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Shri Guru Gobind SinghjiCELEBRATIONS MARKING THE 350TH PRAKASH PARV OF THE GURUA view of Takht Shri Harmandir Sahib, Patna, India.It marks the birth place of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji andis one of most sacred pilgrimage for Sikhs.

The ‘100 Foot Journey Club’ is acollaborative initiative between LSESouth Asia Centre and the HighCommission of India in the UK.Established in 2016, it hosts eventsand other activities of mutual interestincluding lectures, panel discussions,and film screenings, underlining India’shistoric relationship with the UnitedKingdom. Events are held at LSE, IndiaHouse or the Nehru Centre.

IntroductionDr Mukulika BanerjeeDirector, LSE South Asia Centre2016–17 marked the 350th Prakash Parv (birth anniversary) of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji,the revered tenth Guru of the Sikhs and the compiler of the holy text, the Shri Guru GranthSahib. The High Commission of India organised several events for and with the Sikh diasporacommunity across the United Kingdom to celebrate this anniversary.We were therefore delighted to be invited to host an eventWe were privileged to hear four distinct perspectives on theto mark this important milestone in the history of the Sikhtext, its making, and the role and significance of Shri Gurucommunity under the auspices of the ‘100 Foot JourneyGobind Singhji at the panel discussion. Two academics —Club'. The LSE South Asia Centre has organised severalProfessors James Hegarty (Cardiff University) and Pritamvery successful events in collaboration with the HighSingh (Oxford Brookes University), and two communityCommission of India, building on the Centre’s commitmentleaders — M S Bedi (Chairman, P C Pirthi Bedi Foundation)to work with governments to impact public consciousnessand Prabhkirt Seyan discussed different aspects of the text atthrough informed knowledge. All events of the Club focuslength. The presentations were introduced by His Excellencyon India, or on India in relation to the wider world — andMr Y K Sinha, Hon’ble High Commissioner of India to thethere is a conscious attempt to curate interdisciplinaryevents focusing on issues of contemporary relevance andUnited Kingdom, with a personal touch since Mr Sinha isconcern in India today.himself from Bihar, and visited the Takht Shri Patna Sahibji —the birthplace of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji — in his childhood.A panel discussion entitled 'Shri Guru Gobind Singhji:We are delighted to be able to include his speech in thisUnderstanding the Sacred Word', hosted by the LSE Southpublication as well.Asia Centre, was the grand finale of the series of celebratoryevents to mark the 350th birth anniversary of Shri GuruThe texts of the lectures have been edited and approved byGobind Singhji. The panel was specially curated to appeal tothe speakers, and a complete audio recording of the event isboth academics and the wider public, and we were delightedavailable on the website of the LSE South Asia Centre.that experts on the sacred text from different walks of lifeparticipated in the event, which was marked by animatedI take this opportunity to thank the Ministry of Culture,debate and discussion on both the historicity as well as theGovernment of India for allocating special funds for the event,continuing relevance of the teachings enshrined in the text.and the High Commission of India in London, especiallyAs the papers published here show, the centrality of Shri GuruDr Aseem Vohra (Second Secretary, Public Diplomacy) forGobind Singhji, and his lasting legacy —the compilation of theproviding advice and support.sacred text for the Sikhs — remains the fulcrum of communityformation even today.1

