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Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissionsin Washington State GovernmentAir Quality ProgramWashington State Department of EcologyOlympia, WashingtonMarch 2021, Publication 20-02-022

Publication InformationThis document is available on the Department of Ecology’s website ypages/2002022.htmlContact InformationAir Quality ProgramP.O. Box 47600Olympia, WA 98504-7600Phone: 360-407-6800Website 1: Washington State Department of EcologyADA AccessibilityThe Department of Ecology is committed to providing people with disabilities access toinformation and services by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the Americans withDisabilities Act (ADA), Section 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, and Washington StatePolicy #188.To request an ADA accommodation, contact Ecology by phone at 360-407-6800 or email [email protected] For Washington Relay Service or TTY call 711 or 877-833-6341.Visit Ecology's website for more information.1www.ecology.wa.gov

Department of Ecology’s Regional OfficesMap of Counties artersCounties servedClallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor,Jefferson, Mason, Lewis, Pacific, Pierce,Skamania, Thurston, WahkiakumIsland, King, Kitsap, San Juan, Skagit,Snohomish, WhatcomBenton, Chelan, Douglas, Kittitas,Klickitat, Okanogan, YakimaAdams, Asotin, Columbia, Ferry, Franklin,Garfield, Grant, Lincoln, Pend Oreille,Spokane, Stevens, Walla Walla, WhitmanAcross WashingtonPublication 20-02-22February 2021Mailing AddressPhonePO Box 47775Olympia, WA 98504360-407-63003190 160th Ave SEBellevue, WA 98008425-649-70001250 W Alder StUnion Gap, WA 98903509-575-24904601 N MonroeSpokane, WA 99205509-329-3400PO Box 46700Olympia, WA 98504360-407-6000

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissionsin Washington State GovernmentReport to the LegislatureAir Quality ProgramWashington State Department of EcologyOlympia, WAFebruary 2021 Publication 20-02-022Publication 20-02-22February 2021

Table of ContentsList of Figures and Tables . Error! Bookmark not defined.Acknowledgements. 7Executive Summary. 8Greenhouse Gas Limits . 8Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Mitigation Reporting . 8Conclusion . 9Introduction . 10Sources of greenhouse gas emissions . 10Greenhouse gases included . 11New Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Reporting . 13Total State Agency Greenhouse Gas Emissions . 13Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Summary. 16Recommendations . 17Conclusion . 17Appendix: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporters . 18Publication 20-02-022Page 5March 2021

List of Figures and TablesFiguresFigure 1: Collective State Government Greenhouse Gas Emissions . 14Figure 2: State Agency Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source . 14TablesTable 1: Global warming Potential factors for greenhouse gases, 100 year time horizon . 11Table 2: State Agency Reporters. 13Publication 20-02-022Page 6March 2021

AcknowledgementsThe authors of this report thank the following people for their contribution to this study:Washington Department of AgricultureTracie LindeblomCentral Washington UniversityJeremiah EilersCommunity Colleges of SpokaneAndrew LembergWashington Department of CommerceJo KeysWashington Department of CorrectionsJulie VannesteWashington Department of EcologyTeresa RenoWashington Department of Enterprise ServicesRon MajorEastern Washington UniversityErik BudsbergWashington Department of Fish and WildlifeYvonne JenningsWashington Department of HealthStephanie MillerWashington Department of Labor and IndustriesMark YoungWashington State Liquor and Cannabis BoardTia LivingoodWashington Department of Natural ResourcesAmy SikoraSeattle Community CollegeAdam MaurerWashington Department of Social and Health ServicesAnn BruntWashington State Parks and Recreation CommissionAlexandra SullivanWashington State PatrolTanyah WilliamsThe Evergreen State CollegeScott MorganWashington Department of TransportationKarin LandsbergUniversity of WashingtonJessica CanetWashington State UniversityJason SampsonWestern Washington UniversityLindsey MacDonaldSEEP Office, WA Department of CommerceHanna WaterstratPublication 20-02-022Page 7March 2021

