A COMPANION REPUBLIC

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A COMPANIONTO GREEKDEMOCRACY ANDTHE ROMANREPUBLIC

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLDThis series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the mostimportant themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises approximately twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individualscholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an internationalaudience of scholars, students, and general readers.ANCIENT HISTORYA Companion to the Roman ArmyEdited by Paul ErdkampA Companion to the Roman RepublicEdited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-MarxA Companion to the Roman EmpireEdited by David S. PotterA Companion to the Classical Greek WorldEdited by Konrad H. KinzlA Companion to the Ancient Near EastEdited by Daniel C. SnellA Companion to the Hellenistic WorldEdited by Andrew ErskineA Companion to Late AntiquityEdited by Philip RousseauA Companion to Ancient HistoryEdited by Andrew ErskineA Companion to Archaic GreeceEdited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van WeesA Companion to Julius CaesarEdited by Miriam GriffinA Companion to ByzantiumEdited by Liz JamesA Companion to Ancient EgyptEdited by Alan B. LloydA Companion to Ancient MacedoniaEdited by Joseph Roisman and Ian WorthingtonA Companion to the Punic WarsEdited by Dexter HoyosA Companion to AugustineEdited by Mark VesseyA Companion to Marcus AureliusEdited by Marcel van AckerenA Companion to Ancient Greek GovernmentEdited by Hans BeckA Companion to the Neronian AgeEdited by Emma Buckley and Martin T. DinterA Companion to Greek Democracy and the RomanRepublicEdited by Dean HammerA Companion to Ancient EpicEdited by John Miles FoleyA Companion to Greek TragedyEdited by Justina GregoryA Companion to Latin LiteratureEdited by Stephen HarrisonA Companion to Greek and Roman Political ThoughtEdited by Ryan K. BalotA Companion to OvidEdited by Peter E. KnoxA Companion to the Ancient Greek LanguageEdited by Egbert BakkerA Companion to Hellenistic LiteratureEdited by Martine Cuypers and James J. ClaussA Companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its TraditionEdited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. PutnamA Companion to HoraceEdited by Gregson DavisA Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman WorldsEdited by Beryl RawsonA Companion to Greek MythologyEdited by Ken Dowden and Niall LivingstoneA Companion to the Latin LanguageEdited by James ClacksonA Companion to TacitusEdited by Victoria Emma PagánA Companion to Women in the Ancient WorldEdited by Sharon L. James and Sheila DillonA Companion to SophoclesEdited by Kirk OrmandA Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near EastEdited by Daniel PottsA Companion to Roman Love ElegyEdited by Barbara K. GoldA Companion to Greek ArtEdited by Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris PlantzosA Companion to Persius and JuvenalEdited by Susanna Braund and Josiah OsgoodA Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman RepublicEdited by Jane DeRose EvansA Companion to LivyEdited by Bernard MineoA Companion to TerenceEdited by Antony Augoustakis and Ariana TraillLITERATURE AND CULTUREA Companion to Roman ArchitectureEdited by Roger B. Ulrich and Caroline K. QuenemoenA Companion to Classical ReceptionsEdited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher StrayA Companion to Greek and Roman HistoriographyEdited by John MarincolaA Companion to Sport and Spectacle in Greek and RomanAntiquityEdited by Paul Christesen and Donald G. KyleA Companion to CatullusEdited by Marilyn B. SkinnerA Companion to PlutarchEdited by Mark BeckA Companion to Roman ReligionEdited by Jörg RüpkeA Companion to Greek and Roman SexualitiesEdited by Thomas K. HubbardA Companion to Greek ReligionEdited by Daniel OgdenA Companion to the Ancient NovelEdited by Edmund P. Cueva and Shannon N. ByrneA Companion to the Classical TraditionEdited by Craig W. KallendorfA Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient MediterraneanEdited by Jeremy McInerneyA Companion to Roman RhetoricEdited by William Dominik and Jon HallA Companion to Ancient Egyptian ArtEdited by Melinda HartwigA Companion to Greek RhetoricEdited by Ian WorthingtonA Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient WorldEdited by Rubina Raja and Jörg Rüpke

