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ANCIENT INDIAIndia is located in southern Asia. On a map, Indialooks like a huge triangle of land pushing into theIndian Ocean.Natural barriers separate India from the rest ofAsia. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea lie tothe east and west of India. The Himalayan andHindu Kush Mountains lie across northern India.There are passes (openings) through the HinduKush Mountains. People probably first came toIndia through those passes. Later, traders andinvaders reached India through the passes.The land and the ClimateTwo ancient civilizations arose in Asia to the east ofMesopotamia and Egypt, One of those civilizationsbegan in India. The other civilization began inChina.The civilizations of ancient India and China areimportant to the modern world. The cultures ofpresent-day India, China, Japan, Korea, and otherAsian countries are built on those earliercivilizations. Where did the people of ancient Indiaand China build their civilizations? What was life like in ancient India andChina? What were the religions of ancient Indiaand China like? What contributions did ancient Indiansand Chinese make to later cultures?Key WordsdescendantdynastyIndia can be divided into two regions. Much ofnorthern India is made up( pf a large plain calledthe northern plain. Three great rivers flow throughthenorthern plain the Indus, Ganges, andBrahmaputra. Those rivers create valleys of fertilefarmland.Much of southern India is made up of a hugeplateau, called the Deccan Plateau. Frequentdroughts made farming difficult for ancient peopleson the Deccan Plateau.There are three seasons in India: a cool season, anot season, and a rainy season. During the coolseason and the hot season, India gets little rain. Butfrom June through September, winds calledmonsoons blow in from the Indian Ocean. Thosewinds usually bring much-needed rain to India.Looking Back1. What natural barriersfrom the rest of Asia?separateIndia2. What are the two regions of India?plateaureincarnation3. Thinking Deeper: In what region ofIndia do you think civilization began?Why?1

The people of the Indus Valley built theircities out of mud bricks. They learned to bakethe bricks in ovens. Those bricks were almostas hard as stone.Indus Valley people also built sewersystems for their cities. They laid large sewerpipes under their streets. Each house wasconnected to the sewer by drain pipes. Thepipes carried waste water away from thehouses.The people of Mohenjo-Daro built drains like thesethroughout their city. The drains carried waste away fromthe houses.The Indus Valley CivilizationCivilization began in India around 2500B.C., about 1000 years after the start ofcivilization in Sumer. The first Indiancivilization arose on the northern plain in thevalley of the Indus River. Historians call thatcivilization the Indus Valley, civilization.Civilization developed in the Indus Valleymuch as it had in Sumer and Egypt. Thousandsof years ago nomads moved into the valley.The rich soil and plentiful supply of watermade the valley a good place to live. Thenomads settled into villages and began to plantcrops, such as wheat and barley. In time, theirtiny farm villages grew into towns and cities.Indus Valley CitiesThe Indus Valley civilization had two chiefcities: Harappa and ftfohenjo-Daro. Both citieswere carefully planned. Both were laid out inblocks like a modern city. The streets of thecities were wide, straight, and paved.Indus Valley AchievementsThe Indus Valley civilization lasted over1000 years. Like the peoples of the ancientMiddle East, Indus Valley people developedtheir own systems of writing and counting.They also developed a system of weights andmeasures.Indus Valley people were skilledcraftsworkers. They made jewelry and' otherobjects of gold, bronze, and copper. Weaverswove cotton thread into cloth. (Indus Valleypeople were probably the first people to growcotton.)Sailors from the Indus Valley crossed theArabian Sea to trade cotton cloth and othergoods with Mesopotamia. Sailors took crowswith them on their ships. If the sailors lostsight of land, they set a crow free andfollowed it. They knew that a crow alwaysflies toward land.Indus Valley civilization began todecline about 1800 B.C. No one knowsWhy. Floods may have forced people toleave the valley. Or invaders may havedestroyed towns and cities. By 1500 B.C.,the Indus Valley civilization haddisappeared.Looking Back1. Where did civilization begin in India?2. How did Indus Valley people buildtheir cities?3. What were some achievements of theIndus Valley people?2

