Advances In The Production Of Double Helical Gears

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Advances in the production of Double Helical GearsImage 1: ZP 24 KAPP GmbH & Co. KGIncreasing demand for double helical gears in planeta-for double helical gears in planetary reduction gear bo-ry reduction gear boxes for engines in civil aviation hasxes for engines in civil aviation. Increasing requirementsnecessitated a number of new capabilities and techno-for weight reduction and fuel saving lead to decreasinglogies.sizes of design forms.Double helical gears (herringbone gears) are characteri-Typical sun or planetary gears of such transmissionszed by a symmetric arrangement of two identical gearhave approximately the following main parameters (va-teeth with exactly opposite helix angles. As a result oflues based on a workpiece proposed to be shown at IMTSthis symmetry, the axial forces in the gearbox negate2018, not a customer workpiece):each another. 44 teeth Module 3.5 mm (DP 7.26 in)For many years such double helical gears, as an exam- Outside diameter 175 mm (6.9 in)ple for components with geometrical interference, have Total width 130 mm (5.1 in)been a special challenge in finishing gears. While in the Gap between both gears 30 mm (1.18 in)past military low lot size applications might have been Weight 13 kg (28.7 lb)the main focus, there is now a current boost in demandKAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet:

Image 2: KAPP NILES IMTSshow workpiece KAPP GmbH & Co. KGWhen grinding double helical gears, KAPP NILES CBNtools offer the decisive advantage that they can be designed with the optimum diameter for the gap widthavailable while guaranteeing consistent quality acrosstheir entire tool life. Grinding them is only possible withan ideal interaction between machine and tool. As inAssuming that the gap between both gears could be re-every sector it is important to keep the balance betweenduced by just 10 mm (0.39 in) the total width and con-costs and productivity without compromising the pre-sequently, the weight of the workpiece would decreasecision.approximately by 7.7 percent, a massive reduction in theaerospace industry directly linked to fuel saving of theTo meet all customer demands KAPP NILES has develo-aircraft. In fact, KAPP NILES has proven by ideal combi-ped unique 3D tools for optimizing gear designs – oftennation of machine, grinding spindle and tool that cus-in multiple iterations together with customers. Parame-tomers could achieve or even surpass such design goal.ters that can be optimized include: Tool diameter: of course, this parameter is the mostHard gear finishing of the tooth flanks can only be doneobvious and directly related to KAPP NILES’ advan-by profile grinding. Inherent to the process, the gap isced grinding spindle (see below) and CBN tool ma-necessary between the gear teeth for the tool run out.nufacturing.Traditional tool concepts are dressable or non-dressable Tool swivel angle: often underestimated but a veryCBN profile grinding wheels mounted with screws to oneeffective means to shorten the contact line betweenor two grinding spindles. Tool diameters are often res-tool and workpiece but as a negative side-effect so-tricted to approx. 80-100 mmmetimes losing the balance of grinding forces bet-(3.15-3.94 in) by the spindle size, interference of theween both flanks requiring increased stiffness ongrinding spindle and in case of dressable tools of coursethe grinding the additional diameter range required for dressing. Position of the DHC point: sometimes an off-center position can provide additional clearance for theBut such traditional grinding solutions do not meet anylonger the increasing demands regarding gap ( weight)wheel in unexpected possibility of gap reduction. Other features like chamfer, edge rounding, etc.reduction, quality, surface finish but also day-to-dayAlso, such features can provide unexpected possibi-production demands for optimum economics in thelities for improvement.competitive global civil aerospace market.KAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet:

Image 5: Absence of collision KAPP GmbH & Co. KGAs a case study the optimization process with a wellImage 3: Traditional CBN grinding spindles KAPP GmbH & Co. KGknown European manufacturer of civil and military aerospace engines is cited:1. The initial customer design started also with a 30mm gap, and a conventional wheel size and grindingspindle size available on their existing KAPP NILESmachine (year of manufacture is 1993 and still used24/7 for aerospace production!)2. First stage of reduction was minimizing of tool diameter to 60 mm (2.36 in) by the special spindle withcounter-bearing but with CBN wheels and spindle arbor separatelyImage 4: Traditional CBN grinding spindles KAPP GmbH & Co. KG3. Second stage was to rotate both gears against eachother ( moving the DHC point off center) so that thewheel can use the opposite gap as additional clearance. In this stage a gap of 18 mm (0.7 in) was achieved with grinding wheel diameter 50 mm (1.97 in)4. Final challenge was the customer request for 15 mm(0.59 in) gap i.e. less than half of the initial designwith approx. 10 percent weight reduction. KAPP NILES met this challenge with:KAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet:

