section’s chord line. Figure 2 showsthe resultant loads on the blade section or hydrofoil with anoptimum angle of attack (AoA). The extracted power isproportional to the relative velocity (Vrel) which is the sum ofvector axial and tangential velocities. The angle of attack (α),varies from hub to tip with the effect of the tangential velocity[1].Up to 2 kW at 240 V0.5-10 kW1-5 kW (and 10kW)A. Hydrokinetic Energy ConversionFigure 1 shows a complete hydrokinetic energy conversionsystem. The system consists of the turbine rotor, gearing andbearing, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG),electronic power converter and DC load. The hydrokineticsystem basically has a turbine with two or more bladesrotating around horizontal and vertical shaft mounting on thegenerator. The concept is based on the effects of thehydrodynamic forces generated by the free stream. Theblades rotate with the torque that is produced by the lift ordrag force. Selecting a high-performance hydrofoil with thelargest lift/drag ratio is important in the design process due tothis reason.Figure 2: The resultant load on typical blade section [1].FL and FD are lift and drag coefficient of the airfoil bladerespectively. These two parameters solely depend on theblade shape and Reynolds Number (Re) under a givenoperating condition. While Reynolds Number is an index ofturbulence created by body placed in fluid [12]. Re can beexpressed as:Re V .dv(1)where, v is the kinetic viscosity of the water equivalent to 1.1x10-6, rotor diameter (d) and water velocity (V). Then, theestimation of Re can be found. Basically, the value of Re isbig enough to reduce the cavitation. The aspect ratio (AR) ofthe blade is a measure of its length and slenderness. The (AR)can be expressed as;AR hc(2)where h height and c chord length.The dimension of rotor turbine diameter (d), number ofblades (N) and blade chord length (c) is interrelated throughsolidity information. The solidarity ( ) can be expressed as; Figure 1: Vertical Axis Hydrokinetic System [11]134e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3N.cd(3)

Hydrokinetic Energy Harnessing for River ApplicationRiver/tidal turbines have a higher solidity compared towind turbines. The solidity values may range between 0.15 to1.6. Lower solidity implies better hydrodynamicperformance, while higher values of solidity generally allowstronger mechanical structure. As a result, the induced torquewill be increased [12]. The maximum efficiency for an idealturbine can reach is knows as Betz Limit. Betz law proposedthat the theoretical maximum power coefficient for rotatingturbine in the fluid stream and wind turbines is 0.593 [1].However, this efficiency can be applied to hydrokineticturbines working in a free stream without augmentation. Byusing the augmentation channels or ducts around the turbinesthis theoretical limit may increase. This is because theconcentration of incoming water velocity toward the rotorturbine [12]. Figure 3 shows the power coefficient (Cp)comparison for a different type of turbines.P 1 AV 3C p Cn2(4)where: P Power (Watt)ρ water densityA Cross section areaCp power coefficientCn Drive train (generator,gearing, etc)efficiencyThe water to wire efficiency (CpCn) is assumed equal to21%. A typical value small turbine for an electric generationdue to Cp and drive train efficiency is equal to 35% and 60%respectively [14].The power coefficient (Cp) is a non-linearfunction of the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and pitch angle (β).However, for a hydrokinetic turbine with fixed pitch angle,the Cp is only determined by the TSR [10]. The tip speed ratio(TSR) is expressed as; .rV(5)where: λ Tip Speed Ratioω Angular velocity of turbiner Turbine radiusV Water velocityFigure 3: Comparison of Cp- λ performance curves [13].III. H-DARRIUES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONDarrieus rotor configuration has gained significantattention because of unique performance, operational anddesign features. This turbine design was invented by G.J.MDarrieus, who is French inventor. The turbine was patentedin 1931 with the U.S Patent Office [12]. Figure 4 shows thevertical axis straight blades H-Darrieus and Squirrel cageDarrieus turbines.B. Blade DesignAfter basic dimensioning is complete, the subsequent stepis to select a set of blades with a certain shape and solidity.The H-Darriues turbine is the lift coefficient type airfoil andthe tangential forces induced in the blades are the primemovers of the rotor. Basically, a standardize airfoils fromNational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) hasbeen used in wind turbine and hydrokinetics blades system.The most common blade profiles used in Darriues turbinesare NACA 0012, NACA 0015, NACA 0018 and NACA 63018.C. Site AssessmentPahang River is the longest river in Peninsular Malaysiawith 459 km length. The upstream source of the river islocated in the main range of Titiwangsa [15]. The river basinhas an annual rainfall of about 2170mm. A large proportionof rain occurs during the North-East Monsoon between midOctober and mid-January. The Pahang river’s having thewidth more than 100 m and the depth could be reached morethan 10 m [15]. Based on hydrologic sampling study onJanuary 2010, the water velocity at Pahang River ranged from0.308 ms-1 to 0.582 ms-1.IV. METHODOLOGY(a) H-Darriuse(b) Squirrel Cage DarriuseFigure 4: Darriuse turbine [13]A. Turbine SizingTurbine sizing design starts by estimating the powerrequired by the remote home. Alternating current (AC) in therange of 200 W is considered sufficient for a single remotehome [14]. The available hydrokinetic power of a waterturbine can be computed from the water flow and the turbinedimension as:Figure 5 shows the flowchart of the hydrokinetics designprocess. There are several constraints need to consider in thehydrokinetic system design. This includes the desired ratepower, number of blades and water current velocity. In thisdesign, the rated power chosen by the author is 200 W. Inaddition, NACA 0015 has been used as blade airfoil.Streamtube analysis was carried -out to analyze the rotorperformance. Equation (4) has been used to calculate the sizeof the turbine. The radius and the length of the turbine bladescan be calculated as below;e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3135

Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer EngineeringA P0.5 V 3C p Cnwhere: P 200 Wρ 1022 kgm-3V 0.582 ms-1Cp 0.45Cn 0.8Figure 6: Software module in QBlade [16]Based on the calculation, the value of A is equal to5.515m2. However, the effective area encountered by thevertical axis turbine is a rectangle, expressed as;A h.d(6)where: A Areah heightd diameterThe Polar extrapolation module has been used to ensure thesmooth operation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM)and Double Multiple Streamtube (DMS). This module able togenerate and import airfoil polars that need to be extrapolatedto the full range of 360o angle of attack. The aerodynamicsimulation module for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)in QBlade is based on DMS algorithm as developed byParaschivoiu [16]. In DMS analysis, a series of equalstreamtubes are assumed to past through the rotor. Themomentum equation for each tube is computed. Then theeffects of all the streamtubes are integrated to determine theforces acting on the rotor blade [12].StartV. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONProjectSpecificationThe most important part in rotor configuration is solidity.Since the solidity has great impacts on power coefficient(Cp). The weight and manufacturing costs will be increasedwith the higher solidity. The greater the solidity causes theTSR range will be lower and leads to the decrease of thepower coefficient (Cp). However, lower solidity implies thebetter hydrodynamic performance of hydrokinetic turbines.Besides, the higher values generally allow strongermechanical structure and increased the induced torque. Thevalues of solidity may range from 0.16 to 1.6 [12]. Figure 7shows the multiple streamtube analysis for different solidity.Desired Output Power (Watt)Water Velocity (m/s)Hydrofoil SelectionType of TurbinesTurbine SizingChordHeightDiameterBlade NumberStream-TubeModelingCp Vs TSR for different solidityX: 2.81Y: .50.4Project SpecificationSatisfied ?NO0.30.20.250.30.350.40.2CpYESNO0.10Optimum Efficiency forgiven velocity ?-0.1YES-0.2END-0.3-0.4Figure 5: Design turbine flowchartThere are several issues need to compensate in turbinedesign. An increase in the diameter (d) cause decrease inturbine height (h). This measure eventually reduces the outputpower since the airfoils shaped blades are present in verticalspacing [12]. While the turbine with the higher diameter canreduce the mutual effect due to turbulence. A trade-off needsto be reached between the rotor efficiency and the poweroutput when deciding the height-diameter ratio [12].In this work, the software QBlade has been used to designthe turbine. Figure 6 shows the software module in QBladethat consists of Xfoils, polar extrapolation blade design andturbine analysis. The XFoils analysis has been used to requirethe lift and drag coefficient over the different angle of attack(AoA).13601234TSR5678Figure 7: Power Coefficient at different solidityThe solidity values around 0.3 seem more suitable for thegiven blade shape (NACA0015) as seen in the plot. The valueof Cp is equal to 0.52 while TSR is equal to 2.81. Based onthis observation, the blade rotor chord can be determined byequation (3). In addition, the rotor speed can be calculatedusing equation (5). Based on performance plot, the bladedesign procedure for Pahang River can be initiated. In thisdesign, the turbine has been decided to use 3 blades (N 3).The chord length of each blade is equal to 0.25m at solidity σ 0.3. Table 2 shows the parameter consideration for HDarrieuse straight blade for energy harnessing at PahangRiver.e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3

