ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSESRoutledge Applied Linguistics is a series of comprehensive resource books,providing students and researchers with the support they need for advanced studyin the core areas of English Language and Applied Linguistics.Each book in the series guides readers through three main sections, enabling themto explore and develop major themes within the discipline. Section A, Introduction, establishes the key terms and concepts and extendsreaders’ techniques of analysis through practical application.Section B, Extension, brings together inﬂuential articles, sets them in context,and discusses their contribution to the ﬁeld.Section C, Exploration, builds on knowledge gained in the ﬁrst two sections,setting thoughtful tasks around further illustrative material. This enablesreaders to engage more actively with the subject matter and encourages themto develop their own research responses.Throughout the book, topics are revisited, extended, interwoven and deconstructed,with the reader’s understanding strengthened by tasks and follow-up questions.English for Academic Purposes: introduces the major theories, approaches and controversies in the ﬁeldgathers together inﬂuential readings from key names in the discipline, includingJohn Swales, Alistair Pennycook, Greg Myers, Brian Street and Ann Johnsprovides numerous exercises as practical study tools that encourage in studentsa critical approach to the subject.Written by an experienced teacher and researcher in the ﬁeld, English for AcademicPurposes is an essential resource for students and researchers of Applied Linguistics.Ken Hyland is Professor of Education and Head of the Centre for Academic andProfessional Literacies at the Institute of Education, University of London. He hastwenty-six years’ experience teaching and researching academic and professionalliteracies.
ROUTLEDGE APPLIED LINGUISTICSSERIES EDITORSChristopher N. Candlin is Senior Research Professor in the Department of Linguistics atMacquarie University, Australia, and Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Open University,UK. At Macquarie, he has been Chair of the Department of Linguistics; he established andwas Executive Director of the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research(NCELTR) and foundational Director of the Centre for Language in Social Life (CLSL).He has written or edited over 150 publications and co-edits the Journal of AppliedLinguistics. From 1996 to 2002 he was President of the International Association of AppliedLinguistics (AILA). He has acted as a consultant in more than thirty-ﬁve countries and asexternal faculty assessor in thirty-six universities worldwide.Ronald Carter is Professor of Modern English Language in the School of English Studiesat the University of Nottingham. He has published extensively in applied linguistics, literarystudies and language in education, and has written or edited over forty books and a hundred articles in these ﬁelds. He has given consultancies in the ﬁeld of English languageeducation, mainly in conjunction with the British Council, in over thirty countries worldwide,and is editor of the Routledge Interface series and advisory editor to the Routledge EnglishLanguage Introduction series. He was recently elected a fellow of the British Academy ofSocial Sciences and is currently UK Government Advisor for ESOL and Chair of the BritishAssociation of Applied Linguistics (BAAL).TITLES IN THE SERIESIntercultural Communication: An advanced resource bookAdrian Holliday, Martin Hyde and John KullmanTranslation: An advanced resource bookBasil Hatim and Jeremy MundayGrammar and Context: An advanced resource bookAnn Hewings and Martin HewingsSecond Language Acquisition: An advanced resource bookKees de Bot, Wander Lowie and Marjolijn VerspoorCorpus-based Language Studies: An advanced resource bookAnthony McEnery, Richard Xiao and Yukio TonoLanguage and Gender: An advanced resource bookJane SunderlandEnglish for Academic Purposes: An advanced resource bookKen Hyland
English for Academic PurposesAn advanced resource bookKen Hyland
First published 2006by Routledge2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RNSimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2006 Ken HylandThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproducedor utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission inwriting from the publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataHyland, Ken.English for academic purposes: an advanced resource book / Ken Hyland.p. cm. – (Routledge applied linguistics)Includes bibliographical references.1. English language–Study and teaching–Foreign speakers. 2. Englishlanguage–Rhetoric–Problems, exercises, etc. 3. Academic writing–Studyand teaching. 4. Language and education. 5. Applied linguistics.I. Title. II. Series.PE1128.A2H95 2006428.0071’1–dc222006002498ISBN10: 0–415–35869–8 (hbk)ISBN10: 0–415–35870–1 (pbk)ISBN10: 0–203–00660–7 (ebk)ISBN13: 978–0–415–35869–9 (hbk)ISBN13: 978–0–415–35870–5 (pbk)ISBN13: 978–0–203–00660–3 (ebk)
