Security ConsiderationsFor an IP PBX and Contact CenterApplication ServerCIC Version 2.4WHITEPAPERBy Peggy GrittSenior Director, Product Marketing/ChannelsSeptember 27, 2005AbstractAs voice and data communications increasingly migrate to Internet networks and voice overIP (VoIP), communications security has taken on added importance for customer privacyand regulatory compliance in contact center and other consumer-oriented industries. Thispaper discusses the OSI Model for network and communications system security and howit applies to the Customer Interaction Center (CIC) application server, with specificemphasis on how version 2.4 of the CIC software conforms to an organization’s existingnetwork operating system environment and security policies for compliance requirements.7601 Interactive WayIndianapolis, IN 46268Telephone/Fax: 1.317.872.3000www.ININ.com
Copyright and Trademark Information 1994 – 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc. All rights reserved. InteractiveIntelligence , Interaction Center Platform , Communité , Enterprise InteractionCenter , Interactive Intelligence Customer Interaction Center , e-FAQ , e-FAQKnowledge Manager, Interaction Dialer , Interaction Director , Interaction Marquee,Interaction Recorder , Interaction SIP Proxy, Interaction Supervisor, InteractionTracker, Mobilité , Vocalité , Interaction Administrator , Interaction Attendant ,Interaction Client , Interaction Designer , Interaction Fax Viewer, Interaction FAQ,Interaction Melder, Interaction Screen Recorder, Interaction Scripter , InteractionServer, Wireless Interaction Client, InteractiveLease , and the “Spirograph” logodesign are all trademarks or registered trademarks of Interactive Intelligence Inc.Other brand and/or product names referenced in this document are the trademarks orregistered trademarks of their respective companies.DISCLAIMERINTERACTIVE INTELLIGENCE (INTERACTIVE) HAS NO RESPONSIBILITY UNDERWARRANTY, INDEMNIFICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR MODIFICATION ORCUSTOMIZATION OF ANY INTERACTIVE SOFTWARE BY INTERACTIVE, CUSTOMER ORANY THIRD PARTY EVEN IF SUCH CUSTOMIZATION AND/OR MODIFICATION IS DONEUSING INTERACTIVE TOOLS, TRAINING OR METHODS DOCUMENTED BY INTERACTIVE.Interactive Intelligence Inc.7601 Interactive WayIndianapolis, Indiana 46278Telephone/Fax (317) 872-3000www.ININ.comSecurity Considerations / CIC Version 2.42 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Table of ContentsIntroduction.4The OSI Model for CIC Security Considerations.6Layer 1 – Physical Layer . 6Layer 2 – Data Link Layer . 8Layer 3 – Network Layer. 9Layer 4 – Transport Layer . 10Layer 5 – Session Layer. 10Layer 6 – Presentation Layer . 11Layer 7 – Application Layer . 12Considerations for Network Policies and Standards . 14Protection Monitoring Systems. 14Platform and Operating System Controls . 15Security Policies and the Windows Operating System . 15Hardening the Operating System . 15Security Patch Verification . 15Virus Protection . 16Connections to Other Applications on the Network . 16Interactive Intelligence and Regulatory Compliance. 16ISO Registration . 16Customer Regulatory Issues. 16Globalization . 17Conclusion . 17Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.43 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
IntroductionInteractive Intelligence has been taking a software approach to voice and datacommunications for more than 11 years. Because our multi-channel software architectureis designed to process voice interactions, phone calls, Web chats, e-mails and associatedinteractions alike, products such as the Customer Interaction Center (CIC) give contactcenters and business enterprises far more than just a PBX phone system or automatic calldistributor (ACD). Also because the open standards CIC software comes equipped forvoice over IP (VoIP) and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) communications standardthat supports VoIP networks, Interactive Intelligence continues to focus on security issueswell beyond voice traffic on an IP communications network — unlike many proprietaryvendors currently in the VoIP market.Multi-box Architecture Amplifies Security ConcernsRather than proprietary systems that connect one hardware “box” after another forInternet-driven VoIP (as shown in top graphic), Interactive Intelligence designed the CICsoftware on a common communications processing architecture that acts similar to otherbusiness applications on an organization’s network. The net result is reduced complexityin a telecommunicationsinfrastructure (bottomgraphic) since CICeliminates the need forseparate PBX, ACD,voicemail, IVR andreporting systems.CIC also replaces faxservers, antiquated callrecorders, Web chat andcollaboration systems,and e-mail routing andqueuing systems. Withfewer “moving parts”and less complexity toconcern IT securityteams, CIC givessecurity-mindedorganizations a moresecure environment forIP communications.Single System across Media Types:One Vendor, One Set of SecurityConcernsInteractive Intelligence designedCIC’s server-based applications torun on the Microsoft Windows operating system, to integrate to desktopapplications for improved user productivity, andto handle SIP-compliant station devices such asSIP phones and communications on the networkvia SIP gateways.