The Eastern Christian Churches

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5/25/2018The EasternChristian ChurchesA Brief Surveyand ResourcesIntroductory Remarks1

5/25/2018The Greco-Roman EmpireThe Christian EastThe Patriarchal SeesThe PentarchyRome – Old Rome (Latin)Constantinople – New Rome (Greek)Alexandria (North African, Coptic, Ethiopic)Antioch (Syrian – Syriac, Arabic)Jerusalem (Hebraic)2

5/25/2018The Eastern Christian ChurchesI. The Church of the East (Assyrian)II. The Oriental Orthodox ChurchesIII. The Orthodox ChurchIV. The Eastern Catholic ChurchesI. The Church of the East (Assyrian) History Division Council of Ephesus 431 Theology Liturgy3

5/25/2018II. The Oriental Orthodox ChurchesConsist of six independent churches that are in full communion The Armenian Apostolic Church The Coptic Orthodox Church (Egypt) The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (India) The Eritrean Orthodox ChurchII. The Oriental Orthodox Churches Division: Council of Chalcedon 4514

5/25/2018III. The Orthodox Church"orthodox" - right teaching/praisea communion of national/regional churchesall recognizethe Ecumenical Patriarch of ConstantinopleIII. The Orthodox Church Ecclesiology Schism of 1054 Traditions, practices, beliefs Attempts at Reconciliation Issues that separateOrthodox & Catholic Churches5

5/25/2018EcclesiologyA Communion of ChurchesEcclesiologyTheAutocephalousChurchesThe Patriarchate of Constantinople (The Ecumenical Patriarchate)The Patriarchate of AlexandriaThe Patriarchate of AntiochThe Patriarchate of JerusalemThe Orthodox Church of RussiaThe Orthodox Church of SerbiaThe Orthodox Church of BulgariaThe Orthodox Church of GeorgiaThe Orthodox Church of CyprusThe Orthodox Church of GreeceThe Orthodox Church of PolandThe Orthodox Church of AlbaniaThe Orthodox Church of Czech and Slovak RepublicsThe Orthodox Church in America (OCA)6

5/25/2018EcclesiologyTheAutonomousChurchesThe Orthodox Church of Mount SinaiThe Orthodox Church of FinlandThe Orthodox Church of JapanThe Orthodox Church of ChinaEstonian Apostolic Orthodox ChurchSchism of 1054Michael I Cerularius, Patriarch of ConstantinopleHumbert, Cardinal – Bishop of Silva Candidarepresenting Leo IX, Pope of Rome, Patriarch of the WestMutual excommunicationsLifted by Pope Paul VI and PatriarchAthenagoras I of Constantinople 19657

5/25/2018Schism of 1054 - IssuesNon theological Interruption of regular communications Language Faced separate crisis Responded differently to various needsTheological Nature of the church Eternal procession of the Spirit “filioque” Form of governance:monarchial vs federated/conciliar/synodalSchism of 10548-13 April 1204Sack of Constantinopleby the CrusadesPainting by Eugene Delacroix8

5/25/2018Traditions, practices, beliefs Governance Ecclesiology Councils – Holy Spirit ScripturesTraditions, practices, beliefs Patristics Liturgy – Byzantine Rite Use of unleavened bread9

5/25/2018Traditions, practices, beliefs Vernacular liturgical languages use of Julian Calendar position of prayer - standing a cappella music – no instruments married Clergy: deacons & priests Sacraments called “Mysteries” - no fixed listTraditions, practices, beliefs Use of icons “written” vs the plastic arts:statues, paintings, sculpture, stained glass10

5/25/2018Traditions, practices, beliefs Procession of the Spirit Reject Catholic Marian dogmasTraditions, practices, beliefs Great devotion of the Theotokos – “God Bearer”; Latin: Mater Dei, “Mother of God”11

