INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Lab Manual

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INTRODUCTIONTOENVIRONMENTALSCIENCELab ManualNamePeriodTEACHER

NAME PD O/ESet up Environment and Ecology Textbook Online1. Go to www.successnetplus.coma. Sign in using your username and password as provided by Mrs. Kirman in class:b. Usernamec. Passwordfalcons12. Click on etext.3. Explore the tools at the top of the page. Identify 3 tools and each tools purpose below.Etext ToolPurpose4. Go to page 3 in the etext. Read the Central Case; “Fixing a Hole in the Sky.”5. Complete the organizer on the back.

NAME PDDirections: Read the categories below and then read the Case Study on page 3. As you read, fill in thetable. You must have at least term in the vocabulary box and a clear thought/explanation in each of theother boxes.FIXING A HOLE IN THE SKY!SEEMSIMPORTANT TOME?SOMETHING IDON’TUNDERSTANDXSOMETHING IDON’T AGREEWITH#WORDS/TERMSTHAT SEEMIMPORTANTSOMETHING ELSE IWANT TO TALKABOUT

Environment and EcologyName:Date: Period:“THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS”FISHING ACTIVITYThis is a simulation. Your group will need the following materials:11644plate“Goldfish” crackersstraws (or one for each person)cups (or one for each person)Each member in your group will represent a country’s fishing industry. Theplate will represent the ocean, the “Goldfish “will represent real fish, the strawswill represent fishing boats/poles, and the cups will represent your country’s foodsupply. Follow the procedure listed below, keeping track of each season’s fishcatch on the data table:1.Begin by placing 16 Goldfish on the plate. When the signal is given,each member of your group will have ten seconds to fish for your country.You do this by sucking up through the straw and picking up “Goldfish” andplacing them in the cup. NO HANDS (EXCEPT TO HOLD YOUR CUP),AND ONLY ONE FISH AT A TIME! You are required to catch at leastone fish, or your country will suffer a catastrophic famine. It’s all up toyou! At the end of the simulation, a prize will be given to the person inyour group who has caught the most fish, so do your best! Finally, keepyour fish in the cups and don’t eat them until counted! No stealing or“wars” either!2.At the end of ten seconds (the end of the first season), count how many fishyou caught and enter this on the data table. Now each fish that is left in theocean will be given a chance to reproduce. However, I won’t tell you howmany can reproduce and at what rate until after the first season!1

3.Repeat steps #1 and #2 until you have fished for a total of 6 seasons, or untilyou have no more Goldfish remaining.Data Table:Season ## of Fish leftin the OceanCatch ofPerson #1Catch ofPerson #2Catch ofPerson #3Catch ofPerson #4016123456TOTALS:Questions:1.Was your fishing sustainable? In other words, at any point did you run outof fish in the ocean? If so, when? Why did this happen?2

2.What happened when you reached season #6, or you thought that the oceanmight be running out of fish? Explain why this occurred.3.Why do you suppose I didn’t tell you how many fish could reproduce, andat what rate, until after the first season? Is this comparable to what reallyhappens in “real life”?4.Did your fishing strategy change after I told you how the “Goldfish”reproduced? If so, in what ways? Why?5.What incentive was there for you to fish as much you could as an individualcountry?3

6.Were there any disincentive(s) for fishing as much as possible? If so, listthem:7.Were there any incentive(s) for cooperation among countries? If so, whatwere they? Would this be “true to life” for real countries?Author and environmentalist Garret Hardin wrote an essay entitled “TheTragedy of the Commons”. In this essay, he describes the following as anexample of this concept:“In short, when individuals use a common resource for their own personalgain, inevitably this will result in the degradation of the common resource,decreasing the yield for the individual and the entire group eventually. Thishappens because everyone takes ownership for the benefits they can receive fromthe common resources, but no one individual takes ownership or responsibility forthe negative consequences of overusing that resource.”8.Do you agree with Hardin’s assertion? Why or why not?9.How could we modify this simulation to make it sustainable? In otherwords, how could “countries” avoid the “Tragedy of the Commons”?4