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.44 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) ModelThe Open Systems Interconnection Model provides some of the most stringent securitycapabilities possible for mission-critical communications systems, and is the onlyinternationally accepted standards framework that supports communications betweenvarious systems from different vendors.This paper presents the Customer Interaction Center’s security capabilities from the OSIModel standpoint, discussing each “layer” of the Model’s categorized communicationssecurity process:Layer 1 – Physical LayerLayer 2 – Data Link LayerLayer 3 – Network LayerLayer 4 – Transport LayerLayer 5 – Session LayerLayer 6 – Presentation LayerLayer 7 – Applications LayerOSI Network Model 7498-1 for security planningSecurity Considerations / CIC Version 2.45 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Introduction / OSI Model (continued)Interactive Intelligence takes a unique standards-based software approach to businesscommunications that leverages the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) standard for VoIPnetwork implementations. Security mechanisms for the CIC software can therefore bedeployed between the CIC application server, the SIP gateway, and SIP telephone devicesfor enhanced network security in a VoIP configuration. Mechanisms can include a VirtualPrivate Network (VPN), Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN), Transparent LAN Service(TLS), Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP), Access Lists, and Authentication.(Note: the Communité unified communications software from Interactive Intelligenceand the Enterprise Interaction Center IP PBX software from Interactive Intelligencesubsidiary, Vonexus, incorporate the same security mechanisms.)Given CIC’s multi-channel event-processing software architecture — along with subsystems that connect to voice/data (via SIP), Web applications, database applications,e-mail servers and other systems on an organization’s network — InteractiveIntelligence understands that communications security must be addressed at all levelsto be effective. The following sections discuss CIC’s application server connectivity onthe network with regard to the OSI Model’s seven layers of security.For more than a decade, Interactive Intelligence has provided innovative multi-channelsoftware solutions for the contact center market and other consumer-oriented industries,making regulatory requirements and compliance one of our highest priorities for productdevelopment. Our experience with compliance issues, and with helping organizationsavoid the potential legal ramifications of non-compliance, has thereby made our solutionspopular among healthcare providers, government agencies, public companies, andfinancial institutions as well as contact centers.The OSI Model for CIC Security ConsiderationsLayer 1 – Physical Layer SecurityOverviewThe OSI Model’s Physical Layer of security applies to all physical devices in acommunications system and their availability in mission-critical situations. For theCustomer Interaction Center (CIC), physical device availability encompasses systempower, environmental control, inputs (physical access), device disconnections and otherassociated physical factors.Because CIC’s server-based applications are developed to run on the Microsoft Windowsoperating system, all seven layers of security within the OSI Model actually apply to theCIC software. Regarding the Physical Layer, however, the majority of organizations usingCIC install the CIC Server on their network alongside other existing Windows-basedservers — essentially aligning the CIC system under the same physical security policiesthey employ for their building, data center (typically the CIC Server location), and desktopequipment for end-users. But the CIC system can also offer a few additional measures ofsystem security when applied to the OSI Model’s Physical Layer.Preventing a Loss of PowerTo survive a power outage, organizations can co-locate the CIC Server with all other dataservers for connection to a back-up generator, or can optionally connect the CIC Serverto a UPS. A UPS configuration gives system administrators sufficient time to convert theCIC Server to a disaster recovery server at an alternate location. (Many organizationshouse the CIC Server in a locked environment along with other mission-critical servers.)Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.46 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