Inaugural AddressHis Excellency Mr Y K SinhaHon’ble High Commissioner of India to the United KingdomThe South Asia Centre at LSE organised a panel discussion on ‘ShriGuru Gobind Singhji: Understanding the Sacred Word’, and I wasdelighted to speak at the inauguration of the event, which was thelast in a series of events organised directly, or in collaboration, withthe High Commission of India in London to mark the 350th PrakashParv of the great Guru, Shri Guru Gobind Singhji.As I hope is evident from all this, we have had a number ofevents to mark and to celebrate this event, and I think thatthat is very important because the United Kingdom has alarge Sikh and Punjabi community; it is therefore only befittingthat (outside India) the biggest the largest celebrations of thebirth anniversary of Guru Gobind Singhji have been held in theUK, and especially in London. So we are happy, we are proud,and we would like to thank everyone who has made ourevents possible, and such a great success.The last year has been truly momentous: we have joined withour friends in the Sikh community and several organisations,the Indian diaspora and other organisations to commemoratethis very important event in the United Kingdom. In India,the event was commemorated in a big way last year on5 January 2017 by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi atthe Takht Shri Patna Sahibji. More than half a million peopleparticipated in the event; the Government of Bihar alsoorganised an international seminar on Sikhism as a curtainraiser. Several other events have also been organised throughthe year to commemorate the Guru’s birth anniversary; mostimportantly, the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Bihar Shri NitishKumar announced that the state government would create acircuit of places for everyone who was planning to come toShri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, allowing them to travel toother pilgrimage sites in the region.I think that in the life and the teachings of the great Guru,about whom you will hear expert views presented here,the one thing that always struck me was that he foughtfor justice, he fought against oppression and he fought forfreedom. He sacrificed a lot, he lost his father through trickery— if I may put it like that — when the Emperor Aurangzeb puthim to death. He lost his sons fighting the Mughals, and the‘Sikh’ — the Khalsa Panth he established on Baisakhi Day in1699 has played such an important role not only in the historyof India but of the world. Because the Sikhs came from Indiaand fought for India not just in the Anglo–Afghan wars orthe Anglo-Sikh wars, or when Ahmad Shah Abdali came toIndia, but they fought right through till World War II. My father,who was in the army, had many great Sikh compatriots whofought in World War II and subsequent wars that India hasbeen involved in since 1947. I think the Khalsa Panth stoodfor the unity, the integrity and the defence of India. And thatis something that no community can boast of in terms ofthe number of people who have played this role in proportionto the population. I think no one in India can speak of suchvalour and such sacrifice through the ages, and I think theepitome of this ethic of sacrifice was the great Guru, GuruGobind Singhji. He taught the Sikhs not just the Khalsa Panthbut he taught them humility, he taught them compassion, hetaught them sacrifice. He taught us virtues, he is one of thosepeople who cannot be described in words. He was a warrior,he was a saint, he was a poet, he was a philosopher. Andwhat is remarkable is that he never even called himself theson of God. He said the followers are the sons and daughtersof God; he was just a servant or a slave of God. That showedhis humility. What he imparted to the Sikh communityin India, to the world, and to the larger Indian and globalcommunity is something priceless and is something worthyof commemoration in the 350th year of his birth anniversary.Personally, for me it has been quite a journey and I am happythat this is happening during my tenure here. I belong to Patna,it is my home town, and I used to visit the Takht Shri PatnaSahib Gurdwara many times as a child. We were very happythat Guru Gobind Singhji is someone we could claim as aneminent son of Patna, since he lived in Patna in his formativeyears. I am therefore especially happy that in 2017–18 theHigh Commission of India here in the United Kingdom hasorganised events not only in London but throughout the UK,and I would like to thank all our partners who have joined us tocelebrate this event.The Sikh community in the UK has been especially hospitableto me: I recall I was here only a month when I was invited bythe oldest gurdwara not only in the UK but also in Europe,the Shepherd’s Bush Gurdwara, on 5 January 2016. Thenext day we had celebrations in India House and a lot of ourfriends joined us. Last year, we had the first-ever Baisakhicelebrations in April, with the High Commission workingwith 13 gurdwaras in the region and other communityorganisations. It was a huge success, and attracted a largeattendance. We have done a number of other events, whichyou will find listed at the end of this brochure.We also organised a photo exhibition on the life and times ofthe great Guru with the Victoria & Albert Museum, which hastoured different parts of the United Kingdom, and has beengreatly appreciated not only by the Sikh diaspora but severalother members of the public. We have also had sponsoredplays staged in various places: I personally saw a play on theGreat Guru’s life in Birmingham a few months ago, and thatplay has travelled to many places, including to India.I am so happy that the High Commission of Indiacollaborated with the South Asia Centre under the auspicesof the ‘100 Foot Journey Club’, and was able to get togetherall of you to celebrate this wonderful anniversary throughacademic dialogue and discussion.2