The AryansAbout 1500 B.C., people from central Asiacrossed the Hindu Rush Mountains and invadedIndia. Those people were called Aryans. TheAryans conquered the people living in northernIndia. (Those people were probably thedescendants of the Indus Valley people.)The Aryans built an important civilization inIndia. At first, they were nomadic herders whoraised cattle and sheep. But gradually theAryans settled in into villages and began tofarm. By about 700 B.C., the Aryans were livingin cities and had developed a written languagecalled Sanskrit.The Caste SystemThe Aryans developed a system of socialclasses known as the caste system. Under thecaste system, Aryans divided people, into castes,or groups, according to their occupation.Aryans created four main castes. The topcastes were made up of priests, kings, andwarriors. The lowest caste was made up ofworkers who served the higher castes.Under the caste system, people could notrise to a higher caste. People remained in theircaste for life. Children became members ofthen- parents' caste.Each caste had strict rules of conduct forcaste members to follow. People in a castecould not eat with people of other castes. Theycould not marry people from other castes.The caste system has been a part of Indianlife for thousands of years. Today, the castesystem is not as strong as in the past. But it stillaffects the way many Indians live.Ancient Indians developed one of the world'sgreat religions, Hinduism. Today, it is still thereligion of most Indians. ,The followers of Hinduism are calledHindus. Hindus worship many gods. But theybelieve those gods are all part of one supremeor highest, spirit. That spirit is called Brahman.Hindus believe the spirit of Brahman is in allliving things.ReincarnationHindus believe that each person has a soul.The soul does not die with the body. After onelife is over, the soul is reborn, or born again,in another body. That belief is calledreincarnation.Reincarnation is closely tied to the castesystem. You read that each caste has strictrules. Hindus believe that people who obeythe rules of their caste are reborn into highercaste. But people who fail to obey the rules arereborn into a lower caste. They might even bereborn as an animal or an insect.Hindus believe that after many rebirths,some people reach the highest caste. Theirsouls become pure and clean. Hindus believethat such people are ready to leave the earth.Their souls join forever with the spirit ofBrahman.Looking Back1. Who were the Aryans?2. What is the caste system?3. What do Hindus believe about Brahman?4. How do Hindus believe people becomejoined forever with Brahman?3

India and BuddhismThis bronze statue of the Buddhawas made In India during theA,D. 5OOs.You read that by 700 B.C.the Aryans had built acivilization in India. Theyset up several kingdomsacross northern India.During the next 400years, invaders, includingAlexander the Great,often attacked the Aryankingdoms.Around 300 B.C., an Indian ruler namedChandragupta Maurya united the Aryankingdoms into a large empire. He brought along period of peace and prosperity to India.During that time, a new religion spreadacross India. That religion was Buddhism. What are some teachings of Buddhism? Who was Asoka and how did he ruleIndia? How did Asoka help to spread Buddhismacross Asia? What were some accomplishments of theGolden Age of India?Key Words You will be using thesewords in this chapter.literaturespymonastery tolerationthat search on page 95.) That was a timeof new beginnings in many parts of theworld.In Greece, philosophers were askingnew questions about the world. In Italy,the Romans were about to set up the firstrepublic. In India, a new religion calledBuddhism was about to be born.The Search for the TruthMuch of what we know about Siddharthacomes from Buddhist writings. They saythat Siddhartha first searched for thetruth by studying with teachers ofHinduism. (Hinduism was the majorreligion of ancient India.) But Siddharthadid not find his answers in Hinduism.Siddhartha then went to live in aforest. For six years, he ate only weedsand berries. He went without cleanclothes and other comforts. He believedthat such self-denial (doing withoutcomforts) would bring wisdom. But stillhe found no answers.Finally, Siddhartha decided he wouldmeditate until he found the answers hewas seeking. (People meditate by relaxingand clearing their minds of thoughts.) Hemeditated beneath a tree for hours. Thenhe saw his answers clearly. After that, hewas known as the Buddha, or the onewho has seen the truth.Looking Back1. How did Siddhartha begin his search forthe truth? What did he do next?2. How did he finally find the answers hewas seeking?The Beginnings of BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama was born in Indiaaround 563 B.C. He began his search forthe truth about human suffering around534 B.C. (You read about the beginning of4

