Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition)

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Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition)W3CExtensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (SecondEdition)W3C Recommendation 6 October 2000This version:http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006 (XHTML, XML, PDF, XHTML review versionwith color-coded revision indicators)Latest version:http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xmlPrevious rs:Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape tbray@textuality.com Jean Paoli, Microsoft jeanpa@microsoft.com C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, University of Illinois at Chicago and Text Encoding Initiative cmsmcq@uic.edu Eve Maler, Sun Microsystems, Inc. eve.maler@east.sun.com - Second EditionCopyright 2000 W3C (MIT, INRIA, Keio), All Rights Reserved. W3C liability, trademark, documentuse, and software licensing rules apply.AbstractThe Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of SGML that is completely described in thisdocument. Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in theway that is now possible with HTML. XML has been designed for ease of implementation and forinteroperability with both SGML and HTML.Status of this DocumentThis document has been reviewed by W3C Members and other interested parties and has been endorsedby the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference materialor cited as a normative reference from another document. W3C’s role in making the Recommendation isto draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances thefunctionality and interoperability of the Web.This document specifies a syntax created by subsetting an existing, widely used international textprocessing standard (Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879:1986(E) as amended andcorrected) for use on the World Wide Web. It is a product of the W3C XML Activity, details of which can1

Table of Contentsbe found at http://www.w3.org/XML. The English version of this specification is the only normativeversion. However, for translations of this document, see http://www.w3.org/XML/#trans. A list of currentW3C Recommendations and other technical documents can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR.This second edition is not a new version of XML (first published 10 February 1998); it merelyincorporates the changes dictated by the first-edition errata (available athttp://www.w3.org/XML/xml-19980210-errata) as a convenience to readers. The errata list for this secondedition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-2e-errata.Please report errors in this document to xml-editor@w3.org; archives are available.Note:C. M. Sperberg-McQueen’s affiliation has changed since the publication of the first edition. He is now atthe World Wide Web Consortium, and can be contacted at cmsmcq@w3.org.Table of Contents1 Introduction .1.1 Origin and Goals.1.2 Terminology.2 Documents .2.1 Well-Formed XML Documents.2.2 Characters .2.3 Common Syntactic Constructs .2.4 Character Data and Markup .2.5 Comments .2.6 Processing Instructions .2.7 CDATA Sections.2.8 Prolog and Document Type Declaration.2.9 Standalone Document Declaration .2.10 White Space Handling .2.11 End-of-Line Handling .2.12 Language Identification .3 Logical Structures .3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags3.2 Element Type Declarations .3.2.1 Element Content .3.2.2 Mixed Content .3.3 Attribute-List Declarations.3.3.1 Attribute Types .3.3.2 Attribute Defaults.3.3.3 Attribute-Value Normalization.3.4 Conditional Sections .4 Physical Structures .4.1 Character and Entity References .4.2 Entity Declarations .

1 Introduction4.2.1 Internal Entities .4.2.2 External Entities .4.3 Parsed Entities .4.3.1 The Text Declaration .4.3.2 Well-Formed Parsed Entities .4.3.3 Character Encoding in Entities.4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and References4.4.1 Not Recognized .4.4.2 Included.4.4.3 Included If Validating.4.4.4 Forbidden .4.4.5 Included in Literal .4.4.6 Notify .4.4.7 Bypassed .4.4.8 Included as PE .4.5 Construction of Internal Entity Replacement Text.4.6 Predefined Entities .4.7 Notation Declarations.4.8 Document Entity.5 Conformance.5.1 Validating and Non-Validating Processors .5.2 Using XML Processors .6 References .A.1 Normative References .A.2 Other References.B Character Classes .C XML and SGML (Non-Normative).D Expansion of Entity and Character References (Non-Normative)E Deterministic Content Models (Non-Normative).F Autodetection of Character Encodings (Non-Normative) .F.1 Detection Without External Encoding Information .F.2 Priorities in the Presence of External Encoding InformationG W3C XML Working Group (Non-Normative) .H W3C XML Core Group (Non-Normative) .I Production Notes (Non-Normative).1 IntroductionExtensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents[p.6] and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is anapplication profile or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879]3