Hydrokinetic Energy Harnessing for River ApplicationTable 2H-Darrieuse Design ConfigurationCd VS Drag Coefficient (Cd)ParameterChordHeightRadiusHydrofoilsNumber of BladeSwept AreaSpeedPitch Angle-3x 10987X: 0.5Y: 0.0063166Figure 8 shows the pressure distribution on the NACA0015 airfoils. Computations were performed using the opensource code in QBlade. Through this analysis, lift and dragcoefficient can be determined.51234Angle of Attack (AoA)56Figure 10: Drag coefficient of NACA 0015Figure 8: NACA0015 XFOIL analysis(a) Front ViewFigure 9 and Figure 10 shows the lift and drag coefficientof the airfoil blade. These two parameters totally depend onthe blade shape and Reynolds number (Re). Basically, highReynolds number is necessary to reduce the turbulence effectin the water.(b) Top ViewFigure 11: Straight Blade H-DarriuseFigure 12 shows the energy harnessing at different watervelocity. As seen in the plot, this turbine able to generate 214W output power at 0.61 m/s water velocity.Cl VS AoAPower VS Velocity (V)1.51.4220X: 17Y: 1.4381801.2Power (Watt)Lift CoefficientX: 0.61Y: Angle of Attack20304050Figure 9: Lift Coefficient of NACA 00150.50.550.60.65Velocity m/s0.70.75Figure 12: Power vs. Water VelocityAs seen in the plot (Figure 9 and Figure 10), for welldesigned system the drag force generated during the processis typically smaller than the lift component. This is necessarybecause the H-Darrieuse turbine rotates with the torqueproduced by the lift force. Figure 11 shows the front & topview of straight blade H-Darrieuse turbine.VI. CONCLUSIONIn this work, design configuration for straight blades, HDarriuse turbine in river application has been presented. Thesimulation indicates that the turbine can harness 200 Wenergy at 0.582 m/s water velocity. The blade design is veryimportant in hydrokinetics system because the well-designedturbine will increase the energy harnessing.e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3137

Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering[7]ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe authors would like to thank Universiti MalaysiaPahang for providing the necessary support to conduct thisresearch and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia forproviding financial assistance under grant [9][10][11]M. I. Yuce and A. Muratoglu, “Hydrokinetic energy conversionsystems: A technology status review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.,vol. 43, pp. 72–82, 2015.M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, and J. E. Quaicoe, “River current energyconversion systems: Progress, prospects and challenges,” Renew.Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 2177–2193, 2008.L. I. Lago, F. L. Ponta, and L. Chen, “Advances and trends inhydrokinetic turbine systems,” Energy Sustain. Dev., vol. 14, no. 4,pp. 287–296, 2010.P. L. Fraenkel, “Marine current turbines: Pioneering the developmentof marine kinetic energy converters,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J.Power Energy, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 159–169, Mar. 2007.V. J. Ginter and J. K. Pieper, “Robust Gain Scheduled Control of aHydrokinetic Turbine,” IEEE Transactions on Control SystemsTechnology, vol. 19, no. 4. pp. 805–817, 2011.A. S. Bahaj and L. E. Myers, “Fundamentals applicable to theutilisation of marine current turbines for energy production,” Renew.Energy, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 2205–2211, Nov. 2003.[12][13][14][15][16]M. Grabbe, K. Yuen, A. Goude, E. Lalander, and M. Leijon, “Designof an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion,” Int. J.Hydropower Dams, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 112–116, 2009.Peter Garman, “Water current turbines: A fieldworker’s guide.,”Intermed. Technol. Publ., no. ISBN: 0946688273, 1986.H. B. Radkey RL, “Definition of cost effective river turbine designs.Technical Report AV-FR-81/595 (DE82010972),” Rep. U.S. Dep.Energy, Aerovironment Inc., no. Pasadena, California, 1981.H. J. Vermaak, K. Kusakana, and S. P. Koko, “Status of microhydrokinetic river technology in rural applications: A review ofliterature,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 29, pp. 625–633, 2014.M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, and J. E. Quaicoe, “Dynamics of a verticalaxis hydrokinetic energy conversion system with a rectifier coupledmulti-pole permanent magnet generator,” IET Renew. Power Gener.,vol. 4, no. 2, p. 116, 2010.M. J. Khan, M. T. Iqbal, and J. E. Quaicoe, “Design considerations ofa straight bladed darrieus rotor for river current turbines,” IEEE Int.Symp. Ind. Electron., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1750–1755, 2006.F. Behrouzi, M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, and Y. M. Ahmed, “Globalrenewable energy and its potential in Malaysia: A review ofHydrokinetic turbine technology,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol.62, pp. 1270–1281, 2016.M. Anyi and B. Kirke, “Hydrokinetic turbine blades: Design and localconstruction techniques for remote communities,” Energy Sustain.Dev., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 223–230, 2011.M. B. Gasim et al., “River flow conditions and dynamic state analysisof Pahang river,” Am. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 42–57, 2013.D. Marten and J. Wendler, “QBLADE: an open source tool for designand simulation of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines,” Int. J.Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 264–269, 2013.e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 10 No. 1-3

hydrodynamic forces generated by the free stream. The blades rotate with the torque that is produced by the lift or . the resultant loads on the blade section or hydrofoil with an optimum angle of attack (AoA). The extracted power is . River/tidal turbines have a higher solidity compared to wind turbines. The solidity values may range .

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