Right work Earn a living in a way thatdoes not harm others.The Teachings of BuddhismAfter finding the truths he was seeking, theBuddha became a teacher. He wandered acrossnorthern India sharing his truths with people.The Buddha died around 483 B.C. After hisdeath, his followers continued to spread histeachings. Out of those teachings cameBuddhism.The Four Noble TruthsAt the center of Buddhism are the FourNoble Truths. Those are the truths the Buddhadiscovered as he meditated beneath the tree.These are the four truths:From birth to death, life is filled withsuffering. People suffer because they desire (seek after)things that do not last, such aspleasure and wealth. The way to end suffering is to get rid ofdesire. The way to get rid of desire is to followthe Eightfold Path. Right effort Make an effort to become abetter person. Work hard to end badthoughts and actions. Right mindfulness Be mindful of, orthink about, how you live each day.Notice what is happening around you.Do not go through life half asleep. RightmeditationSpendtimemeditating each day. Clear your mind offeelings and desires. Only then will yousee the truth and find peace.Reaching NirvanaLike the Hindus, the Buddha believed thatpeople are reborn again and again. In each life,people suffer because of their desires.The Buddha taught that those who followthe Eightfold Path can end the cycle, or circle,of rebirth and suffering. They can reachnirvana, a feeling of complete peace andhappiness. Those who reach nirvana are notborn again. For them, all suffering is ended.The Eightfold PathThe Eightfold Path is a guide to a good life.Those who follow the path are freed fromsuffering and find happiness. These are thesteps on the Eightfold Path:Looking Back1. What are the Four Noble Truths? Right understanding Be sureunderstand the Buddha's teachings.3. What happensnirvana?you2. What is the Eightfold Path?whenpeoplereach Right thought Think pure thoughts. Right speech Speak the truth. Do notsay bad things about other people. Right action Do not steal. Be carefulnot to hurt any living thing. Treat otherswell, even your enemies.5

everywhere. (A spy is someone who secretlywatches others.) Anyone suspected of workingagainst the government was killed.Chandragupta built thousands of miles ofroads across the empire. Posts were placedalong the roads at every mile. The postsshowed directions and distances to towns andvillages along the way. Inns were also builtalong the roads for the comfort of travelers.The Rule of AsokaIn 273 B.C., Chandragupta's grandsonbecame emperor. His name was Asoka. Asokawent to war with a kingdom called Kalinga insouthern India. During the fighting, over100,000 Kalingans were killed. The loss of lifehorrified Asoka.After that, Asoka converted to Buddhism.Asoka called for religious toleration in hisempire. That is, he asked Indians to tolerate,or accept, all religions. But for the rest of hislife, Asoka lived by the Buddha's teachings.Asoka never went to war again. Hetraveled across his empire, encouraging Indiansto live together in peace. He asked Indians tobe honest and truthful and to treat each otherkindly.The Spread of BuddhismThe Mauryan EmpireAt the time of the Buddha's death, India wasdivided into many small kingdoms. One of thosekingdoms was Magadha in eastern India. About322 B.C., a young warrior led a rebellionagainst the king of Magadha. His name wasChandragnpta Maurya.Chandragupta won control of Magadha. Intime, he built an empire that included most ofIndia. It was called the Mauryan Empire.Chandragupta began a dynasty, or ruling family,that governed the empire until about 185 B.C.The Rule of ChandraguptaChandragupta set up a strong centralgovernment for the empire. Still, he worriedabout rebellions. Chandragupta placed spiesAsoka spread Buddhism across India. Hebuilt thousands of Buddhist monasteries.There Buddhists studied and meditated.Asoka also sent Buddhist missionaries toother lands. From India, Buddhism spreadacross most of Asia. Today, Buddhism is still amajor religion in Tibet, Japan, Korea, andmuch of Southeast Asia.Looking Back1. Describe the rule of ChandraguptaMaurya.2. Why did Asoka convert to Buddhism?3. How did Asoka help spread Buddhism?4. Thinking Deeper: Why do you thinkAsoka is remembered as one of India'sgreatest leaders?6

After Asoka died in 232 B.C., the MauryanEmpire fell apart. First, civil wars weakened theempire. Then, peoples from Persia and centralAsia invaded India.For 500 years, India was again divided intomany small kingdoms. During that time, tradegrew between the Indian kingdoms and otherlands. Indians traded spices, ivory, and jewelsfor Roman glassware and wine. They tradedwith China for silk.The Gupta EmpireAround A.D. 320, during the decline of theRoman Empire, a new empire arose in northernIndia. It was built by a warrior, namedChandragupta I. His empire is known as theGupta Empire.The Gupta Empire lasted for over 200 years.That was a time of peace and prosperity inIndia. It was also a time of achievements in artand mathematics. For that reason, historianscall the period the Golden Age of India.Art and Literature in the Golden AgeIndian artists produced great works duringthe Golden Age. Many paintings and statuesfrom that time show Hindu gods. Others showscenes from the Buddha's life.MathematicsDuring the Golden Age, the Indians createda new number system. In their system, theyused the symbols 0 to 9 to write numbers.Indian merchants and traders found the newnumber system quick and easy to use. TheIndians taught the system to Arab traders fromthe Middle East. In time, the Indian numbersbecame known as Arabic numerals. Today,Arabic numerals are used around the world.The Fall of the Gupta EmpireDuring the A.D. 400s, the Gupta Empirebegan to decline. Invaders from central Asiacalled the Huns attacked India. They took overmuch of northwestern India.By A.D. 600, the central government of theempire had broken down. India was once moredivided into many separate kingdoms. TheGupta Empire was gone.Looking Back1. Why is the time of the Gupta Empirecalled the Golden Age of India?2. What contribution did the Indians makein mathematics?3. What happened to the Gupta Empire?The Golden Age was also a time of greatliterature. Indian writers wrote many poemsand plays. They also wrote down legends andother tales, or stories, from the past. Thosetales were carried to other lands by traders andmissionaries.Many Indian tales are still enjoyedaround the world today. The stories ofSinbad the Sailor and Cinderella come fromold Indian tales.7