Executive SummaryTo address the threat climate change to our state, the Washington State Legislature establishedlimits on greenhouse gases in 2008 and updated these limits in 2020. As part of the response toclimate change, the Legislature required state agencies to reduce their greenhouse emissionsand report on their progress every two years.Greenhouse gas emissions from Washington State agencies represent about 1.0 percent oftotal state greenhouse gas emissions. However, state government is in a unique position todemonstrate leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change.This report provides information about greenhouse gas emissions by Washington Stategovernment through 2019. To meet the 2020 emissions limit of 805,000 metric tons, stategovernment must collectively reduce emissions by about 7.5 percent. Meeting the 2020 limit ispossible, and will be covered in the next biennial report, in 2022.Greenhouse Gas LimitsIn March 2020, the Washington State Legislature updated both the greenhouse gas limits andthe mitigation reporting requirements with the passage of House Bill 2311 (RCW 70A.45.050).To meet the increasing threat of climate change, 2030 and 2040 now have specific emissionlimits. In addition, every year beyond 2020 now has more aggressive percent reductionsrequirements than the previous targets established in 2008. These new limits for greenhousegases are: By 2020, reduce emissions to 805,000 metric tons or 15 percent below 2005 levels,By 2030, reduce emissions to 521,000 metric tons or 45 percent below 2005 levels,By 2040, reduce emissions to 284,000 metric tons or 70 percent below 2005 levels,By 2050, reduce emissions to 47,000 metric tons or 95 percent below 2005 levels;achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by state government as a whole.We will assess these new requirements in the next biennial report in 2022.Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Mitigation ReportingAnnual state agency greenhouse gas emissions data are required to be analyzed andsummarized by Ecology and reported to the Governor and appropriate committees of theSenate and the House of Representatives by December 31st (RCW 70A.45.060).Under the new 2020 mitigation reporting requirements (RCW 70A.45.050), agencies must alsosubmit a report to Ecology and the State Efficiency and Environmental Performance (SEEP)office at the Washington Department of Commerce starting June 1, 2022 and each evennumbered year after that. These new mitigation reporting requirements include: emission reduction actions implemented during the previous two years, activities planned for the next two biennia to meet emission reduction targets, a long term strategy to meet the new emissions limits, updated as appropriate.Publication 20-02-022Page 8March 2021

Ecology and Commerce will review the mitigation activities and compile them into aconsolidated report for the appropriate committees of the legislature. This report is dueDecember 1, 2022 and each even-numbered year after that.ConclusionThis report analyzes state agency-reported greenhouse gas emissions data for 2018 and 2019.Collectively Washington state government is on track to meet the 2020 greenhouse gasemissions goal. Going forward, meeting the new greenhouse gas emissions limits and reportingrequirements of RCW 70A.45.050 will require increased efforts by all participants.Most of the greenhouse gas emissions from state agencies come from buildings (i.e., electricityand natural gas used for power and heat), transportation from state vehicles, and theWashington State ferry system.Publication 20-02-022Page 9March 2021

IntroductionThe State Agency greenhouse gas reporting program collects greenhouse gas emissions datafrom 23 reporting agencies that account for about 93 percent of the state agency 2005 baselineemissions. With the recent passage of House Bill 2311 (in 2020), state agencies must meet newemissions limits at new target years. Every two years, Ecology summarizes these data into areport to the governor and legislators.RCW 70A.45.060(3) establishes the reporting requirements:By December 31st of each even-numbered year beginning in 2010, the department shallreport to the governor and to the appropriate committees of the senate and house ofrepresentatives the total state agencies' emissions of greenhouse gases for 2005 andthe preceding two years and actions taken to meet the emissions reduction targets.The Washington State Agency greenhouse gas program will continue to evolve in response toregulatory changes or to greenhouse gas accounting changes as specified by theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. RCW 70A.45.060(1) requires the Department ofEcology to develop “an emissions calculator to assist state agencies in estimating aggregateemissions.” This calculator estimates emissions from major sources within state governmentoperations, specifically building energy sources and fleets. Emission factors embedded in thecalculator align with other greenhouse gas reporting programs in Ecology.Sources of greenhouse gas emissionsState agencies reported on sources of greenhouse gas emissions directly under theiroperational control or that result from activities directly controlled by the state agency,including: Natural gas, electricity, and other fuels used in buildings and stationary equipment ownedor operated by the state agency. Diesel, gas, and other fuels used in vehicles and equipment owned and operated by thestate agency, including light and heavy duty on-road vehicles, non-road or off-road vehicles,ferries, boats, and aircraft.Publication 20-02-022Page 10March 2021