Shri Guru Gobind SinghjiJames M. HegartyProfessor of Sanskrit and Indian Religions, Cardiff UniversityGobind Singhji, original name Gobind Rai (born AD 1666 in Patna, Bihar; died 7 October 1708in Nanded, Maharashtra), was the 10th and last Guru of the Sikhs. He is best known for hiscreation of the Sikh Khalsa (the Pure), the community of fully initiated Sikhs who are rituallyadmitted to it at puberty.rationalised the structure of the Sikh Panth in other ways.With his initiatory order, the Khalsa, he breathed new life intoa reformed Sikh army. He confronted the major opponents ofthe Sikhs — both the Mughals and the contending hill tribes.His troops were described as devoted and fully committedto Sikh ideals, willing to risk everything in the cause of Sikhreligious and political freedom. He himself, however, paida heavy price for this freedom. In two battles against theMughals, both in AD 1704 (one in Anandpur, the other inChamkaur), he lost all four of his sons; similar battles withMughals over the years also claimed his wife, mother andfather. He himself was killed by a Pashtun tribesman in arevenge killing in AD 1708.Gobind Singhji was the son of the ninth Guru TeghBahadurji, who suffered martyrdom at the hands of theMughal emperor Aurangzeb on 24 November 1675. He wascompetent in several languages including Persian, Arabicand Sanskrit, as well as his native Punjabi; he wrote poetry,was responsible for the further codification of Sikh law, andwas the mastermind behind the Dasam Granth (lit. ‘TenthVolume’; also known as the ‘Dasam Patishahji da Granth’),a separate religious text from the Sikh holy text Shri GuruGranth Sahib, and is a compilation of several texts attributedto the tenth Guru.Gobind Singhji shared an enthusiasm for military life, whichtied him closely to his grandfather Guru Hargobindji (AD1595–1644), though Gobind Singhji combined this witha strong emphasis on cultural and intellectual activity.Giving the Sikhs a firm military basis was Gobind Singhji’sgreatest contribution to the Sikh community and tradition.He also created a body of martial poetry and music andGuru Gobindh Singhji proclaimed that he was the last ofthe personal Sikh Gurus. Subsequent to his death, the SikhGuru was to be their sacred text, the Adi Granth. Today, GuruGobind Singhji stands in the minds of Sikhs as the ideal ofpersonal honour, bravery and commitment.Shri Guru Gobind Singhji: A Reflectionand TributeJames M. HegartyProfessor of Sanskrit and Indian Religions, Cardiff UniversityShri Guru Gobind Singhji deserves to be known by everyone. He is anexample of extraordinary spiritual leadership, as well as courage inadversity. After Guru Nanakdevji, whose deep and profound insightsinto the nature of the divine and the place of humanity in the universeare known throughout the world, it is Shri Guru Gobind Singhji whocontributed most to the nature and form of Sikhism. Like Guru Nanakdevji, he transcends theboundaries of his religion and offers insights and lessons that are universal in their value andappeal, some of which I will draw attention to today.Granth. It is a fact that the Sikh Panth has always been ahome for truly great poetry and Shri Guru Gobind Singhjiwas no exception in this regard. What is exceptional is therange of poetic forms and languages, of which he was amaster. However, it is often hard to separate the voice of agreat religious leader from that of his prominent followersand Shri Guru Gobind Singhji is no exception in this regard(notwithstanding the efforts of scholars both within andoutside the Sikh community). However, poems such as theZafarnama, which is a defiant message from him to theruler of the day, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, seem sopersonal, so heartfelt, that it is impossible to not feel as ifWe know of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji’s life from sourcessuch as the Vichitar Natak, the Gur Bilas and the SurajParkash. These were not written for a modern audience;they share a commitment to truth that transcends thedetails of a life and attends instead to its significance; asignificance that is then read into the details. I propose toadopt the same approach as they do, but my focus will beon the thought of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji, as it is reflectedin the Dasam Granth and elsewhere, and its significance forhumanity as a whole.The Guru’s thought is known to us from the compositionsthat he left to us, many of which are compiled in the Dasam3