5/25/2018Traditions, practices, beliefs DivinizationSaint Athanasius:“God became humanthat we might becomelike God.”Attempts at Reconciliation 1054 Mutual excommunications 1274 Council of Lyons II 1438 – 1429 Council of Florence – Ferrara 1596 Union of Brest Formal union proclaimed – ultimately rejected by the people 1962-65 Observers at Vatican II 26 October 1967 Paul and Athenagoras, Saint Peter’s Basilica 1980 – Official international dialogue begins12

5/25/2018Issues that Separate Filioque Trinitarian theology Original Sin Marian Dogmas Purgatory/Indulgences Papacy/infallibility/jurisdiction Suspicion of Eastern Catholic ChurchesIV. The Eastern Catholic ChurchesAll Eastern Catholic Churchesare in communionwith the Bishop of Rome.13

5/25/2018IV. The Eastern Catholic ChurchesThe Melkite Catholic ChurchThe Ukrainian Catholic ChurchThe Maronite Catholic ChurchThe Italo-Albanian Catholic ChurchThe Ruthenian Catholic ChurchThe Romanian Catholic ChurchThe Chaldean Catholic ChurchThe Syro-Malabar Catholic ChurchThe Greek Catholic ChurchThe Bulgarian Catholic ChurchThe Slovak Catholic ChurchThe Hungarian Catholic ChurchByzantine Catholic in former YugoslaviaEastern Catholic Communities without Hierarchies:The Armenian Catholic ChurchThe Coptic Catholic ChurchThe Ethiopian Catholic ChurchThe Syrian Catholic ChurchThe Syro-Malankara Catholic ChurchRussian, Georgian, Belarusan, AlbanianIV. The Eastern Catholic Churches History Reunions Uniate process Vatican Council II14

inopleFrancisSupreme PastorFrancisSupreme PastorFrancisSupreme PastorFrancis(Patriarch of the West)Mar Bechara Boutros al-RahiPatriarch of AntiochSviatoslav ShevchukMajor Archbishop of KievEdward ScharfenbergerDiocesan BishopGregory John MansourDiocesan BishopPaul ChomnyckyDiocesan BishopLatin RiteLatin, vernacularSyro-Antiochene RiteArabic, Syriac, Aramaic,vernacularByzantine RiteOld Slavonic, Ukrainian, vernacularSacramentsConfirmationMarriageEucharist, Mass"The Body of Christ.""The Blood of Christ."MysteriesChrismationCrowningQurbono (Offering)"The Body and Blood of Our LordJesus Christ are given to you for theforgiveness of sins and for eternal life.“MysteriesChrismationCrowningDivine Liturgy"The servant of God, N. receives theprecious and holy body and blood ofour Lord and God and Saviour JesusChrist, for the remission of his(her) sinsand for eternal life."RomanMaroniteUkrainianEating & drinkingIntinctionSpoonEucharistic PrayerRoman CanonII, III, IVReconciliation I & IIChildren's I, II, IIIAnaphora (sampling)Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles Sixtus, Pope of Rome St. Peter III or Sharar St. James of Saroug St. Mark the Evang. St. John the Apostle Eustathius of Antioch Ignatius of AntiochAnaphoraSt. John ChrysostomosSt. Basil the GreatSt. Gregory the nt-EasterOrdinary TimeSeasonsAnnouncement(Glorious Birth)EpiphanyGreat LentResurrectionPentecostHoly CrossSeasonsNativityGreat LentPentecostarion15

5/25/2018Ecumenical Relations The Church of the East The Oriental Orthodox Churches The Orthodox ChurchesQ&AQ&AQ&A Տէր, ողորմեա يا ربّ ارحم Κύριε ἐλέησον ܡܘܪܢ ܥܛܪܚܡ Kurielaison უფალო, შეგვიწყალე16

The Bulgarian Catholic Church The Slovak Catholic Church The Hungarian Catholic Church Byzantine Catholic in former Yugoslavia Eastern Catholic Communities without Hierarchies: Russian, Georgian, Belarusan, Albanian The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church The Chaldean Catholic Church The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church The Armenian Catholic Church The .

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