Introduction To Scrum - The Agile Director

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Introduction to ScrumIntroduction to ScrumStudent GuideIntroduction to Agile Methods by Evan Leybourn is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Australia License Evan Leybournevan@theagiledirector.comTwitter: @eleybournIntroduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 1 of 84

Introduction to ScrumOTHER WORKS BYEVAN LEYBOURNDIRECTING THE AGILE ORGANISATION –BY EVAN LEYBOURN Embrace change and steal a march onyour competitors Discover the exciting adaptiveapproach to management Become the Agile champion for yourorganisationBusiness systems do not always end up the way that we first plan them. Requirements canchange to accommodate a new strategy, a new target or a new competitor. In thesecircumstances, conventional business management methods often struggle and a differentapproach is required.Agile business management is a series of concepts and processes for the day-to-daymanagement of an organisation. As an Agile manager, you need to understand, embodyand encourage these concepts. By embracing and shaping change within your organisationyou can take advantage of new opportunities and outperform your competition.Using a combination of first-hand research and in-depth case studies, Directing the AgileOrganisation offers a fresh approach to business management, applying Agile processespioneered In the IT and manufacturing industries.Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 2 of 84

Introduction to ScrumTABLE OF CONTENTSOther Works by Evan Leybourn. 2Directing the Agile Organisation – by Evan Leybourn. 2Table of Contents. 3What Does Agile Mean? . 5The Agile Manifesto . 6Agile Methods . 7Key Points . 7Understanding Waste . 8Critical Success Factors . 9Common Misconceptions . 10Scrum Overview . 11Project Roles . 14Project Team . 15Interested and Committed . 15Primary Roles . 16Project Initiation . Error! Bookmark not defined.Specifications in Agile? . 19Beginning the Process . 19Outcomes . 19Backlog . 20Accuracy . 22Estimating Effort . 23How? . 23Estimating Time. 25Cost / Time / Scope . 26Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 3 of 84

Introduction to ScrumStarting an Sprint . 28Sprint Planning Meeting . 30During an Sprint. 34Daily Lifecycle . 35Task Lifecycle. 36Development Hints . 38Test Driven Development . 39Continuous Integration. 40Scrum Meeting (aka Daily Stand-up) . 43Inspection. 44Burndown & Burnup Charts . 45Progress Problems . 46Finishing an Sprint . 49Sprint Review . 50Kaizen and the Sprint Retrospective . 51References . 52Books & Links . 53Tools . 53Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 4 of 84

Introduction to ScrumWHAT DOES AGILE MEAN?‘On two occasions I have been asked, “Pray, Mr Babbage, if you put into themachine wrong figures, will the right answers come out?” [.] I am not able rightlyto apprehend the kind of confusion of ideas that could provoke such a question.’Charles Babbage, 1864Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 5 of 84

Introduction to ScrumTHE AGILE MANIFESTOThe “Agile Software Development Manifesto” was developed in February 2001, byrepresentatives from many of the fledgling “agile” processes such as Scrum, DSDM, and XP.The manifesto is a set of 4 values and 12 principles that describe “What is meant by Agile".THE AGILE VALUES1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools2. Working software over comprehensive documentation3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation4. Responding to change over following a planTHE AGILE PRINCIPLES1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous deliveryof valuable software.2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processesharness change for the customer's competitive advantage.3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months,with a preference to the shorter time-scale.4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment andsupport they need, and trust them to get the job done.6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within adevelopment team is face-to-face conversation.7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, andusers should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.10. Simplicity – the art of maximising the amount of work not done – is essential.11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organisingteams.12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunesand adjusts its behaviour accordingly.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 6 of 84

Introduction to ScrumAGILE METHODSThe term Agile actually refers to a concept, not a specific methodology. There are many,and sometimes conflicting, methods that can be used under the Agile umbrella. Theseinclude; Agile Unified Process,Behaviour Driven Development (BDD),Crystal Clear,Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM),Extreme Programming (XP)Feature Driven Development (FDD),KanbanLean Development,Rapid Application Development (RAD),IBM - Rational Unified Process (RUP),Scrum,Test Driven Development (TDD),KEY POINTSAll of the above methods have four key points in common. design processContinuous stakeholder engagementAims for quality and reliable softwareShort development cycles (up to a month) allows to regular delivery of softwareThis shows that an Agile approach is appropriate in contexts where the outcomes are notknown (or can’t be known) in advance and where the delivery of the outcomes cannot befully controlled.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 7 of 84