one of the signal statements of human equality, for which theSikh tradition is justly famous:Shri Guru Gobind Singhji is reaching out to you directly. Forexample, when he says:Pursuit of truth is worship.It is an act of true piety.To know the True GodIs life’s highest priority.He has neither mother nor father nor anycaste. He is not attached to anything, noris he limited to any colour. He permeatesin every human spirit. He is present in allbeings and places.Zafarnama: 84; trans. Sarna: 85Akal Ustat: 9; trans. McLeod: 56He offers an expression of not just the need to know God,but how one might do this. The idea of the pursuit of truthas piety is a powerful one precisely because of its open andexploratory character. Shri Guru Gobind Singhji elegantlyand forcefully captures something that is essential to Sikhtradition: the world cannot be taken at face value; one mustunderstand the world and the human condition in order totranscend it. More than this, truth as worship means thatyou must embody this understanding (as is reflected in thefamiliar markers of Khalsa identity, for example). As Gandhiji,centuries later, said, ‘We need not wait to see what others do.’The Guru goes further than the rejection of caste however. Hesees God everywhere and in all religious activities:At times [ ] you are present in the Hindureciting hymns from Gayatri, in the Muslimquazi calling from the mosque. You arein the ones who study Koka’s work or thePuranas, in the scholar studying tenets ofthe Quran. You are in those who follow theVedas and in those who oppose them.The process of exploration can be philosophical (it isworth noting that Shri Guru Gobind Singhji presided overthe translation of the Upanishads and other great works ofSanskrit philosophy and theology), but it can also be highlypractical and even political. That the Guru meant both theformer and the latter is clear from the searing courage ofanother verse from the Zafarnama:Akal Ustat: 12; trans. McLeod: 57Elsewhere in the Dasam Granth we find the words, ‘all menhave the same eyes, the same ears, the same body, thesame build, a compound of earth, air, fire, and water.’ (trans.McLeod: 57) It is hard to imagine a more inclusive visionthan that presented by Shri Guru Gobind Singhji. This lessonfills with content the Zafarnama’s powerful expression ofthe need for moral consistency; the pursuit of truth leadsto the consciousness of the equality of all humanity beforeGod, which must then be embodied in thought and deeds.We know that this is precisely what Shri Guru Gobind Singhjipersonally achieved during his lifetime.O King of Kings! The OrnamentThat the two worlds does adorn!The kingdom of the earth is yours,But not so the heavenly one.Zafarnama: 94; trans. Sarna: 95I think, in closing, that the global legacy of Shri Guru GobindSinghji is best summarised in the words of the Vichittar Natak.In its sixth chapter, when the Guru’s life is described, there isa wonderful sequence in which God orders him to take birthin the Kaliyug, the final age in the cycle of the universe. Godconcludes, after a rich description of His creation, that ShriGuru Gobind Singhji’s chief goal must be to ‘restrain the worldfrom senseless acts.’Here, Shri Guru Gobind Singhji addresses the emperor of Indiahimself in no uncertain terms. He dares nothing less thanto call his moral character into question. He is not making anarrow point about religious allegiance here: Shri Guru GobindSinghji is not asking Aurangzeb to become a Sikh. Rather, heis reminding the emperor of the urgent need to connect theheavenly and earthly realms; for the Guru, there is no placefor realpolitik, there is no place beyond the gaze of God ormorality, in which all things are permitted. There is only truthas piety and the rigours of such a life. These rigours includespeaking truth to power when circumstances demand it. Thisis something no less important today than it was centuriesago. It requires an absolute commitment to morality whateverthe consequences. The Zafarnama is, then, one of the greatworks of what we might call the world literature of defiance.It is also one of the great works advocating spiritual andmoral consistency.This sentiment, once again, refuses to separate religionfrom society and is, in today’s world — replete as it is withsenseless acts — just as important as it was at the time of itsfirst expression. Shri Guru Gobind Singhji pushed his religioninto a deep engagement with the world. The world is, in thefinal analysis, for him, when read sensitively, nothing less thanan instruction manual for moral living. He invites us all to readwith him and to embody what we learn.I can think of no more powerful teaching.Of course, a commitment to ‘what is right’ can encompassa wide variety of moralities, not all of which are worthy ofsupport. It is here that Shri Guru Gobind Singhji’s absolutecommitment to human equality is of critical importance. Thiscommitment is forcefully and eloquently expressed in theAkal Ustat, the second bani of the Dasam Granth. He providesReferencesMcLeod, W.H. (ed. and trans.), Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism,Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Sarna, Navtej (trans.), Zafarnama of Guru Gobind Singh, NewDelhi: Penguin, 2015.4

