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Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage iiiA COMPANIONTO LATINLITERATUREEdited byStephen Harrison

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 4:05am page 14

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page iA COMPANIONTO LATINLITERATURE

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page iiBLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLDThis series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history,genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volumecomprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars withintheir area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative and lively manner,designed for an international audience of scholars, students and general readers.AN C I E N T HI S T O R YLI T E R AT U R EPublishedPublishedA Companion to the Ancient Near EastEdited by Daniel C. SnellA Companion to the Hellenistic WorldEdited by Andrew ErskineIn preparationA Companion to the Archaic Greek WorldEdited by Kurt A. Raaflaub andHans van WeesA Companion to the Classical Greek WorldEdited by Konrad KinzlA Companion to the Roman RepublicEdited by Nathan Rosenstein andRobert Morstein-MarxA Companion to the Roman EmpireEdited by David PotterA Companion to the Roman ArmyEdited by Paul ErdkampANDCU L T U R EA Companion to Latin LiteratureEdited by Stephen HarrisonIn preparationA Companion to Ancient EpicEdited by John Miles FoleyA Companion to Greek TragedyEdited by Justina GregoryA Companion to Classical MythologyEdited by Ken DowdenA Companion to Greek and RomanHistoriographyEdited by John MarincolaA Companion to Greek ReligionEdited by Daniel OgdenA Companion to Greek RhetoricEdited by Ian WorthingtonA Companion to Late AntiquityEdited by Philip RousseauA Companion to Roman RhetoricEdited by William J. Dominik andJonathan HallA Companion to ByzantiumEdited by Elizabeth JamesA Companion to Classical TraditionEdited by Craig KallendorfA Companion to Roman ReligionEdited by Jörg Rüpke

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage iiiA COMPANIONTO LATINLITERATUREEdited byStephen Harrison

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page iv# 2005 by Blackwell Publishing LtdBLACKWELL PUBLISHING350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, AustraliaThe right of Stephen Harrison to be identified as the Author of the Editorial Material in this Work has beenasserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission ofthe publisher.First published 2005 by Blackwell Publishing LtdLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataA companion to Latin literature / edited by Stephen Harrison.p. cm. — (Blackwell companions to the ancient world. Ancient history)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-631-23529-9 (alk. paper)1. Latin literature—History and criticism—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Latin literature—Themes,motives—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Authors, Latin—Biography—Handbooks, manuals, etc.4. Rome—Intellectual life—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. Rome—In literature—Handbooks, manuals, etc.I. Harrison, S. J. II. Series.PA6004.C66 2004870.9’001—dc222004005855A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.Set in 10.5/13 Galliardby Kolam Information Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, IndiaPrinted and bound in the United Kingdomby TJ International, Padstow, CornwallThe publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, andwhich has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices.Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptableenvironmental accreditation standards.For further information onBlackwell Publishing, visit our website:www.blackwellpublishing.com

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage vContentsList of FiguresviiiChronological TableixNotes on ContributorsxiiPrefacexviReference Works: AbbreviationsxviiIntroduction: Constructing Latin LiteratureStephen Harrison1PA RT I PE R I O D S131 The Early Republic: the Beginnings to 90Sander M. Goldberg2 The Late Republican/Triumviral Period: 90–40D. S. Levene3 The Augustan Period: 40Joseph FarrellB C –A D4 The Early Empire: A D 14–68Roland Mayer5 The High Empire:Bruce GibsonAD69–2001415BCBC31445869

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page viContentsviPA RT II GE N R E S816 Narrative EpicPhilip Hardie837 Didactic EpicMonica Gale1018 Roman TragedyElaine Fantham1169 Comedy, Atellane Farce and MimeCostas Panayotakis13010PastoralStephen Heyworth14811Love ElegyRoy Gibson15912SatireLlewelyn Morgan17413Lyric and IambicStephen Harrison18914EpigramLindsay C. Watson20115The NovelStephen Harrison21316Dialogues and TreatisesJ. G. F. Powell22317Historiography and BiographyChristina Shuttleworth Kraus24118OratoryD. H. Berry25719EpistolographyCatharine Edwards270PA RT III TH E M E S20Decline and NostalgiaStephen Harrison285287

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page viiContentsvii21Art and TextJas Elsner30022The PassionsRobert A. Kaster31923Sex and GenderA. M. Keith33124Friendship and PatronageDavid Konstan34525Romans and OthersYasmin Syed36026Marriage and FamilySusan Treggiari37227Slavery and ClassThomas Habinek38528Centre and PeripheryAlessandro Barchiesi394Bibliography406Index444