To overcome a loss of power to CIC end-user devices, SIP telephones such as those fromPolycom have the ability to use power from the Ethernet network cable rather thanfrom the wall outlet. In this case, the phones must also be connected to a router thatsupports power over the Ethernet network. CIC additionally supports analog mediagateways that can power an analog telephone during any outage, as long as the mediagateway maintains power via a UPS.Environmental ControlOrganizations should maintain the CIC Server in an environment where the temperaturecontrol is set for a mission-critical server. Also as it is with any mission-critical server,it’s important to secure the CIC Server with key or keypad access.Business Continuity via Remote LocationsCIC allows multi-site organizations to locate a primary CIC Server at their headquartersand extend IP PBX call processing and ACD routing to branch offices or contact centersvia a SIP-based VoIP network. For outage security in such a configuration, InteractiveIntelligence offers a SIP proxy called Business Continuity Manager that allows anybranch site to maintain basic inbound and outbound call routing should the primary CICServer connection be disrupted at HQ. Whether the main office experiences a WAN linkcrash, power outage or some other disaster, CIC simply routes calls to a remote officeto uphold business continuity.Disaster Recovery with CIC’s Centralized ArchitectureThe centralized software architecture CIC provides for all communications applicationsand makes it easier to support disaster recovery processes throughout an organization.By establishing a CIC-based disaster recovery server off-site, the disaster recoveryserver takes over should an outage occur where the primary CIC Server is housed.Users can then use any telephone to log in to the CIC system from home or an alternatelocation, and still receive ACD calls as well as their own extension calls. If users have adata connection, they can also remotely perform CIC functions such as unifiedmessaging and Web chat as if in their normal office setting. Businesses can thereforeleverage CIC to effectively manage disaster recovery plans, maintain businesscontinuity and connectivity with customers, and prevent potential revenue loss fromcommunications system disruptions.Password Keystroke and Input LoggingA system administrator must first access the CIC Server via Windows security but canalso establish an adjoining CIC password. If the CIC Server is locked, no person otherthan the system administrator can access the server’s keypad to log on to the CICsystem. Each desktop machine should also be password protected on an organization’snetwork, with network policies in place to lock each PC or workstation when an employeeleaves their desk for a predetermined number of seconds or minutes.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.47 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Disconnection of Physical LinksIf multiple gateways are established on the network (LAN or WAN) in a CIC systemconfiguration, an organization can use back-up lines in the event that a particular line toa gateway is unavailable. Organizations should also consider other physical links thatcan potentially be disconnected as part of their overall network security plan for routers,phones and other devices. To monitor the CIC system in real-time, the CIC Server offersthe pre-integratedInteraction Supervisormodule (shown here) toquickly determine whensegments on your networkare down, which canprevent the CIC Serverfrom physically connectingto a database server forreport logging, to an email server for unifiedmessaging or e-mailqueuing, etc. Alerts inInteraction Supervisorimmediately notify asystem administrator if CICloses connectivity to otherservers on the network.Physical Telephones in Open AreasOrganizations can secure telephones in open areas such as office lobbies, employee lunchrooms, etc. by disallowing long distance or toll calls without an 800 number or callingcard. Telephones with no users logged into them can be further secured by requiring anauthorization code to dial long distance numbers.Phone Configuration on the NetworkCIC’s Phone Configuration Utility includes a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) serverthat specifies all extensions an organization can upload with the CIC system. Eventhough the TFTP server is in read/write mode, it does not allow phone configuration(.cfg) files to be overwritten or modified, which addresses any security concerns forphone devices and their individual configurations.Layer 2 – Data Link Layer SecurityIntroductionThe OSI Model’s Data Link Layer provides the security level data packets are prepared fornetwork transmission by the Physical Layer.Access List SupportFrom the Layer 2 perspective, an organization can configure its network to support MACbased access lists that prevent “man in the middle” attacks as well as rogue deviceconnections. Defined, a Media Access Control Layer is that layer of a distributedcommunications system concerned with access control to a medium shared between twoor more entities. Organizations should therefore create an access list for specific MACaddresses to heighten access security for all switches on a network.