Shri Guru Granth Sahib: Understandingthe Sacred WordPritam SinghProfessor of EconomicsOxford Brookes UniversityI must be very brief in sharing my thoughts on reading Shri GuruGranth Sahib due to the limitation of space. I will focus on just threepoints: first, on what Shri Guru Granth Sahib is as a holy scripture inthe history of religious thought in the Indian subcontinent; second,the core of the message of the text; and third, the relation of Shri Guru Gobind Singh to ShriGuru Granth Sahib.a continuous and running theme in Shri Guru Granth Sahibabout the critique of the caste system. One scholar considersShri Guru Granth Sahib an emancipatory narrative beyond twohegemonies of the time — the Vedic and the Mughal.3Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of the Sikh faith, was born inAD 1469. He was followed by nine gurus. Shri Guru GranthSahib was compiled by the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev (AD1563–1606), by including the writings of all the previousgurus and his own. The maximum number of hymns (2,218)are by Guru Arjan Dev, followed by 974 hymns by GuruNanak.1 When Guru Arjan Dev was compiling the Scripture,a word had gone around the vast Indian subcontinent thata major religious scripture was being compiled. Writingsof many saints and spiritual leaders were presentedand considered for inclusion in the Granth. Based on thespiritual and philosophical merits of the writings, Guru Arjanincluded the teachings of many Hindu bhaktas and MuslimSufi saints in the Granth.The core vision articulated in Shri Guru Granth Sahib thatclashed with the Brahmanical social order was equality of allhuman beings. This equality has two dimensions: spiritualand social. Shri Guru Granth Sahib celebrates the spiritualequality of all human beings in the eyes of God. This visionis actualised as social equality through innovative socialinstitutions like the langar (community kitchen where food isprepared collectively) and pangat (sitting beside one anotherwithout distinctions of high and low while partaking thecollectively cooked food). Such initiatives were a severe blowto untouchability and the hierarchical caste system whichwere central to the theology and practice of the majorityHindu religion.Shri Guru Granth Sahib is, as such, a repository of the highestlevel of spiritual wisdom and advanced social visions of thelate 16th and early 17th century in India. The first copy of ShriGuru Granth Sahib (which was then known as Adi Granth)was installed under the personal supervision of Shri GuruArjan Dev in Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple, Amritsar) on16 August 1604. The tenth guru Shri Guru Gobind Singh (AD1666–1708) added 115 hymns by the ninth guru Shri GuruTegh Bahadur (AD 1621–1675)2 which probably includesone of his own.This concept of equality was literally carried into thearchitectural design of the place of worship (gurdwara)wherein Shri Guru Granth Sahib resides, and into the rules ofaccess to these places of worship where all human beingshad equal right of entry, worship and the opportunity to listento the recitation of Shri Guru Granth Sahib.The central message of the alternative world view of theSikh gurus which resonates in the bani of the bhaktas andof the Sufi saints (whose poetry was included in Shri GuruGranth Sahib) is of egalitarianism. Guru Nanak attackedthe two oppressive powers of the time with his messageof egalitarianism: one was political power of the Mughalempire of Babur, and the other was the social power ofthe hierarchical Brahmanical order of the caste system(varnashram). Both these oppressive powers shared anothersocially inegalitarian order, that of patriarchy. In the alternativeworld view of Shri Guru Granth Sahib, all human beings areequal, without distinctions of caste or gender.This vision of equality is also captured through what I wouldlike to characterise as the trilogy of the commonly acceptedmoral code enunciated in Shri Guru Granth Sahib: Kirt Karni(earning one’s livelihood by labouring activity); Wand keShakna (sharing the fruits of one’s labour with others); andNaam Japna (reciting God’s name). Kirt Karni raises the moraland social status of those who do manual labour, and is acritique of those who earn their living by appropriating thefruits of labour of those who do the labour. This ethic was aclear attack on the caste system where those who performedmanual labour were considered lowly while those performingpriestly or intellectual duties were considered superior.Wand ke Shakna is a celebration of the ethics of sharing,and an endorsement of the morality of egalitarianism. NaamJapna has two connotations: one of spiritual equality, i.e.,all being equal while reciting God’s name; and two, NaamJapna is not an isolated meditative activity but one integrallyrelated to the two other parts of the trilogy, i.e., Kirt Karni andWand ke Shakna.In attacking the politically oppressive power of the Mughals,Guru Nanak even castigates God when in Babarvani, GuruNanak says ‘eti maar pai kurlane, tain ki dard na aaya’(p. 360); ‘ When the victims were crying with pain due tobarbaric torture, did you not feel their pain?’ In contrastingthe egalitarian world view of Shri Guru Granth Sahib with theinegalitarian social order of Brahmanical varnashram, we find5