A COMPANIONTO GREEKDEMOCRACY ANDTHE ROMANREPUBLICEdited byDean Hammer

This edition first published 2015 2015 John Wiley & Sons LtdRegistered OfficeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKEditorial Offices350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UKThe Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKFor details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply forpermission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website atwww.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.The right of Dean Hammer to be identified as the author of the editorial material in this work has beenasserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except aspermitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may notbe available in electronic books.Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brandnames and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registeredtrademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentionedin this book.Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts inpreparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completenessof the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for aparticular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professionalservices and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professionaladvice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataA companion to Greek democracy and the Roman republic / edited by Dean Hammer.pages cmIncludes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-4443-3601-6 (cloth)1. Greece—Politics and government—To 146 B.C. 2. Rome—Politics and government—265-30 B.C. 3.Greece—Economic conditions—To 146 B.C. 4. Rome—Economic conditions—510-30 B.C. I. Hammer,Dean, 1959–JC73.C673 2015320.938— dc232014012679A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.Cover image: Cesare Maccari, Cicero Denounces Catiline (detail of fresco), 1880. Palazzo Madama, Rome. akg-images / Album / OronozTypeset in 10/12.5pt GalliardStd by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India12015

ContentsNotes on ContributorsAbbreviations1ixxiiiIntroductionDean Hammer1Reading the Past (On Comparison)David Konstan8PART IThe Emergence of Participatory Communities212Why Greek Democracy? Its Emergence and Nature in ContextKurt A. Raaflaub233Why Roman Republicanism? Its Emergence and Nature in ContextMichael P. Fronda44PART IIConstructing a Past654Autochthony and Identity in Greek MythKathryn A. Morgan675Agriculture and Identity in Roman MythMary Jaeger83PART III6Dēmokratia and Res PublicaLiberty, Equality, and Authority: A Political Discourse in GreekParticipatory CommunitiesVincent Farenga99101

Contentsvi7Liberty, Equality, and Authority: A Political Discourse in the LaterRoman RepublicMalcolm SchofieldPART IV89Institutions113129The Congruence of Power: Ruling and Being Ruled in GreekParticipatory CommunitiesP.J. Rhodes131The Incongruence of Power: The Roman Constitution in Theoryand PracticeHenrik Mouritsen146PART VLaw16510 Tyranny or the Rule of Law? Democratic Participation in LegalInstitutions in AthensDavid Cohen16711 The Evolution of Law and Legal Procedures in the RomanParticipatory ContextCallie Williamson179PART VISocial Values19312 Informal Norms, Values, and Social Control in Greek ParticipatoryCommunitiesNick Fisher19513 Informal Norms, Values, and Social Control in the RomanParticipatory ContextValentina Arena217PART VII Power Relations and Political Groups23914 The Practice of Politics in Classical Athens, and the Paradox ofDemocratic LeadershipRobert W. Wallace24115 The Practice of Politics and the Unpredictable Dynamics of Clout in theRoman RepublicW. Jeffrey Tatum257

ContentsPART VIII Rhetoricvii27516 Persuading the People in Greek Participatory CommunitiesJoseph Roisman27717 Persuading the People in the Roman Participatory ContextRobert Morstein-Marx294PART IXGlobal Contexts31118 Interstate Relations, Colonization, and Empire among GreekParticipatory CommunitiesSarah Bolmarcich31319 Interstate Relations, Federal States, Colonization, and Empire duringthe Roman RepublicCraige B. Champion329PART XEconomic Life34720 Production, Trade, and Consumption in Greek DemocracyDavid W. Tandy34921 Production, Trade, and Consumption in the Roman RepublicLuuk de Ligt368PART XIDiscourses of Inclusion and Exclusion38722 Women and Slaves in Greek DemocracyRyan K. Balot and Larissa M. Atkison38923 Women and Slaves in the Roman RepublicRoberta Stewart405PART XII Entertainment42924 Tragedy and Comedy in Greek Participatory CommunitiesKeith Sidwell43125 Tragedy and Comedy in the Roman Participatory ContextShawn O’Bryhim446PART XIII Visual Culture26 Art, Architecture, and Spaces in Greek Participatory CommunitiesTonio Hölscher459461

viiiContents27 Art, Architecture, and Space in the Roman Participatory ContextEllen PerryPART XIV Conclusion48250128 Thinking Comparatively about Participatory CommunitiesDean Hammer503Index521