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page viiiFigures21.1 Funerary altar of Aulus Servilius Paulianus andAulus Servilius Paulinus30121.2 Cinerary grave altar of T. Statilius Aper and Orchivia Anthis30421.3 The sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome30621.4 Detail of the fragment of the poetic inscriptionfrom the lid of the Bassus sarcophagus30721.5 Illustrated fragment from a small-format or‘pocket’ papyrus book-roll30821.6 The Roman Vergil31021.7 The Vatican Vergil311

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage ixChronological Table ofImportant Dates in LatinLiterature and History to A D 200Full descriptions of the works of authors referred to here only by name are to befound in the ‘General Resources and Author Bibliographies’ section in theintroduction (pp. 3–12). Dates given are usually consistent with the informationin the Oxford Classical Dictionary (1996). ‘Caesar’ is the term used for the futureAugustus between his adoption in Julius Caesar’s will (44) and his assumption ofthe name ‘Augustus’ in 27, rather than ‘Octavian’, a name he never used. Fullaccounts of the historical periods covered here are to be found in volumes 8–11 ofthe Cambridge Ancient History (1989–2000).The Early Republican period (beginnings to 90Key literary eventsc. 240–after Livius Andronicus active207 B Cas poet/dramatistc. 235–204 Naevius active as poet/dramatistc. 205–184 Plautus active as dramatist204–169?200c. 190–149166–159125–100BC)Key historical events264–41 First Punic War (Rome wins)218–201 Second Punic War (Rome wins)200–146 Rome conquers Greece; Greekcultural influence on Rome149–146 Third and final Punic War(Rome conquers Carthage)Ennius active as poet/dramatistFabius Pictor’s first history122–106 War against Jugurtha in Northof Rome (in Greek)Africa (Rome wins)Literary career of Cato91–88Social War in Italy (over issuePlays of Terence producedof full Roman citizenship forLucilius active as satiristLatin communities)

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19am page xChronological Table of Important Dates in Latin Literature and HistoryxThe late Republican/Triumviral period (90–40 B C )Key literary events81BC50sBC40s B CKey historical eventsCicero’s first preserved speech(Pro Quinctio); literary careercontinues until deathin 43 B CPoetry of Lucretius and Catullus;Caesar’s Gallic WarsWork of Sallust (dies c. 35); Gallusbegins poetical careerThe Augustan period (40 B C –1430s–A D29 B C20s B C?23?19BC?16BCBCVirgil’s Eclogues publishedHorace, Satires 1 publishedHorace, Satires 2 and Epodespublished17 Livy’s history publishedVirgil, Georgics publishedEarliest elegies of Propertius,Tibullus and (later) OvidpublishedHorace, Odes 1–3 publishedDeaths of Virgil andTibullusPropertius, Book 4 published13 B C8 BCAD 8Before andCivil wars between Sulla andMarius; dictatorship of Sulla73–1 Revolt of Spartacus58–49 Julius Caesar’s Gallic campaigns49–45 Civil War between Julius Caesarand Pompey44Assassination of Julius Caesar43Caesar becomes consul43–40 Sporadic civil war in Italy42Defeat of Julius Caesar’s assassinsat PhilippiAD)Key literary events?38 B C35 B C30 B C88–80Horace, Odes 4 publishedDeath of HoraceOvid banished to Romaniaafter A D 14 Manilius activeKey historical events38–36 Renewed civil war against S. Pompey32–30 Caesar fights and defeats Antony andCleopatra at Actium and Alexandria29Triple triumph of Caesar27‘Restoration of republic’: Caesarassumes title of ‘Augustus’18–17 Moral legislation of Augustus17Augustus celebrates Saecular Games12Augustus becomes pontifexmaximus (head of state religion)AD 4Tiberius becomes final heirof AugustusA D 14Death of Augustus, succession ofTiberius

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage xiChronological Table of Important Dates in Latin Literature and HistoryThe early Empire (14–68AD)Key literary events1720s/30sc. 41–65Deaths of Ovid and LivyPhaedrus and Velleius activeLiterary career of youngerSenecaLiterary career of elder PlinyPersius, Lucan, Petronius,Calpurnius Siculus activeSeneca and Lucanforced to suicidePetronius forced to suicideADc. 51–7960s6566The high Empire (69–200Key historical events37 Death of Tiberius; accession ofGaius (Caligula)41Assassination of Gaius; accession ofClaudiusAD54656870–10296–138140s–180sDeath of Claudius; accession of Nero‘Pisonian’ conspiracy against NerounsuccessfulDeath of NeroAD)Key literary eventsADxiValerius Flaccus, Silius, A D 69Statius, Quintilian andMartial active798196Key historical eventsThe year of the four emperors (Galba,Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian)Death of Vespasian; accession of TitusDeath of Titus; accession of DomitianAssassination of Domitian; accession ofNervaYounger Pliny, Tacitus, 98Death of Nerva; accession of TrajanJuvenal and Suetonius 101–117 Wide conquests of Trajan117Death of Trajan; accession of Hadrianactive138Death of Hadrian; accession ofAntoninus PiusFronto, Gellius and161Death of Antoninus Pius; accession ofApuleius activeMarcus Aurelius180Death of Marcus Aurelius; accession ofCommodus192Assassination of Commodus193–211 Reign of Septimius Severus