Greenhouse gases includedState agencies reported on the three main greenhouse gases emitted from state agencyactivities: Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O)Greenhouse gas inventories use a common metric, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) to reportgreenhouse gas emissions. For any quantity and type of greenhouse gas, CO2e signifies theamount of carbon dioxide that would have the same global warming impact. The GlobalWarming Potential (GWP) is the factor used to convert all greenhouse gases to this commonunit. Table 1 below describes the global warming potential related to each type of greenhousegas.In estimating greenhouse gas emissions for national or state inventories, both the EPA andWashington State comply with international greenhouse gas reporting standards under theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and currently use the 100year GWP values from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change ( IPCC). 2Table 1: Global Warming Potentials 3Greenhouse GasCarbon dioxide (CO2)Methane (CH4)Nitrous Oxide (N2O)GWP125298New Greenhouse Gas Emissions LimitsRCW 70A.45.040 requires Ecology to review with the Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at theUniversity of Washington the science on human-caused climate change within eighteen monthsof the “next and each successive global or national assessment of climate change science.”This review may require recommendations on “whether the greenhouse gas emissionsreductions required under RCW 70A.45.020 need to be updated.”In 2019, Ecology reviewed several recent climate change reports: the 2018 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report, Global Warmingof 1.5oC (SR15), obal-warming-potentialsTable A-267: IPCC AR4 Global Warming Potentials /documents/2018 annex 6.pdf4https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/23Publication 20-02-022Page 11March 2021

the 2018 Fourth National Climate Assessment, 5 the University of Washington CIG report on the consequences to Washington State of1.5oC and 2oC of warming. 6To moderate the most damaging effects of climate change, these reports show the need forsignificant additional greenhouse gas reductions. Ecology published Washington StateGreenhouse Gas Reduction Limits, 7 recommending strengthening the statutory greenhouse gasemissions limits, creating new interim milestones and setting a carbon neutral target in additionto the emissions limit for 2050. Ecology’s policy paper informed 2020 House Bill 2311 (RCW70A.45.050), updating the greenhouse gas emissions limits and mitigation requirements forstate agencies. By June 30th of each year, state agencies must complete a simplified calculatordesigned by Ecology to estimate greenhouse gas emissions associated with buildings and fleets.State agency emissions limits in RCW 70A.45.050 are:(i) By July 1, 2020, reduce overall emissions of greenhouse gases to 15 percent below 2005levels or 805,000 metric tons by state government as a whole(ii) By 2030, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 45 percent below 2005 levels, or 521,000metric tons by state government as a whole(iii) By 2040, reduce greenhouse gas emissions 70 percent below 2005 levels, or 284,000metric tons by state government as a whole and,(iv) By 2050, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 95 percent below 2005 levels, or 47,000metric tons and achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by state government as yPages/1902031.html56Publication 20-02-022Page 12March 2021