Notes on ContributorsValentina Arena is Lecturer in RomanHistory at University College London.Her work focuses mainly on the history ofideas and political thought, its relationshipwith the practice of politics and the study ofRoman oratory and rhetorical techniques.She is the author of Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the late Roman Republic(2012). Her essays have appeared in awide range of scholarly journals and editedvolumes.Larissa M. Atkison is a PhD candidate at the University of Toronto and iscurrently finishing work on her dissertation, entitled “Tragic Rhetoric: Sophoclesand the Politics of Good Sense.” During the 2013–2014 academic year, shewill hold the Classics and ContemporaryPerspectives Post-Doctoral Fellowship atthe University of South Carolina. Atkisonhas contributed an entry on Sophocles tothe forthcoming Blackwell Encyclopedia ofPolitical Thought. She specializes in classical political thought, rhetoric, and contemporary democratic theory.Ryan K. Balot is Professor of Political Science and Classics at the University of Toronto. The author of Greed andInjustice in Classical Athens (2001), GreekPolitical Thought (2006), and Courage inthe Democratic Polis: Ideology and Critique in Classical Athens (2014), and editor of A Companion to Greek and RomanPolitical Thought (2009), Balot specializesin American, early modern, and classicalpolitical thought.Sarah Bolmarcich, after a year spent inGreece studying on a Fulbright, receivedher PhD in Classics from the Universityof Virginia with a dissertation on Greekinterstate diplomacy in the archaic andclassical periods. She has taught at theuniversities of Michigan, Minnesota, andTexas (Austin), and currently teaches at theArizona State University.Craige B. Champion teaches ancient history at Syracuse University. He is theauthor of Cultural Politics in Polybius’sHistories (2004), editor of Roman Imperialism: Readings and Sources (2004), one ofthe general editors of the Wiley BlackwellEncyclopedia of Ancient History (2013),and co-editor of the forthcoming Landmark Edition of the Histories of Polybius. Heis currently completing a book tentativelytitled Pax Deorum: Elite Religious Practicesin the Middle Roman Republic.

xNotes on ContributorsDavid Cohen is Emeritus Professor ofRhetoric and Classics at University ofCalifornia, Berkeley and currently thedirector of the WSD HANDA Centerfor Human Rights and International Justice at Stanford and Professor of Lawat the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Hehas authored Indifference and Accountability: The United Nations and the Politics of International Justice in East Timor(2006), The Legacy of the Serious CrimesTrials in East Timor (2006), Law, Violence, and Community in Classical Athens(1995), Law, Society, and Sexuality: TheEnforcement of Morals at Classical Athens(1991), and The Athenian Law of Theft(1983).Luuk de Ligt is Professor of Ancient History at Leiden University. He is the authorof Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire(1993) and of Peasants, Citizens and Soldiers: Studies in the Demographic History ofRoman Italy 225 BC–AD 100 (2012), andco-editor (with Simon Northwood) of People, Land, and Politics. Demographic Developments and the Transformation of RomanItaly, 300 BC–AD 14 (2008). He has published extensively on Roman economic history, the history of Roman associations,and Roman demography.Vincent Farenga is Professor of Classicsand Comparative Literature at the University of Southern California. He is theauthor of Citizen and Self in AncientGreece: Individuals Performing Justice andthe Law (2006). He has published a number of articles on expressions of individualism in Greek literature and politicalhistory (especially on Greek tyranny), andhe is currently completing a study of literature and justice within a global context in contemporary authors and politicalphilosophers.Nick Fisher is Professor Emeritus ofAncient History at Cardiff University.He has published widely on the political,social, and cultural history of ancientGreece. He has published Aeschines,Against Timarchos (2001), Slavery in Classical Greece (1993), HYBRIS. A Study inthe Values of Honour and Shame in AncientGreece (1992), a sourcebook on Social Values in Classical Athens (1976), and manyarticles and co-edited volumes.Michael P. Fronda is Associate Professorin the Department of History and ClassicalStudies at McGill University. His researchfocuses on domestic and interstate politics in Roman and pre-Roman Italy. Heis author of Between Rome and Carthage:Southern Italy in the Second Punic War(2010) as well as articles on the HannibalicWar, Roman political culture, foreign policy and imperialism, Roman–Italian relations, and the Italiote League.Dean Hammer is the John W. Wetzel Professor of Classics and Professor of Government at Franklin and Marshall College(USA). He has authored The Puritan Tradition in Revolutionary, Federalist, andWhig Political Theory (1998), The Iliadas Politics: The Performance of PoliticalThought (2002), Roman Political Thoughtand the Modern Theoretical Imagination(2008), and Roman Political Thought:From Cicero to Augustine (2015), as well asnumerous articles on Greek, Roman, andmodern political thought.Tonio Hölscher, born in 1940, is Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeologyat the University of Heidelberg, Germany.He was Meyer Shapiro Visiting Professorat Columbia University in New York, Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studyat Berlin, Jerome Lecturer at the University of Michigan and the AmericanAcademy in Rome, Research Professor atthe German Archaeological Institute inRome, Sather Guest Professor at the University of Berkeley and Visiting Professorat the University of California Berkeley,and Princeton. His main interests are art,