integrated design of CBN wheel and wheel arbor evenwith dual CBN grit size for roughing and finishing; CBN wheel diameter 30 mm (1.18 in); optimized tool swivel angle; recommendation of small chamfer to provide finalclearance.5. Final design of the customer went back to a littlelarger gap size enabling again a separation of the CBNwheels from the arbor for optimum tool cost but alsoImage 7: Grinding spindle with single-piece CBN / tool arbor KAPP GmbH & Co. KGbecause apparently the whole gearbox design inclu-But even the final choice of the best suited gear grindingding bearings, etc. could not be reduced accordingly.machine was a thorough process since KAPP NILES provides the widest range of machine concepts for grindingdouble helical gears in various sizes. Be it with horizontal (VX series) or with vertical workpiece axis (ZE and ZPseries), all machines can be equipped with innovativesolutions regarding hardware and software for grindingdouble helical gears. But what is the best grinding machine without optimized tooling and software?Image 6: STEP 4: Reduction of GAP to 14 mm KAPP GmbH & Co. KGDuring all optimization stages prototypes were groundat KAPP NILES to the full satisfaction of the end customer stating that he has never seen such an advancedprocess on any gear grinding machine on the market.The purchase of a new gear grinder and CBN tools wasjust the logical final step for the customer to be prepared for the future production of this advanced aircraftengine.In most cases, a two-stage process with CBN rough machining and finishing tool is necessary for achieving themaximum material removal rates and surface quality. Forthis purpose, an enhanced grinding spindle with counter-bearing has been developed, which enables uniqueprecision and productivity even with the least wheel diameters. An in-built HSK interface reduces the tool setup times to a minimum. The spindle contour has beenspecially designed to avoid interferences at high helixangles, spindle RPM is adopted for small tool diametersand most important the counter-bearing increases thestiffness significantly for highest grinding precision evenKAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet:

at quite coarse pitch workpieces and uneven grindingforces.Image 10: Workpiece on measuring machine KAPP GmbH & Co. KGUniversal high-precision measuring machines in bridgeImage 8: Special grinding spindle KAPP GmbH & Co. KGLast but not least, one of the most demanding tasks isthe process chain of stock-oriented alignment, grinding,measuring and the documentation of the material removal by optimizing the position of the DHC point. Withthe integrated measurement probe and the associatedsoftware packages, these tasks can be performed in aparticularly user-friendly manner on our machines.type design with vertically arranged probe heads forcomplex workpieces are successfully in use in the aerospace industry.The newly developed gear measuring machine KNM 2Xwith horizontal measuring head orientation for ultimatehighly precise measurements of smaller size gears up to300 mm workpiece diameter is perfectly suited for themeasurement of double helical gears.In addition to the standard profile-, lead-, pitch- andrunout inspection according to DIN 3960/62 or AGMAImage 9: Optimisation and Stock removal KAPP GmbH & Co. KGBut even if the highest-precision integrated gear measuring system in the machine shows an amazing correlation to external CMM’s, there is no way to replace anexternal final inspection. For this purpose, KAPP NILESMetrology – one of the newest additions to our group– has also developed special solutions for the aerospaceindustry.KAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet: www.kapp-niles.com2000 (or other standards), the exact measurement anddetermination of the APEX point of herringbone gears,with a comprehensive evaluation software package, ensures a final quality certification.

AutorHolger StaubAbout the AutorHolger Staub is manager, product management aerospace. with the KAPP NILES Group, a leading manufacturer of grinding and measuring machines for cylindrical gears and similar components. Learn more at www.kapp-niles.comContact for publicationKapp GmbH & Co. KGTel.: ( 49) 09561 / 866-0info@kapp-niles.comwww.kapp-niles.comKAPP NILESCallenberger Str. 5296450 Coburg, GermanyPhone: 49 9561 866-0Fax: 49 9561 866-1003E-Mail:info@kapp-niles.comInternet:

runout inspection according to DIN 3960/62 or AGMA 2000 (or other standards), the exact measurement and determination of the APEX point of herringbone gears, with a comprehensive evaluation software package, en-sures a final quality certification. KAPP NILES Callenberger Str. 52 96450 Coburg, Germany Phone: 49 9561 866-0 Fax: 49 9561 866-1003 E-Mail: Internet: www.kapp .

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