L-R: PANELISTS AT ‘SHRI GURU GOBIND SINGHJI: UNDERSTANDING THE SACRED WORD’, LSE, 22 MARCH 2018 MR PRABHKIRT SEYAN,PROFESSOR JAMES HEGARTY, PROFESSOR PRITAM SINGH & MR M P S BEDI.This brings me to the moral universe of Shri Guru GranthSahib against exploitation, which comes out most clearly inthe shabads (the Word) on maya. There are two meaningsof maya — one referring to illusion, and the other to money;and it is the context that makes clear what meaning isbeing referred to. Regarding maya as money or wealth, avery powerful shabad is ‘papa bajh hove nahin muia saasthna jai’ (p. 417), ‘Wealth cannot be accumulated withoutcommitting sins, and it does not go with you after yourdeath’. In that sense, the moral universe of Shri Guru GranthSahib is not compatible with money/wealth/capital/propertyaccumulation which is an essential characteristic of alleconomic systems promoting inequality.Shri Guru Gobind Singh had composed his own Granthcalled the Dasam Granth about which there is an unresolvedcontroversy of whether it consists entirely of the writings ofthe Guru, or if there have been deliberate interpolations in it.4However this controversy is ever resolved if it is resolved atall, one thing is incontrovertible, namely, that Shri Guru GobindSingh gave the status of Guru to Shri Guru Granth Sahib. In thefinal days of his life, when one of his close disciples Bhai NandLal asked Shri Guru Gobind Singh about who would follow himas the Guru after him, the Guru immediately responded thatShri Guru Granth Sahib would be the embodiment of all thegurus as it contains the essence of the gurus’ teachings:5 ShriGuru Gobind Singh raised the shabad to the status of the Guru.Employing the egalitarian and emancipatory narrative, ShriGuru Granth Sahib contains the sharpest attack on genderinequality in medieval India. Guru Nanak Dev taps the massconsciousness of the feudal era where the King is supposedto be the Supreme and then argues: ‘so kyon manda aakhiyejit jammeh rajaan’ (p. 473), ‘Why consider her the lowly, whohas given birth to kings?’ It is important to note here thatGuru Nanak Dev does not view kings favourably but is merelyraising a troubling question to those whose world view valuesthe kings as worthy of respect.One of the most enduring and historic contributions of ShriGuru Gobind Singh in carrying further Shri Guru Granth Sahib’sideal of equality was the creation of the Khalsa(lit., the Pure, Unsullied).6 Any man or woman taking thebaptismal ceremony to become Khalsa was required toabandon his/her old caste name. All baptised men wererequired to have ‘Singh’, and all baptised women ‘Kaur’as their surnames. Retrospectively, we can only imaginethe severe blow this would have dealt to the seeminglyimpregnable caste system.Today, while we are remembering Shri Guru Gobind Singh andthe teachings of Shri Guru Granth Sahib on which he conferredthe status of embodiment of Gurus, if we can contribute tomaking the world around us equal and sustainable, with duehumility we can make some claim to have followed the pathshown by the great Guru and Shri Guru Granth Sahib.On the ecological message of Shri Guru Granth Sahib, in theera of global climate change and the threat of global warming,I want to touch upon Shri Guru Granth Sahib’s teachings onrespect for nature, one that is in conformity with the messageof egalitarianism. Here spirituality and social egalitarianismblend together in a marvellous manner; here, egalitarianismgoes beyond human egalitarianism as Shri Guru GranthSahib’s vision encompasses all living beings — human andnon-human, what modern ecologists call ‘bio-egalitarianism’.To enmesh the human and the non-human into the web ofinter-connected life, Guru Nanak Dev represents the elementsof nature as human beings. e.g., air as teacher, water asfather, and earth as mother.ReferencesGobind Singh Mansukhani ‘The Quintessence of Sikhism’, cited in, accessed on 22 March 2018.Ibid3M P Terence Samuel, ‘A Subaltern Reading of Sikh Scripture’ altern-reading-of-sikh-scripture.html?m 1, accessed on 22 March 2018.4Robin Rinehart, ‘The Dasam Granth’ in P. Singh and L. Fenech (eds), The OxfordHandbook of Sikh Studies, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. xx-xx.5Taran Singh, s.v. ‘Sri Guru Granth Sahib’, in Harbans Singh, The Encyclopedia ofSikhism, vol. 4, Patiala: Punjabi University, 1998, pp. 239–52.6Gurdev Singh, s.v. ‘Khalsa’, in Harbans Singh, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, vol. 2,Patiala: Punjabi University, 1996, pp. 473–74.12Finally, I want to say a few words about the relation betweenShri Guru Gobind Singh and the Shri Guru Granth Sahib.6