1.1 Origin and Goals[p.49] . By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents.XML documents are made up of storage units called entities [p.32] , which contain either parsed orunparsed data. Parsed data is made up of characters [p.7] , some of which form character data [p.9] , andsome of which form markup [p.9] . Markup encodes a description of the document’s storage layout andlogical structure. XML provides a mechanism to impose constraints on the storage layout and logicalstructure.[Definition: A software module called an XML processor is used to read XML documents and provideaccess to their content and structure.] [Definition: It is assumed that an XML processor is doing its workon behalf of another module, called the application.] This specification describes the required behavior ofan XML processor in terms of how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to theapplication.1.1 Origin and GoalsXML was developed by an XML Working Group (originally known as the SGML Editorial ReviewBoard) formed under the auspices of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It was chaired byJon Bosak of Sun Microsystems with the active participation of an XML Special Interest Group(previously known as the SGML Working Group) also organized by the W3C. The membership of theXML Working Group is given in an appendix. Dan Connolly served as the WG’s contact with the W3C.The design goals for XML are:1. XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet.2. XML shall support a wide variety of applications.3. XML shall be compatible with SGML.4. It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents.5. The number of optional features in XML is to be kept to the absolute minimum, ideally zero.6. XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear.7. The XML design should be prepared quickly.8. The design of XML shall be formal and concise.9. XML documents shall be easy to create.10. Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance.This specification, together with associated standards (Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 for characters,Internet RFC 1766 for language identification tags, ISO 639 for language name codes, and ISO 3166 forcountry name codes), provides all the information necessary to understand XML Version 1.0 andconstruct computer programs to process it.4

1.2 TerminologyThis version of the XML specification may be distributed freely, as long as all text and legal noticesremain intact.1.2 TerminologyThe terminology used to describe XML documents is defined in the body of this specification. The termsdefined in the following list are used in building those definitions and in describing the actions of an XMLprocessor:may[Definition: Conforming documents and XML processors are permitted to but need not behave asdescribed.]must[Definition: Conforming documents and XML processors are required to behave as described;otherwise they are in error. ]error[Definition: A violation of the rules of this specification; results are undefined. Conforming softwaremay detect and report an error and may recover from it.]fatal error[Definition: An error which a conforming XML processor [p.4] must detect and report to theapplication. After encountering a fatal error, the processor may continue processing the data to searchfor further errors and may report such errors to the application. In order to support correction oferrors, the processor may make unprocessed data from the document (with intermingled characterdata and markup) available to the application. Once a fatal error is detected, however, the processormust not continue normal processing (i.e., it must not continue to pass character data and informationabout the document’s logical structure to the application in the normal way).]at user option[Definition: Conforming software may or must (depending on the modal verb in the sentence) behaveas described; if it does, it must provide users a means to enable or disable the behavior described.]validity constraint[Definition: A rule which applies to all valid [p.12] XML documents. Violations of validityconstraints are errors; they must, at user option, be reported by validating XML processors [p.44] .]well-formedness constraint5