Notes on Contributorspolicy, and society in ancient Greece andRome, Greek and Roman urbanism, andtheories of art.Mary Jaeger is Professor of Classics atthe University of Oregon, where she hastaught since 1990. She is the author ofLivy’s Written Rome (1997), Archimedesand the Roman Imagination (2008), andA Livy Reader (2011).David Konstan is Professor of Classics atNew York University and Professor Emeritus of Classics and Comparative Literatureat Brown University. Among his books areSexual Symmetry: Love in the Ancient Noveland Related Genres (1994), Greek Comedy and Ideology (1995), Friendship in theClassical World (1997), Pity Transformed(2001), The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks:Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature(2006), “A Life Worthy of the Gods”: TheMaterialist Psychology of Epicurus (2008),Terms for Eternity: Aiônios and aïdios inClassical and Christian Texts (with IlariaRamelli, 2007), Before Forgiveness: The Origins of a Moral Idea (2010), and Beauty:The Fortunes of an Ancient Greek Idea.Kathryn A. Morgan is Professor of Classics at UCLA, where she has taught since1996. She is the author of Myth andPhilosophy from the Presocratics to Plato(2000), and editor of Popular Tyranny:Sovereignty and its Discontents in AncientGreece (Austin, 2003). Her most recentbook is Pindar and the Construction ofSyracusan Monarchy in the Fifth CenturyBC (forthcoming).Robert Morstein-Marx is Professor ofClassics at the University of California,Santa Barbara. He is the author of twobooks, Hegemony to Empire: The Development of the Roman Imperium in theEast from 148 to 62 B.C. (1995), andMass Oratory and Political Power in theLate Roman Republic (2004). He is alsoxico-editor (with N. Rosenstein) of A Companion to the Roman Republic (2006). Hiscurrent research focuses on political cultureand communication in the late RomanRepublic.Henrik Mouritsen is Professor of RomanHistory at King’s College London. Hehas published widely on Roman politicaland social history, Roman Italy and Latinepigraphy. His books include Elections,Magistrates and Municipal Elite (1988),Italian Unification (1998), Plebs and Politics (2001), and The Freedman in theRoman World (2011).Shawn O’Bryhim is Professor of Classicsat Franklin & Marshall College. He editedand contributed to Greek and RomanComedy (2001) and has written several articles on Plautus, Catullus, Ovid, and ancientMediterranean religions.Ellen Perry is Associate Professor in theDepartment of Classics at the Collegeof the Holy in Worcester, Massachusetts.She has published articles on Roman sarcophagi, the aesthetics of ancient painting,the history of plaster cast collections, andthe Roman imitation of Greek art. Herbook The Aesthetics of Emulation in theVisual Arts of Ancient Rome appeared in2005, and she is currently writing a bookabout the Capitoline Temple.Kurt A. Raaflaub is Professor Emeritusof Classics and History at Brown University. His research has focused on thesocial, political, and intellectual history ofarchaic and classical Greece and of theRoman Republic, and the comparative history of the ancient world. His recentbooks include The Discovery of Freedomin Ancient Greece (2004), War and Peacein the Ancient World (edited, 2007), andOrigins of Democracy in Ancient Greece(co-authored, 2007).P.J. Rhodes was Professor of Ancient History and is now Honorary Professor at the

xiiNotes on ContributorsUniversity of Durham (UK), and is particularly interested in Greek politics andpolitical institutions. His books include TheAthenian Boule (1972), A Commentary onthe Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (1981),and The Decrees of the Greek States (withD.M. Lewis, 1997).Joseph Roisman is a Professor of Classics at Colby College, USA. Amonghis rhetoric-related publications are TheRhetoric of Manhood: Masculinity According to the Attic Orators (2005), TheRhetoric of Conspiracy in Ancient Athens(2006), and Pseudo-Plutarch and Photiuson the Lives of the Ten Orators (withI. Worthington, forthcoming).Malcolm Schofield is Emeritus Professorof Ancient Philosophy, University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of St. John’s College.He

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