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.48 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Layer 3 – Network Layer SecurityIntroductionThe OSI Model’s Network Layer of security covers the topology of a network and typicallyconsiders the IP addresses of network nodes. The Customer Interaction Center (CIC)application server provides security at this layer by supporting standard firewalls and listsof invalid IP addresses, and by handling Denial of Service Attacks on the network itself.List IP Addresses to Deny CommunicationsThe CIC Server supports the ability to list forbidden IP addresses, which enables anorganization to configure the CIC Server to understand IP addresses that aren’t allowedto communicate directly with the CIC Server. Under the OSI Model for CIC, the firewallprovides universal control for the Network Layer.Firewall SupportThe CIC product and its add-on modules (Interaction Dialer , Interaction Recorder ,Interaction Tracker and other add-on applications) run behind the firewall just as anyother business application server on the network would. It also is possible toseparate/control each type of communication via a firewall. Since CIC uses differentTCP/IP ports for Web, application (Notifier), and data (SQL Server), access can easily becontrolled via the firewall. Also for SIP session routing, organizations can make thefirewall “SIP-aware” to handle SIP-based calls; for instance on the WAN they use for theirSIP network.Denial of Service Attacks on the NetworkA Denial of Service Attack is a malicious network attack that keeps users or devices fromaccessing a normally available network service. DoS Attacks are considered extremelydifficult to defend against due to their changing nature, and typically occur through openports on a communications network.Miercom testing for DoS AttacksTo enhance security against DoS Attacks, the CIC software was thoroughly tested byMiercom, an independent network consultancy and test lab, as part of their voice overIP security assessment for communications products in the contact center segment.Using a simulated DoS Attack on the CIC’s event processing software architecture,Miercom testing personnel determined a medium to low degradation. Contact centersimplementing CIC are advised to structure all communications between networkservices in a proprietary encrypted protocol; any network messages received on CIC’sopen ports are then simply ignored or disregarded to provide additional protection forthe CIC Server if a DoS Attack occurs. In short, the CIC Server will not fail to performin the event of a DoS Attack on the network. As proof, Miercom simulated a randomACK character “flood” for CIC’s data communications and found no noticeabledegradation to the CIC system’s CPU performance (Low rating). Also of note, the CICServer that Miercom tested wasn’t “hardened.” Subsequently, considering theoperating system wasn’t prepared for this sort of test, the CIC software itself performedvery well. Moreover, CIC is designed to prevent DoS Attacks for SIP systems via aconfigurable access control list whereby the CIC administrator can grant or deny accessby specific IP addresses, or range of IP addresses, when establishing a SIP connection.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.49 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Layer 4 – Transport Layer SecurityIntroductionThe Transport Layer focuses on ports in a communications system and is the OSI Model’sfirst logical layer for security. Transport Layers are normally built for speed and utility,and present vulnerabilities related to the source of a data packet communication —primarily when open ports are used for too many purposes and make security moredifficult for the firewall. Again for the OSI Model, firewalls are the Customer InteractionCenter (CIC) software’s common control at the Transport Layer of security (discussed inthe previous section).Digest AuthenticationWith Digest Authentication in CIC, passwords are never sent across the network withoutbeing encrypted. The CIC system encrypts all passwords and data passed between theCIC Server and the desktop client.Open PortsEnabled transport protocols, services and ports can pose a high level of vulnerability tooutside attacks on a communications network/system. To decrease such vulnerability,the CIC system incorporates a proprietary Internet Protocol for communications, makingit difficult for hackers to access information data packets being passed over a network.