Now let’s do it! Using your modifications, redo the activity:Data Table:Season ## of Fish leftin the OceanCatch ofPerson #1Catch ofPerson #2Catch ofPerson #3Catch ofPerson #4016123456TOTALS:10.List some other common resources, besides fisheries, that may face the“Tragedy of the Commons”:5

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT CALCULATOR1. Define Ecological Footprint2. Predictiona. How many Earth’s would be required to support the world population ifEVERYONE (all 7 billion people) lived like you?Earths3. Go to age/calculators/(THE LINK IS ON MY FACULTY PAGE)a. Or search footprint networkb. Follow the directions and record how many Earth’s would be requiredif EVERYONE (all 7 billion people) lived like you.Earths4. Citizens in the United States have better access to technology, food, andtransportation compared to developing and undeveloped countries. ON THENEXT PAGE- Fill in 3 examples for each category illustrating the causes forunsustainable resource use.

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT CALCULATORTechnologyHuman Nature1.1.2.2.3.3.FoodTransportation1.1.2.2.3.3.5. Think: Brainstorm a list of realistic ways you could reduce your ecologicalfootprint. Share: Share your results with at least 2 others.How can I reduce my ecological footprint?

Sample reviewStep one: Read the samples of text. Then complete this chart. Look back at the text if you need to.Sample 1The writer expressespersonal feelingsand/or opinionsThe information in thearticle seems accurate(credible)The writer supports orbacks up his words withdata and facts from areliable study or sourceThe writing containsfew or no errors inwriting structure orgrammar useSample 2Sample oyesnoyesnoStep two: For any answer where you circled “yes” on the chart, go back to that sample and highlight orunderline a sentence that “proves” what you circled is correct.Step three: Peer reviewed literature is based on facts and data that is backed up by evidence. Personalfeelings and/or opinions are not shared. Scientific interpretation is included in the text.Based on what you circled in the chart and your understanding of the definition of peer reviewedliterature, which sample do you think is the peer reviewed sample? 123Give three reasons why you think you’re right:

Compare / Contrast With SummaryConcept 2Concept 1ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTENVIRONMENTALISTHow Alike?They both involve our environmentHow Different?studies complexWith Regard Tointeractions from manydisciplines: ecology,earth science, chemistrybiologySummarize:Duplication permitted exclusively for classroom use by owner of Learning-Focused Strategies Notebook.

ENVIRONMENTALISM VS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCEStep 1: Read the definition for environmentalism and environmental science in your text or vocabulary sheet.Step 2: Sort the pictures based whether they represent an environmentalist or an environmental scientist.Step 3: Match the pictures to their counter part:Step 4: In your own sketches and words, describe your results below.ENVIRONMENTAL EL:SUMMARIZE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST AND AN ENVIRONMENTALIST:

THE LESSON OF EASTER ISLANDSCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIESBACKGROUND: Scientists gather data and evidence to support hypothesis.DIRECTIONS: Read “The Lesson of Easter Island” on pp 28-29 in your text. As you read, findat least three specific examples of evidence scientists used to determine how the populationof Easter Island changed over time. Write the EXACT sentences on the lines below. Thencircle whether the data/evidence is qualitative or quantitative. After, determine how thescientists analyzed the data to draw a conclusion.1. Qualitative or quantitative2. Qualitative or quantitative3. Qualitative or quantitative4. As scientists analyze the data, what does the evidence support about how the populationchanged over time?5. What do scientists conclude about how the Rapa Nui on Easter Island lived to cause thischange in population?

FIXING A HOLE IN THE SKYCENTRAL CASEBackground: How do scientists uncover, research and solve environmental problems?Directions: Read the central case “Fixing a Hole in the Sky”. As you read, fill in thespecific parts of the scientific method that led to the discovery of hole in the ozonelayer.1.Problem2. Gather Information (what is ozone, what does it do?)3. Hypotheses/Experiments Paul Crutzen James Lovelock Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland4. Data (collect and analyze)5. Conclusion

“THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS” FISHING ACTIVITY This is a simulation. Your group will need the following materials: 1 plate 16 “Goldfish” crackers 4 straws (or one for each person) 4 cups (or one for each person) . What do scientists conclude about how the Rapa

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