New Greenhouse Gas Mitigation ReportingIn addition to annually reporting greenhouse gas emissions, state agencies must submit areport on mitigation activities implemented during the previous two years. The appendixincludes a summary of each state agency’s mitigation activities for 2018 and 2019.Revised mitigation reporting requirements start June 1, 2022 and each even-numbered yearafter that. Agencies must report to Ecology and the State Efficiency and EnvironmentalPerformance office at the Department of Commerce: emission reduction actions implemented during the previous two years activities planned for the next two biennia to meet emission reduction targets the agency’s long term strategy to meet the new emission reduction targets, updated asappropriateEcology and the State Efficiency and Environmental Performance office review the mitigationinformation from each agency. These mitigation reports are included in a consolidated reportto the appropriate committees of the legislature. The due date for this legislative report isDecember 1, 2022 and each even-numbered year after that (RCW 70A.45.050 (3)). Thelegislative report for state agency greenhouse gas emissions data is due December 31st of eacheven numbered year (RCW 70A.45.060(3)).Total State Agency Greenhouse Gas EmissionsGreenhouse gas emissions from Washington State agencies represent about 1 percent of totalstate greenhouse gas emissions. However, state government is in a unique position to lead inreducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The 23 state agencyreporters listed in Table 2 represent 93 percent of the state agency 2005 baseline emissions.Table 2: State Agency ReportersAgencies & Higher Education with estimated2005 baseline 10,000 MTDepartment of TransportationUniversity of WashingtonWashington State UniversityDepartment of CorrectionsDepartment of Social and Health ServicesWashington State PatrolDepartment of Enterprise ServicesCentral Washington UniversityEastern Washington UniversityWestern Washington UniversityDepartment of Fish and WildlifePublication 20-02-022Page 13March 2021

Agencies & Higher Education with estimated2005 baseline 10,000 MTSeattle Community CollegesState Parks and Recreation CommissionSpokane Community CollegeThe Evergreen State CollegeDepartment of Natural ResourcesAgencies with estimated 2005 baseline 5,000 MTDepartment of HealthLiquor and Cannabis BoardLabor and IndustriesDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of EcologyAgencies not captured by threshold butwhich must reportDepartment of AgricultureDepartment of CommerceAs of October 2020, only one of the state agencies listed in Table 2 has not reported its 2019greenhouse gas emissions. For this agency, the most recent data reported are represented witha placeholder. As of July 2019, about half of reporting agencies have already met their 2020target by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions 15 percent from their 2005 baseline (seeappendix).Reported data represents about 93 percent of state agency emissions. Adjusted to 100percent, Figure 1 provides greenhouse gas emissions from state government as a whole.Currently, Washington state government is within 7.5 percent of the 2020 target of 805,000metric tons.Publication 20-02-022Page 14March 2021

State Agency GHG emissions, MT gure 1: Collective state government greenhouse gas emissions: 2005 baseline; 2018 and2019 reported emissions; 2020 target of 805,000 metric tons; 2030 target of 521,000 metric tonsTracking greenhouse gas emissions from operations continues to be challenging for agenciesthat regularly experience campus growth and / or reductions. Another challenge is the COVIDpandemic, which has had an as-yet unmeasured impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and willlikely cause uncertainty into the future as agencies assess the feasibility of emissionsreductions. As Figure 1 also shows, meeting the 2030 reduction target will be a significantchallenge for state agencies.As Figure 2 shows, stationary sources are the primary contributors of greenhouse gas emissionsfor state agencies. Stationary sources are typically emissions from buildings, including bothscope 1 (natural gas) and scope 2 (electricity) emissions. 8 For a few state agencies, scope 1mobile sources (transportation fuels) are significant, especially fleet emissions from theWashington State Patrol and emissions from the Washington State Department ofTransportation ferry s/operational-boundaries-ghg-emissionsPublication 20-02-022Page 15March 2021

State Agency GHG Emissions, MT tionarytransportation2018ferry2019Figure

Greenhouse gas emissions from Washington State agencies represent about 1.0 percent of total state greenhouse gas emissions. However, state government is in a unique position to demonstrate leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. This report provides information about greenhouse gas emissions by Washington .