Introduction to ScrumThe following figures1 are an excellent example of the differences between traditional (orphased) software development vs. the Agile approach of iterative development.FIGURE 1: THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH (PHASED DELIVERY OF KNOWN OUTPUTS)FIGURE 2: THE AGILE APPROACH (ITERATIVE DELIVERY TO MEET CHANGING EXPECTATIONS )UNDERSTANDING WASTEThe techniques and frameworks within Agile aim to increase development efficiency, byeliminating all ‘wasteful’ processes. Drawing on the successful concepts from the Leanmanufacturing frameworks, we can define 3 major forms of waste. 1Mura (Unevenness): Mura exists where there is a variation in workflow, leading tounbalanced situations, most commonly where workflow steps are inconsistent,unbalanced, or without standard procedures.Images with thanks from Jeff Patton: on to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 8 of 84

Introduction to Scrum Muri (Overburden): Muri exists where management expects unreasonable effortfrom personnel, material or equipment, most commonly resulting from unrealisticexpectations and poor planning.Muda (Waste): Muda is any step in the production workflow that does not adddirect value to the Customer. The original seven wastes, as defined by the ToyotaProduction System (TPS), were:1. Transport,2. Inventory,3. Motion (moving more than is required),4. Waiting,5. Overproduction,6. Over Processing (from poor design), and7. Defects (the effort involved in inspecting for, and fixing, defects).CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORSThe successful application of an agile methodology depends on the relative maturity of anorganisation in relation to Customer Engagement, Staff Resources, Technology, andProcesses. These measures are defined as follows: Customer Engagement – Product owners involved in teams daily activities, definesrequirements, drives the prioritisation of requirements, and has decision makingdelegation of authority.Staff – have experience in an agile method, are skilled in the Standard OperatingEnvironment (SOE) toolsets, have an understanding of the underlying data andtechnical infrastructure, and are conversant in the development, testing, andconfiguration and release procedures.Technology – a stable and well documented technology stack, with clearly definedownership and service levels, providing discreet development, testing and releaseenvironments that are sized and supported for the delivery of projects, andcontrolled through rigorous configuration and release management.Processes – business processes exist for all domains, with cross streaminterdependencies defined and service levels agreed, and clear business ownershipand delegations of authority identified.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 9 of 84

Introduction to ScrumCOMMON MISCONCEPTIONSBeing a generic term, Agile means different things to different people. Therefore, beforewe go much further, I should clarify some of the more common misconceptionssurrounding Agile. Agile is ad hoc, with no process control: First of all, Agile isn’t a lack of process.Agile provides a range of formal processes, and methods, to inform work processes,customer engagement and management models. Conversely, Agile isn’t aboutblindly following the prescribed ‘agile’ methods and processes. Agile is about usingyour common sense to apply processes, as determined by the current situation,and shaped by the agile philosophy.Agile is faster and/or cheaper: Agile isn’t significantly faster, or cheaper, thanalternative frameworks. Put another way, in most cases you can’t get significantlymore effort out of your Teams by moving to an agile approach. While there is anoverall efficiency gain when utilising agile methods, well-managed Agile and nonAgile Teams will deliver products and services in approximately the same time andeffort.Agile teams do not plan their work or write documentation: Agile is not anexcuse to avoid appropriate planning or writing documentation. It is an on-demand,or Just-In-Time, approach that encourages continuous planning and documentation,but only when needed for specific Customer Requirements. This allows Customersand Teams to determine if the planning, or document, adds value to the process orproduct. It creates an opportunity to emphasise valuable documents, and eliminateanything that isn’t useful.An Agile project never ends: While this may be true in some situations, the benefitof Agile is that work will continue while the Customer continues to gain businessvalue, and that value is worth more than the cost of developing it. Most projects, inany industry, have a point of diminishing returns. This is the ideal time for an agileproject to end.Agile only works for small organisations: Agile works for projects, teams andorganisations of any size, not just small projects. That is not to say that it will workfor all organisations, but size is rarely a factor. Large and complex projects andorganisations are often excellent candidates for Agile transformation, where it isdifficult, or impossible, to know all your Customer’s Requirements in advance.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 10 of 84