Name ClassDateGUIDED READING AND REVIEWCHAPTER 4Ancient IndiaThe Indus and Ganges River ValleysA. As You ReadDirections: As you read Section 1, complete the statements below.1. The natural barrier that separates India from the rest of Asia is the .2. The earliest people of northern India probably entered the Indus Valley from passesin the mountain range.3. One of India's earliest cities, located along the banks of the Indus River, was.4. The earliest known religious books of Aryan society are the .5. The four social classes that emerged in early Aryan society were theB. Reviewing Key TermsDirections: Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.6. In the center of Mohenjo-Daro, there was a fortress consisting of a group of publicbuildings. Another name for this fortress is a .7. During the summer, seasonal winds called blow moist air acrossIndia from the Indian Ocean.8. The strict division of classes that began in India around 500 B.C. is known as thesystem.9. A large landmass that juts out from a continent is called a .10. The Aryans moved, or , into the Indus Valley around 1500 BC.8

NameClassDateGUIDED READING and REVIEWSECTION 2The Beginnings of HinduismChapter 4A. As You ReadDirections: As you read Section 2, complete the statements below.1. As Hinduism developed over the years, it absorbed many beliefs from other .2. Over the years, there have been many Hindu religious thinkers, but Hinduism has no'single .3. The gods and goddesses of Hinduism stand for different parts of a single .4. The three most important Hindu gods are , ,and .5. One of the important texts of Hinduism is the , which is mostly in the form ofquestions and answers between pupils and teachers.Directions: Answer the following questions in the space provided.6. According to Hinduism, what happens to people who have been bad during their life after they die?7. According to Hinduism, how can a person be freed from the cycle of death and rebirth?B. Reviewing Key TermsDirections: Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.8. The Hindu belief that souls are reborn in the body of another living thing is known as.9. Many Hindus do not eat meat and try to avoid hurting living things because of the Hindu beliefof , or nonviolence.10. In Hinduism, the religious and moral duties of each person are called .9

Name ClassDateGUIDED READING AND REVIEWThe Beginnings of BuddhismAncient IndiaA. As You ReadDirections: As you read Section 3, complete the statements below.1. Gautama's dissatisfaction with the teachings of led, him to a setof new beliefs.2. The followers of Gautama called him "The Enlightened One” or .3. Gautama taught that suffering is caused by.4. According to Gautama, the way to become free from suffering is to follow the.5. Gautama taught that all people are , regardless of their social class.6. The Golden Age of Buddhism came during the reign of , one of India'sgreatest rulers.7. Many Hindus came to honor Gautama as a reincarnation of the god.B. Reviewing Key TermsDirections: In the blanks provided, write the definitions for the following key terms.8. meditate9. nirvana10. missionary10

NameClassDateGUIDED READING AND REVIEWSection 4: The Golden Age of Maurya IndiaCHAPTER 4Ancient IndiaA. As You ReadDirections: As you read Section 4, fill in the table with events that took place during the Maurya rule of India.The Maurya Empire330 B.C.1261 B.C.2232 B.C.3B. Reviewing Key TermsDirections: Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.4. Chandragupta believed that a ruler must have complete control, or over the people.5. After the great slaughter at Kalinga, Asoka changed his beliefs, or to Buddhism.11

The Indus Valley Civilization Civilization began in India around 2500 B.C., about 1000 years after the start of civilization in Sumer. The first Indian civilization arose on the northern plain in the valley of the Indus River. Historians call that civilization the Indus Valley, civilization.

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