2 Documents[Definition: A rule which applies to all well-formed [p.6] XML documents. Violations ofwell-formedness constraints are fatal errors [p.5] .]match[Definition: (Of strings or names:) Two strings or names being compared must be identical.Characters with multiple possible representations in ISO/IEC 10646 (e.g. characters with bothprecomposed and base diacritic forms) match only if they have the same representation in bothstrings. No case folding is performed. (Of strings and rules in the grammar:) A string matches agrammatical production if it belongs to the language generated by that production. (Of content andcontent models:) An element matches its declaration when it conforms in the fashion described in theconstraint [VC: Element Valid] [p.18] .]for compatibility[Definition: Marks a sentence describing a feature of XML included solely to ensure that XMLremains compatible with SGML.]for interoperability[Definition: Marks a sentence describing a non-binding recommendation included to increase thechances that XML documents can be processed by the existing installed base of SGML processorswhich predate the WebSGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879.]2 Documents[Definition: A data object is an XML document if it is well-formed [p.6] , as defined in this specification.A well-formed XML document may in addition be valid [p.12] if it meets certain further constraints.]Each XML document has both a logical and a physical structure. Physically, the document is composed ofunits called entities [p.32] . An entity may refer [p.33] to other entities to cause their inclusion in thedocument. A document begins in a "root" or document entity [p.44] . Logically, the document iscomposed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions, all ofwhich are indicated in the document by explicit markup. The logical and physical structures must nestproperly, as described in 4.3.2 Well-Formed Parsed Entities [p.37] .2.1 Well-Formed XML Documents[Definition: A textual object is a well-formed XML document if:]1. Taken as a whole, it matches the production labeled document [p.7] .2. It meets all the well-formedness constraints given in this specification.3. Each of the parsed entities [p.32] which is referenced directly or indirectly within the document iswell-formed [p.6] .6

2.2 CharactersDocument[1]document:: prolog [p.12] element [p.18] Misc [p.12] *Matching the document [p.7] production implies that:1. It contains one or more elements [p.18] .2. [Definition: There is exactly one element, called the root, or document element, no part of whichappears in the content [p.20] of any other element.] For all other elements, if the start-tag [p.19] is inthe content of another element, the end-tag [p.20] is in the content of the same element. More simplystated, the elements, delimited by start- and end-tags, nest properly within each other.[Definition: As a consequence of this, for each non-root element C in the document, there is one otherelement P in the document such that C is in the content of P, but is not in the content of any other elementthat is in the content of P. P is referred to as the parent of C, and C as a child of P.]2.2 Characters[Definition: A parsed entity contains text, a sequence of characters [p.7] , which may represent markup orcharacter data.] [Definition: A character is an atomic unit of text as specified by ISO/IEC 10646[ISO/IEC 10646] [p.47] (see also [ISO/IEC 10646-2000] [p.47] ). Legal characters are tab, carriage return,line feed, and the legal characters of Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646. The versions of these standards cited inA.1 Normative References [p.47] were current at the time this document was prepared. New charactersmay be added to these standards by amendments or new editions. Consequently, XML processors mustaccept any character in the range specified for Char [p.7] . The use of "compatibility characters", asdefined in section 6.8 of [Unicode] [p.48] (see also D21 in section 3.6 of [Unicode3] [p.48] ), isdiscouraged.]Character Range[2]Char:: #x9 #xA #xD [#x20-#xD7FF] [#xE000-#xFFFD] [#x10000-#x10FFFF]/* any Unicode character,excluding the surrogateblocks, FFFE, and FFFF.*/The mechanism for encoding character code points into bit patterns may vary from entity to entity. AllXML processors must accept the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings of 10646; the mechanisms for signalingwhich of the two is in use, or for bringing other encodings into play, are discussed later, in 4.3.3Character Encoding in Entities [p.38] .7