Introduction to Scrum Without upfront planning, Agile is wasteful: This assumes that your Customerknows the detail of all of their Requirements in advance. If this is true, then by allmeans, undertake comprehensive upfront planning. However, in reality this is rare,and usually leads to the greater ‘waste’ of having undertaken design anddevelopment work that was ultimately unnecessary. Agile Business Managementencourages minimal upfront planning, ensuring everyone is working towards thesame goal, and reduces the risk of miscommunication.Finally, Agile is not the solution to all your problems. It is a change in approachand culture that comes with its own set of benefits and issues.SCRUM OVERVIEWScrum is described as a ‘framework within which you can employ various processes andtechniques’, rather than a process, or a technique, for building products. The Scrumframework is primarily team based, and defines associated roles, events, artefacts andrules. The three primary roles within the Scrum framework are:1. The product owner who represents the stakeholders,2. The scrum master who manages the team and the Scrum process3. The team, about 7 people, who develop the software.Each project is delivered in a highly flexible and iterative manner where at the end of everysprint of work there is a tangible deliverable to the business. This can be seen in thefollowing diagram.FIGURE 3: SCRUM FRAMEWORKNotes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 11 of 84

Introduction to ScrumThe requirements that form the basis of the project are collated into what is called aProject Backlog, and is updated regularly. The features that are associated with theserequirements are termed User Stories. This relationship is illustrated in the followingdiagram:FIGURE 4: SCRUM PROJECT STRUCTUREThe work is time-boxed into a series of 1 to 4 week cycles where the business and projectteam estimate which User Stories in descending priority order are achievable each cycle, orIteration. This subset of User Stories from the Project Backlog form the basis of theIteration Backlog planned for delivery over that two week period.Under Scrum, there are 3 timeboxed (or fixed duration) meetings held during an Iterationplus a daily stand-up meeting for the team, scrum master and (ideally) the product owner.At the beginning of a sprint, features to be developed during the sprint are decided duringthe sprint planning meeting. At the end of the Iteration are another 2 meetings, theIteration review and Iteration retrospective where the team reviews the product anddemonstrates the use of the software, as well as reflect on, and improve, the Iterationprocess itself.After the sprint is complete, the next set of User Stories is selected from the ProjectBacklog and the process begins again. Burn rate is monitored to determine when fundingwill be exhausted.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 12 of 84

Introduction to ScrumTABLE 1: KEY SCRUM CONCEPTSConceptProjectRequirementSprintProject BacklogSprint BacklogUser StoriesTasksTechnical DebtDescriptionDiscreet set of end user requirements thathave been grouped, prioritised and funded.The end user statement that outlines theirinformation need.A sprint is a 1 to 4 week time-boxed eventfocused on the delivery of a subset of UserStories taken from the Project Backlog.The Project Backlog is the current list ofUser Stories for the Project. User Stories canbe added, modified or removed from theBacklog during the Project.Subset of User Stories from the ProjectBacklog that are planned to be delivered aspart of a Sprint.The User Story is a one or two linedescription of the business need, usuallydescribed in terms of features.Tasks are the activities performed to delivera User Story.This refers to items that were either: missing from the Planning meeting;or deferred in favor of early delivery.Notes:Introduction to Scrum(cc)-by-sa – Evan LeybournPage 13 of 84

Introduction to ScrumPROJECT ROLES‘So Mr Edison, how did it feel to fail 10,000 times?’‘Young man, I

The “Agile Software Development Manifesto” was developed in February 2001, by representatives from many of the fledgling “agile” processes such as Scrum, DSDM, and XP. The manifesto is a set of 4 values and 12 principles that describe “What is meant by Agile". THE AGILE VALUES 1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools 2. Working software over comprehensive .

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