(Using this approach, CIC requires only two ports to be opened.) The CIC Server alsoincludes a TCP/IP port that enables proprietary CIC messages to be handled between theCIC Server and desktop clients. If using Microsoft’s NT authentication, organizations mayalso need to enable Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM, Microsoft’s distributedversion of its COM). CIC-based firewalls require nothing to be enabled.Layer 5 – Session Layer SecurityIntroductionThe OSI Model’s Session Layer is concerned with the communication session protocol acommunications system utilizes, such as the Session Initiation Protocol, or SIP. TheCustomer Interaction Center (CIC) software uses SIP as the Session Layer protocol forvoice over IP and/or, on the data side, the authentication and password control of thesession initiation. This section discusses CIC’s encryption capabilities for protecting theSession Layer and how data packets are transmitted using the SIP session for informationsuch as numbers, passwords, etc.Encryption StandardsCIC offers encryption both for voice and data communications on the network, sinceorganizations sometimes pass sensitive customer and user information (related tocustomer accounts, names, etc.) between the CIC Server and the user interface. Forexample, a contact center will often use an IVR system to request a customer’s accountinformation prior to routing that customer’s call to an agent. The customer’s enteredinformation is then used to “screen pop” an application at the agent’s desktop as the callarrives. For data security, contact centers and other organizations can encrypt all datatraffic between the CIC Server and the end-user’s desktop CRM application using thesymmetric Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in CIC. All data destined for a host isencrypted directly on the CIC Server. And while a full message is encrypted, a notifierheader is not. Data also is not decrypted in CIC, except by the host receiving themessage. For more secure applications, the CIC software supports IPsec IP Securitymeasures that in turn support an “authentication header” to verify the validity of anoriginating address in the header of every packet within an IP network packet stream.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.410 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
Secured Voice Messaging TrafficNote: The following encryption options will be released in the CIC 2.4 SIP Feature Packavailable in early 2006.For CIC-based SIP configurations, Interactive Intelligence provides standards-basedencryption using the Transparent LAN Service (TLS, described in the SIP RFC 2246) andSecure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP, described in the SIP RFC 3711). InteractiveIntelligence uses the open SIP standard at all times and therefore utilizes the standardencryption method. All components must also support the RFCs referenced here in orderfor the encryption to work, which requires a CIC configuration for SIP to include the Intel NetStructure Host Media Processing (HMP) Software, media gateways, and SIPcompliant telephones. Intel’s HMP software enables CIC to stream RTP audio on thenetwork; Intel is expected to support these required SIP standards in early 2006.Interactive Intelligence is actively working with Microsoft, Intel, AudioCodes, Polycom, andnet.com to deploy TLS and SRTP for the CIC 2.4 SIP Feature Pack.Encrypted Voice PayloadA common concern with network-driven voice communications is an unwanted person’sability to “sniff” a network and eaves drop on a call from their PC. Interactive Intelligenceunderstands such concerns and, to our knowledge, can say this has never occurred withthe CIC system. To further ensure network and call security, however, CIC and otherproducts from Interactive Intelligence will continue to support SRTP across all voiceinteraction types in conjunction with Intel and other VoIP vendors.Once again due to the nature of our software, this measure secures all voice traffic whetherdirected to an ACD, individual PBX users, or a caller in an IVR or voicemail process.Layer 6 – Presentation Layer SecurityIntroductionThe OSI Model’s Presentation Layer provides transparent communications services bymasking the differences of varying data formats (such as character codes) betweendissimilar systems. The Customer Interaction Center (CIC) optimizes this layer of securitythrough CIC’s single comprehensive framework for system and user administration, asdiscussed in the following subsections.Administrative RightsThe CIC system’s single administrative environment makes it much easier to track theadministration of CIC’s inherent PBX, ACD, IVR, voicemail and fax server capabilities plusany integrated business communications applications. Because the CIC software “acts”as all of these components, it is important that the system’s administrative environmentbe secured on a granular basis. That is, administration access to individual CICcomponents can be granted to an administrator on as-needed basis. As an example, aworkgroup administrator isn’t authorized to administer trunk or SIP “lines” in the CICsystem. As another example, an IT administrator (or group of administrators) can beauthorized solely to administering the CIC dial plan. This granular assignment ofadministrative rights ensures that departments and IT groups can control their ownbusiness application server.Administrative Audit TrailsTo audit changes to the CIC system, CIC’s administrative change log lets administratorsknow who made a specific change in the administrative environment, and track changesvia CIC’s out-of-the-box administrative change log reporting tools.Security Considerations / CIC Version 2.411 2005 Interactive Intelligence Inc.