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page xiiNotes on ContributorsAlessandro Barchiesi is Professor of Latin at the University of Siena at Arezzo andalso teaches at Stanford University. He is the author of books on Virgil and Ovid,including The Poet and the Prince (Berkeley, 1997) and Speaking Volumes (London,2001), of a commentary on Ovid Heroides 1–3, and of many articles on Latinliterature.D. H. Berry is Senior Lecturer in Classics at the University of Leeds. He is the authorof a commentary on Cicero Pro Sulla (Cambridge, 1996) and translator of CiceroDefence Speeches (Oxford, 2000). He has also revised M. L.Clarke’s Rhetoric at Rome:a Historical Survey (London, 1996).Catharine Edwards is Senior Lecturer in ancient history at Birkbeck College, University of London. Her publications include The Politics of Immorality in AncientRome (Cambridge, 1993) and Writing Rome: Textual Approaches to the City (Cambridge, 1996), as well as several articles on Seneca’s Letters.Jaś Elsner is Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Archaeology atCorpus Christi College, Oxford. He works especially on Roman and late antiqueart and their relations to literature. Among his books are Art and the Roman Viewer(Cambridge, 1995), Art and Text in Roman Culture (Cambridge, 1996, editor) andImperial Rome and Christian Triumph (Oxford, 1998).Elaine Fantham is Giger Professor of Latin Emerita at Princeton University. She isauthor of several commentaries on Latin poetry, Seneca’s Trojan Women (Princeton,1982), Lucan Civil War Bk 2 (Cambridge, 1992) and Ovid Fasti Book 4 (Cambridge, 1998), many articles on Roman literature, and the monograph RomanLiterary Culture from Cicero to Apuleius (Baltimore, 1996).Joseph Farrell is Professor of Classical Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Heis, most recently, author of Latin Language and Latin Culture from Ancient toModern Times (Cambridge, 2001).

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page xiiiNotes on ContributorsxiiiMonica Gale is Lecturer in Classics at Trinity College, Dublin. She is the author ofMyth and Poetry in Lucretius (Cambridge, 1994), Virgil on the Nature of Things(Cambridge, 2000) and Lucretius and the Didactic Epic (London, 2001).Bruce Gibson is Lecturer in Classics at the University of Liverpool. His text,translation and commentary on Statius, Silvae 5, is forthcoming with Oxford University Press; publications to date include articles on Ovid, Statius, Tacitus and Apuleius.He is working on Pliny’s Panegyricus.Roy Gibson teaches Classics at the University of Manchester, and is the author ofOvid: Ars Amatoria Book 3 (Cambridge, 2003), and the co-editor, with ChristinaShuttleworth Kraus, of The Classical Commentary: Histories, Practices, Theory(Leiden, 2002), and with Ruth Morello of Re-Imagining Pliny the Younger (Arethusa36, 2003).Sander M. Goldberg is Professor of Classics at the University of California, LosAngeles. He is the author of The Making of Menander’s Comedy (London, 1980),Understanding Terence (Princeton, 1986) and Epic in Republican Rome (Oxford,1995), and a past editor of the Transactions of the American Philological Association.Thomas Habinek is Professor of Classics at the University of Southern California.He is the author of The Colometry of Latin Prose (Berkeley, 1985) and The Politics ofLatin Literature (Princeton, 1998) and co-editor of The Roman Cultural Revolution(Cambridge, 1997). He is completing a study entitled Song and Society in Archaicand Classical Rome.Philip Hardie is Corpus Christi Professor of Latin Language and Literature at theUniversity of Oxford. His books include Virgil’s Aeneid: Cosmos and Imperium(Oxford, 1986) and Ovid’s Poetics of Illusion (Cambridge, 2002).Stephen Harrison is Fellow and Tutor in Classics at Corpus Christi College, Oxford,and Professor of Classical Languages and Literature in the University of Oxford. He isthe author of a commentary on Vergil Aeneid 10 (Oxford, 1991) and of Apuleius: ALatin Sophist (Oxford, 2000), and editor of several volumes including Texts, Ideasand the Classics (Oxford, 2001).Stephen Heyworth is Bowra Fellow & Tutor in Classics at Wadham College,Oxford. He was editor of Classical Quarterly from 1993 to 1998, and is producinga new Oxford Classical Text of Propertius.Robert A. Kaster is Professor of Classics and Kennedy Foundation Professor of LatinLanguage and Literature at Princeton University. He is the author of Guardians ofLanguage: the Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1988), a commentary on Suetonius’ De Grammaticis et Rhetoribus (Oxford, 1995), and articles onRoman literature and culture.A. M. Keith is Professor of Classics and Women’s Studies, and Fellow of VictoriaCollege, at the University of Toronto. She is the author of The Play of Fictions: Studiesin Ovid’s Metamorphoses Book 2 (Ann Arbor 1992) and Engendering Rome: Women inLatin Epic (Cambridge 2000).