ContentsSeries editors’ prefaceAcknowledgementsHow to use this bookIntroductionxixiiixv1SECTION A: INTRODUCTION7THEME 1: CONCEPTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES8Unit A1Unit A2Unit A3Unit A4Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?Study skills or academic literacy?Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?Pragmatism or critique?9162430THEME 2: LITERACIES AND PRACTICES37Unit A5Unit A6Unit A7Unit A838465865Discourses, communities and culturesGenre analysis and academic textsCorpus analysis and academic textsEthnographically oriented analysis and EAPTHEME 3: DESIGN AND DELIVERY72Unit A9Unit A10Unit A11Unit A1273818999Needs and rightsDevelopment and implementationMethodologies and materialsFeedback and assessmentSECTION B: EXTENSION107THEME 1: CONCEPTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES108Unit B1Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?Spack, R., Initiating ESL students into the academic discoursecommunity: how far should we go?Hyland, K., Speciﬁcity revisited: how far should we go now?109Study skills or academic literacy?Lea, M.R. and Street, B.V., Student writing and staff feedback inhigher education: an academic literacies approach118Unit B2109113118v
ContentsUnit B3Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?Swales, J.M., English as Tyrannosaurus rex124124Unit B4Pragmatism or critique?Allison, D., Pragmatist discourse and English for Academic PurposesPennycook, A., Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism, and EAP129129133THEME 2: LITERACIES AND PRACTICES138Unit B5Discourses, communities and culturesMyers, G., The narratives of science and nature in popularisingmolecular geneticsBecher, T., Academic tribes and territories: intellectual inquiry andthe cultures of disciplinesMauranen, A., Contrastive ESP rhetoric: metatext in Finnish–Englisheconomics texts139Genre analysis and academic textsYakhontova, T., ‘Selling’ or ‘telling’? The issue of cultural variationin research genresChang, Y.-Y. and Swales, J., Informal elements in English academicwriting: threats or opportunities for advanced non-native speakers?153Corpus analysis and academic textsHyland, K. and Milton, J., Qualiﬁcation and certainty in L1 andL2 students’ writingSimpson, R., Stylistic features of academic speech: the role offormulaic speech163Ethnographically oriented analysis and EAPChin, E., Redeﬁning ‘context’ in research on writing174174Unit B6Unit B7Unit B8THEME 3: DESIGN AND DELIVERY139143147153157163168179Unit B9Needs and rights180Benesch, S., Rights analysis: studying power relations in an academicsetting180Unit B10Development and implementationBarron, C., Problem-solving and EAP: themes and issues in acollaborative teaching venture186Methodologies and materialsJohns, A., Text, role and context193193Unit B11186Flowerdew, L., Using a genre-based framework to teach organisationalstructure in academic writing197Warschauer, M., Networking into academic discourse202Unit B12viFeedback and assessmentIvanic, R. et al., ‘What am I supposed to make of this?’ The messagesconveyed to students by tutors’ written comments208208
ContentsSECTION C: EXPLORATION215THEME 1: CONCEPTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES216Unit C1Unit C2Unit C3Unit C4217223229235Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?Study skills or academic literacy?Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?Pragmatism or critique?THEME 2: LITERACIES AND PRACTICES239Unit C5Unit C6Unit C7Unit C8240246254262Discourses, communities and culturesGenre analysis and academic textsCorpus analysis and academic textsEthnographically oriented analysis and EAPTHEME 3: DESIGN AND DELIVERY276Unit C9Unit C10Unit C11Unit C12277282293302Needs and rightsDevelopment and implementationMethodologies and materialsFeedback and assessmentGlossaryFurther readingReferencesAuthor indexSubject index311318325336336vii
Contents cross-referencedSection A: IntroductionTHEME 1:CONCEPTIONSANDCONTROVERSIESTHEME 2:LITERACIES ANDPRACTICESTHEME 3:DESIGN ANDDELIVERYUnit A1Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?Unit A2Study skills or academic literacy?169Unit A3Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?24Unit A4Pragmatism or critique?30Unit A5Discourses, communities and cultures38Unit A6Genre analysis and academic texts46Unit A7Corpus analysis and academic texts58Unit A8Ethnographically oriented analysis and EAP65Unit A9Needs and rights73Unit A10Development and implementation81Unit A11Methodologies and materials89Unit A12Feedback and assessment99Section B: ExtensionTHEME 1:CONCEPTIONSANDCONTROVERSIESTHEME 2:LITERACIES ANDPRACTICESUnit B1Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?Spack, R., Initiating ESL students into the academic discoursecommunity: how far should we go?Hyland, K., Speciﬁcity revisited: how far should we go now?109Unit B2Study skills or academic literacy?Lea, M.R. and Street, B.V., Student