User RightsJust as granular rights are available within the CIC system’s administrative environment,the system also is set up for individually-assigned access rights to CIC’s various featuresand functions. Most user functionality licensed to a CIC user requires a license key thatcan be assigned to the user or station. This allows an organization, for example, todesignate that a user is a “business” or PBX user who should not be equipped with CIC’scall center features, such as Web chat. Conversely, access to features such as callrecording, the supervisory ability to listen to a call center agent, or the ability to makemore than X number of calls at a time can be assigned by workgroup, role (class ofservice) or by individual. CIC user rights also offer a global setting to set an access levelfor all users, such as CIC system access for 900 calls.Layer 7 – Application Layer SecurityIntroductionThe OSI Model’s Application Layer includes functions for specific applications services,such as file transfer, remote file access and virtual terminals. The Customer InteractionCenter (CIC) software extends several user and applications security measures at thislevel, with a specific focus on remote users and CIC’s “virtual office” capability.Password EncryptionAll user/administrator passwords in CIC are encrypted when entered on applicationcommand lines and when passed to the CIC Server. Passwords also are concealed on theCIC system’s dialog box. It is important to note that the CIC system supports requiredpassword changes to the CIC user name/password. CIC additionally offers features thatlet an organization establish parameters for the character length and type of userpasswords, including available password security settings determined by user role.User AuthenticationCIC offers three options for user authentication. For companies that rely on the Microsoftplatform, CIC user authentication can be based their NT authentication to validate eachuser (logged in to a system) against a domain that’s also valid for the CIC system. Inthis case, the CIC password is not required. The second option is available to companiesthat elect not to use NT authentication, and that instead have deployed their ownmethod/standard for user authentication. In this case, companies can incorporate aDynamic Link Library (DLL) to support customized user authentication methods. Thethird option is simply to use CIC’s user name/password authentication, which is alwaysrequired to retrieve voice messages, but is an option for a CIC user’s desktop login.User Remote AccessThe CIC system offers remote user capability that allows work-at-home call center agentsand mobile business users to log in to the CIC system from any TCP/IP connection. (Anorganization must authorize remote user rights and grant CIC system access, of course).Remote CIC users require a VPN connection to log in to CIC’s Interaction Client desktopcommunications interface, and can use the Interaction Client’s soft phone by indicatingtheir remote telephone number. Organizations can grant a telephone number for remoteaccess based on a local or long distance number, but can also deny remote access ifusing an international number. Organizations also deploy Citrix or Terminal Services forremote CIC user access to their business applications, since CIC supports the InteractionClient interface to run in such environments. Interactive Intelligence does recommen
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Ethical Considerations The most common ethical considerations identified in the literature are: protection of children from harm, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and payment of research participants (Powell et al., 2012). These considerations informed the development of the interview guide for this project.
Security Considerations in Cloud Computing Environments Abstract Computing virtualization is the key technology in cloud computing as it can reduce the investment in the hardware component drastically. The present research work carefully analyse some of the major security threats to the cloud services based on the security threat analysis .
Considerations for a disconnected device security policy This section will describe some of the high level considerations and tactics that can be used when defining a disconnected device security policy. The first thing that should be considered is how updates impact security when delivering them to disconnected devices.
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