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteraturexivFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage xivNotes on ContributorsDavid Konstan is the John Rowe Workman Distinguished Professor of Classics andProfessor of Comparative Literature at Brown University. Among his recent publications are Sexual Symmetry: Love in the Ancient Novel and Related Genres (Princeton,1994); Greek Comedy and Ideology (Oxford, 1995); Friendship in the Classical World(Cambridge, 1997); and Pity Transformed (Duckworth, 2001). He is currentlyworking on a book entitled The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks.Christina Shuttleworth Kraus is Professor of Classics at Yale University. She haswritten articles on Greek tragic narrative and on Latin historiographical prose, and isthe author of a commentary on Livy, Ab Vrbe Condita VI (Cambridge, 1994) and(with A. J. Woodman) of a Greece & Rome New Survey in the Classics on LatinHistorians (Oxford, 1997). She has edited The Limits of Historiography: Genre andNarrative in Ancient Historical Texts (Leiden, 1999) and (with R. K. Gibson) TheClassical Commentary: Histories, Practices, Theory (Leiden, 2002).D. S. Levene is Professor of Latin Language and Literature at the University ofLeeds. He has published a variety of works on Latin historiography and rhetoric,including Religion in Livy (Leiden, 1993).Roland Mayer is a Professor of Classics in the University of London. He has writtenwidely on a number of Roman authors and literary issues, focused mainly on theperiod of the early Principate.Llewelyn Morgan is Fellow and Tutor in Classics at Brasenose College, Oxford, andLecturer in Classical Languages and Literature in the University of Oxford. He is theauthor of Patterns of Redemption in Virgil’s Georgics (Cambridge, 1999) and of anumber of articles on Roman literature.Costas Panayotakis is Senior Lecturer in Classics at the University of Glasgow. He isthe author of Theatrum Arbitri: Theatrical Elements in the Satyrica of Petronius (Brill,1995), and of annotated translations into Modern Greek of Publilius Syrus, and ofselected plays of Plautus, and Terence. He is preparing an edition of the fragments ofthe Roman mimographers.J. G. F. Powell is Professor of Latin at Royal Holloway, University of London. Hehas published editions of Cicero’s Cato/De Senectute and Laelius/De Amicitia, hasedited Cicero the Philosopher (Oxford, 1997) and Cicero the Advocate (Oxford,forthcoming), and is completing a new edition of Cicero De Re Republica and DeLegibus for the Oxford Classical Texts series.Yasmin Syed has been Assistant Professor of Classics at Stanford University andVisiting Assistant Professor of Classics at the University of California, Berkeley. Sheis the author of Vergil’s Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in LiteraryDiscourse (Ann Arbor, 2004).Susan Treggiari is Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor Emeritus in the School ofHumanities, Stanford University. Her publications include Roman Freedmen duringthe Late Republic (Oxford, 1969, 2000), Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from theTime of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian (Oxford, 1991) and Roman Social History(London, 2002).

Harrison / Companion to Latin Literature Final 1.10.2004 3:19am page xvNotes on ContributorsxvLindsay C. Watson is a Senior Lecturer in Classics at the University of Sydney. He isthe author of Arae: the Curse Poetry of Antiquity (Leeds, 1991), A Commentary onHorace’s Epodes (Oxford, 2003) and, with P. Watson, Martial: Select Epigrams(Cambridge, 2003). He continues to view himself as an active researcher despite agovernmental and university diktat that those whose research is not externally fundedcannot be so regarded.

Harrison / Companion to Latin LiteratureFinal 1.10.2004 3:19ampage xviPrefaceI would like to thank all the contributors most warmly for participating in thisproject and for their tolerance of editorial foibles. Thanks go too to Al Bertrand atBlackwell for commissioning this volume and guiding it to completion, to hiscolleague A

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