2.3 Common Syntactic Constructs2.3 Common Syntactic ConstructsThis section defines some symbols used widely in the grammar.S [p.8] (white space) consists of one or more space (#x20) characters, carriage returns, line feeds, or tabs.White Space[3]S:: (#x20 #x9 #xD #xA) Characters are classified for convenience as letters, digits, or other characters. A letter consists of analphabetic or syllabic base character or an ideographic character. Full definitions of the specific charactersin each class are given in B Character Classes [p.49] .[Definition: A Name is a token beginning with a letter or one of a few punctuation characters, andcontinuing with letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, colons, or full stops, together known as namecharacters.] Names beginning with the string "xml", or any string which would match ((’X’ ’x’)(’M’ ’m’) (’L’ ’l’)), are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of thisspecification.Note:The Namespaces in XML Recommendation [XML Names] [p.49] assigns a meaning to names containingcolon characters. Therefore, authors should not use the colon in XML names except for namespacepurposes, but XML processors must accept the colon as a name character.An Nmtoken [p.8] (name token) is any mixture of name characters.Names and Tokens[4]NameChar:: Letter [p.49] Digit [p.52] ’.’ ’-’ ’ ’ ’:’ CombiningChar [p.52] Extender[p.53][5]Name:: (Letter [p.49] ’ ’ ’:’) (NameChar [p.8])*[6]Names:: Name [p.8] (S [p.8] Name [p.8] )*[7]Nmtoken:: (NameChar [p.8] ) [8]Nmtokens:: Nmtoken [p.8] (S [p.8] Nmtoken [p.8] )*Literal data is any quoted string not containing the quotation mark used as a delimiter for that string.Literals are used for specifying the content of internal entities (EntityValue [p.9] ), the values of attributes(AttValue [p.9] ), and external identifiers (SystemLiteral [p.9] ). Note that a SystemLiteral [p.9] can beparsed without scanning for markup.8

2.4 Character Data and MarkupLiterals[9]EntityValue:: ’"’ ([ %&"] PEReference [p.33] Reference [p.33] )* ’"’ "’" ([ %&’] PEReference [p.33] Reference [p.33] )* "’"[10]AttValue:: ’"’ ([ &"] Reference [p.33] )* ’"’ "’" ([ &’] Reference [p.33] )* "’"[11]SystemLiteral:: (’"’ [ "]* ’"’) ("’" [ ’]* "’")[12]PubidLiteral:: ’"’ PubidChar [p.9] * ’"’ "’"(PubidChar [p.9] - "’")* "’"[13]PubidChar:: #x20 #xD #xA [a-zA-Z0-9] [-’() ,./: ?;!*#@ %]Note:Although the EntityValue [p.9] production allows the definition of an entity consisting of a single explicit in the literal (e.g., !ENTITY mylt " " ), it is strongly advised to avoid this practice since anyreference to that entity will cause a well-formedness error.2.4 Character Data and MarkupText [p.7] consists of intermingled character data [p.9] and markup. [Definition: Markup takes the formof start-tags [p.19] , end-tags [p.20] , empty-element tags [p.20] , entity references [p.33] , characterreferences [p.32] , comments [p.10] , CDATA section [p.11] delimiters, document type declarations [p.12], processing instructions [p.10] , XML declarations [p.12] , text declarations [p.37] , and any white spacethat is at the top level of the document entity (that is, outside the document element and not inside anyother markup).][Definition: All text that is not markup constitutes the character data of the document.]The ampersand character (&) and the left angle bracket ( ) may appear in their literal form only whenused as markup delimiters, or within a comment [p.10] , a processing instruction [p.10] , or a CDATAsection [p.11] . If they are needed elsewhere, they must be escaped [p.43] using either numeric characterreferences [p.32] or the strings "&" and "<" respectively. The right angle bracket ( ) may berepresented using the string ">", and must, for compatibility [p.6] , be escaped using ">" or acharacter reference when it appears in the string "]] " in content, when that string is not marking the endof a CDATA section [p.11] .In the content of elements, character data is any string of characters which does not contain thestart-delimiter of any markup. In a CDATA section, character data is any string of characters not includingthe CDATA-section-close delimiter, "]] ".9

2.5 CommentsTo allow attribute values to contain both single and double quotes, the apostrophe or single-quotecharacter (’) may be represented as "'", and the double-quote character (") as """.Character Data[14]CharData:: [ &]* - ([ &]* ’]] ’ [ &]*)2.5 Comments[Definition: Comments may appear anywhere in a document outside other markup [p.9] ; in addition,they may appear within the document type declaration at places allowed by the grammar. They are notpart of the document’s character data [p.9] ; an XML processor may, but need not, make it possible for anapplication to retrieve the text of comments. For compatibility [p.6] , the string "--" (double-hyphen)must not occur within comments.] Parameter entity references are not recognized within comments.Comments[

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