Shri Guru GobindSinghji andthe Sacred WordNo wonder then that even though only 40 Khalsa defendedChamkaur Sahib Garhi in AD 1704, when attacked by theMughal army led by Wazir Khan, with more than one lakhsoldiers on their side, the Khalsa was not defeated, a victorythat is celebrated by the Guru in his Zafarnama. Again, in1897, 21 Khalsa soldiers defended British Saragarhi Fortagainst 10,000 enemies and they all ultimately died defendingthis British position. On hearing of the bravery of the Sikhsoldiers, all Members of the British Parliament stood up andapplauded the heroism of the Sikh fighters. Queen Victoriahonoured Khalsa soldiers with bravery awards.Mohinder Pal Singh BediChairman, P C Pirthi BediFoundationNasero Mansoor Guru Gobind SinghTeg de Mansoor Guru Gobind SinghHaq Haq Agah Guru Gobind SinghSahey Shahnshah G

2016–17 marked the 350th Prakash Parv (birth anniversary) of Shri Guru Gobind Singhji, the revered tenth Guru of the Sikhs and the compiler of the holy text, the Shri Guru Granth Sahib. The High Commission of India organised several events for and with the Sikh diaspora community across the United Kingdom to celebrate this anniversary.

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Dr. Pdi Malhotra Epediti Lead & Statio Cmmander (C H S) 2. Shri C. Panneer Selvam IIG 3. Shri P. Radhe Syam IMD 4. Shri Kuldeep Wali IMD 5. Shri Uttam Chand SASE 6. Shri A. Nageswara Rao NGRI 7. Shri Anand Prakash Yadav DIPAS 8. Shri Ritesh Yadav NPL 9. Dr. Binod Kumar Singh ITBP 10. Shri Som Dutt DEAL 11. Shri Som Prakash Parandiyal DEAL 12 .

the Gurus after Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji are also called 2 nd-Nanak, 3 rd-Nanak 10 th-Nanak. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji placed the same ‘Guru Jot’ into Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is our living eternal Guru. Here are some references from Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, that “Jot Roop God” Himself was called Sri Guru Nanak .

6. Shri Raju Khiani, Shri Shantubhai Jina, Dr Ramesh Patel, Shri Sripati, Shri Nikhil Saksena, Shri Jayesh Mehta, Shri Krish Gaunder, Shri Rakesh Patel, Shri Shashank Ramakrishna for making of the retaining wall, clearing and concrete area for Navgrah and help in

Lt. Col O.P. Bharti (Shri M. Sankara Subramanian) 13 CONCERT, Chennai Shri S. Sai Nath (Shri Mohan Mahadevan) 14 Cummins India Ltd , Pune Shri Jugal K Mittal (Shri Tushar Kadam) 15 Eaton Industrial System Pvt Ltd Shri Hemang Raval Shri K V Rao 16 Fleet guard filters (P) Ltd., Pune Shri Anand G Diwan (Dr. Ashok Kumar Vaikuntam)

analyses of published criminal justice statistics, including data about crime, the courts and prison systems in a number of countries. Secondly, there are reviews of a small selection of recent academic literature on criminal justice subjects, which we looked at in order to provide Committee Members with some insights into the directions being taken in current research. 3 In neither case was .