writing and staff feedback in highereducation: an academic literacies approach118118Unit B3Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?Swales, J.M., English as Tyrannosaurus rex124124Unit B4Pragmatism or critique?Allison, D., Pragmatist discourse and English for Academic PurposesPennycook, A., Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism, and EAP129129133Unit B5Discourses, communities and culturesMyers, G., The narratives of science and nature in popularising moleculargeneticsBecher, T., Academic tribes and territories: intellectual inquiry and thecultures of disciplinesMauranen, A., Contrastive ESP rhetoric: metatext in Finnish–Englisheconomics texts139139143147Unit B6Genre analysis and academic texts153Yakhontova, T., ‘Selling’ or ‘telling’? The issue of cultural variation inresearch genres153Chang, Y.-Y. and Swales, J., Informal elements inEnglish academic writing: threats or opportunities for advanced non-nativespeakers?157Unit B7Corpus analysis and academic textsHyland, K. and Milton, J., Qualiﬁcation and certainty in L1 and L2students’ writingSimpson, R., Stylistic features of academic speech: the role of formulaicspeech163Ethnographically oriented analysis and EAPChin, E., Redeﬁning ‘context’ in research on writing174174Unit B8viii109113163168
THEME 3:DESIGN ANDDELIVERYUnit B9Needs and rightsBenesch, S., Rights analysis: studying power relations in an academicsetting180Unit B10Development and implementationBarron, C., Problem-solving and EAP: themes and issues in acollaborative teaching venture186Unit B11Methodologies and materialsJohns, A., Text, role and contextFlowerdew, L., Using a genre-based framework to teach organisationalstructure in academic writingWarschauer, M., Networking into academic discourseUnit B12180186193193197202Feedback and assessmentIvanic, R. et al., ‘What am I supposed to make of this?’ The messagesconveyed to students by tutors’ written comments208208Unit C1Speciﬁc or general academic purposes?217Unit C2Study skills or academic literacy?223Unit C3Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex?229Unit C4Pragmatism or critique?235Unit C5Discourses, communities and cultures240Unit C6Genre analysis and academic texts246Unit C7Corpus analysis and academic texts254Unit C8Ethnographically oriented analysis and EAP262Unit C9Needs and rights277Unit C10Development and implementation282Unit C11Methodologies and materials293Unit C12Feedback and assessment302Section C: ExplorationTHEME 1:CONCEPTIONSANDCONTROVERSIESTHEME 2:LITERACIES ANDPRACTICESTHEME 3:DESIGN ANDDELIVERYix
Series editors’ prefaceThe Routledge Applied Linguistics series provides a comprehensive guide to anumber of key areas in the ﬁeld of applied linguistics. Applied linguistics is a rich,vibrant, diverse and essentially interdisciplinary ﬁeld. It is now more important thanever that books in the ﬁeld provide up-to-date maps of what is an ever-changingterritory.The books in this series are designed to give key insights into core areas of appliedlinguistics. The design of the books ensures, through key readings, that the historyand development of a subject are recognized while, through key questions and tasks,integrating understandings of the topics, concepts and practices that make up itsessentially interdisciplinary fabric. The pedagogic structure of each book ensuresthat readers are given opportunities to think, discuss, engage in tasks, draw on theirown experience, reﬂect, research and to read and critically re-read key documents.Each book has three main sections, each made up of approximately ten units:A: An Introduction section: in which the key terms and concepts which map theﬁeld of the subject are introduced, including introductory activities and reﬂectivetasks, designed to establish key understandings, terminology, techniques of analysisand the skills appropriate to the theme and the discipline.B: An Extension section: in which selected core readings are introduced (usuallyedited from the original) from existing key books and articles, together with annotations and commentary, where appropriate. Each reading is introduced, annotatedand commented on in the context of the whole book, and research/follow-upquestions and tasks are added to enable fuller understanding of both theory andpractice. In some cases, readings are short and synoptic and incorporated within amore general exposition.C: An Exploration section: in which further samples and illustrative materialsare provided with an emphasis, where appropriate, on more open-ended, studentcentred activities and tasks, designed to support readers and users in undertakingtheir own locally relevant research projects. Tasks are designed for work in groupsor for individuals working on their own. They can be readily included in awardcourses in applied linguistics, or as topics for personal study and research.xi
Series editors’ prefaceThe books also contain a glossary/glossarial index, which provides a guide to themain terms used in the book, and a detailed, thematically organized Further Readingsection, which lays the ground for further work in the discipline. There are alsoextensive bibliographies.The target audience for the series is upper undergraduates and postgraduateson language, applied linguistics and communication studies programmes as wellas teachers and researchers in professional development and distance learningprogrammes. High-quality applied research resources are also much needed forteachers of EFL/ESL and foreign language students at higher education colleges anduniversities worldwide. The books in the Routledge Applied Linguistics series areaimed at the individual reader, the student in a group and at teachers buildingcourses and seminar programmes.We hope that the books in this series meet these needs and continue to providesupport over many years.The EditorsProfessor Christopher N. Candlin and Professor Ronald Carter are the series editors.Both have extensive experience of publishing titles in the fields relevant to thisseries. Between them they have written and edited over one hundred books and twohundred academic papers in the broad ﬁeld of applied linguistics. Chris Candlinwas president of the International Association for Applied Linguistics (AILA) from1996 to 2002 and Ron Carter was chair of the British Association for AppliedLinguistics (BAAL) from 2003 to 2006.Professor Christopher N. CandlinSenior Research ProfessorDepartment of LinguisticsDivision of Linguistics and PsychologyMacquarie UniversitySydney NSW 2109, AustraliaandProfessor of Applied LinguisticsFaculty of Education and Language StudiesThe Open UniversityWalton HallMilton Keynes MK7 6AA, UKProfessor Ronald CarterSchool of English StudiesUniversity of NottinghamNottingham NG7 2RD, UKxii
AcknowledgementsThe view of EAP presented in this book emerged over many years in interactionswith many people, so I want to record my thanks to the students, colleagues andfriends who have encouraged me, discussed ideas and provided the insights whichhave contributed to it. While there are too many to name individually, I have tomention my debt to Vijay Bhatia, Marina Bondi, Tim Boswood, Lesley Coles, AnnJohns and John Swales in particular for their unwavering enthusiasm, ideas, textsand conversations which have both stimulated and sustained my interest in EAP.I would also like to acknowledge the series editors, Chris Candlin and Ron Carter,for inviting me to get involved in this project, and particularly to Chris for his closereading of several drafts of the manuscript and thoughtful suggestions for revisions.Thanks too to various classes of students on MA TESOL courses in both Hong Kongand London for guinea-pigging many of the tasks and for their feedback on theideas and approaches discussed in these pages. Finally, and as always, my gratitudegoes to Fiona Hyland, for her support, her encouragement and her ideas aboutwriting and teaching.The author and publisher wish to express thanks to the following for use of copyright materials. Reprinted from English for Specific Purposes, 15 (2): Allison, D.‘Pragmatist discourse and English for Academic Purposes’ pp. 85–103, copyright 1996 with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from English for Speciﬁc Purposes,22 (3): Barron, C. ‘Problem-solving and EAP: themes and issues in a collaborativeteaching venture’ pp. 297–314, copyright 2002 with permission from Elsevier.Reprinted from English for Speciﬁc Purposes, 18: Benesch, S. ‘Rights analysis: studying power relations in an academic setting’ pp. 313–27, copyright 1999 withpermission from Elsevier. Reprinted from English for Specific Purposes, 12:Mauranen, A. ‘Contrastive ESP rhetoric: metatext in Finnish–English economicstexts’ pp. 3–22, copyright 1993 with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted fromEnglish for Specific Purposes, 16: Pennycook, A. ‘Vulgar pragmatism, criticalpragmatism, and EAP’ pp. 253–69, copyright 1997 with permission from Elsevier.Reprinted from Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 1 (1): Warschauer, M.‘Networking into academic discourse’ pp. 45–58, copyright 2002 with permissionfrom Elsevier. Flowerdew, L. (2000) ‘Using a genre-based framework to teachorganisational structure in academic writing’. ELT Journal, 54 (4) pp. 371–5, bypermission of Oxford University Press. Chin, E. (1994) ‘Redefining “context” inresearch on writing’. Written Communication, II, Sage Publications, reproduced withxiii
Acknowledgementspermission. Excerpts from Johns, A. (1997) Text, role and context, copyright Cambridge University Press, reproduced with permission. Reprinted from Englishfor Speciﬁc Purposes, 21 (4): Hyland, K. ‘Speciﬁcity re
English for academic purposes: an advanced resource book / Ken Hyland. p. cm. – (Routledge applied linguistics) Includes bibliographical references. 1. English language–Study and teaching–Foreign speakers. 2. English language–Rhetoric–Problems, exercises, etc. 3. Academic writing–Study and teaching. 4. Language and education. 5.