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The Cambridge Companion to OvidOvid was one of the greatest writers of classical antiquity, and arguably thesingle most influential ancient poet for post-classical literature and culture. Inthis Cambridge Companion chapters by leading authorities from Europe andNorth America discuss the backgrounds and contexts for Ovid, the individualworks, and his influence on later literature and art. Coverage of essential information is combined with exciting new critical approaches. This Companionis designed both as an accessible handbook for the general reader who wishesto learn about Ovid, and as a series of stimulating essays for students of Latinpoetry and of the classical tradition.Cambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

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THE CAMBRIDGECOMPANION TOOVIDEDITED BYPHILIP HARDIEUniversity Reader in Latin Literaturein the University of Cambridge,and Fellow of New HallCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridgeThe Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdomcambridge university pressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru, UK40 West 20th Street, New York, ny 10011-4211, USA477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, vic 3207, AustraliaRuiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, SpainDock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa CCambridge University Press 2002This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2002Reprinted 2003Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, CambridgeTypeface Sabon 10/13 pt.System LATEX 2ε [TB]A catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication dataThe Cambridge companion to Ovid / edited by Philip Hardie.p. cm. (Cambridge companions to literature)Includes bibliographical references and index.isbn 0 521 77281 8 (hardback) isbn 0 521 77528 0 (paperback)1. Ovid, 43 bc–17 or 18 ad – Criticism and interpretation – Handbooks, manuals, etc.2. Epistolary poetry, Latin – History and criticism – Handbooks, manuals, etc.3. Didactic poetry, Latin – History and criticism – Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Lovepoetry, Latin – History and criticism – Handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. Mythology,Classical, in literature – Handbooks, manuals, etc. i. Title: Companion to Ovid.ii. Hardie, Philip R. iii. Series.pa6537 .c28 20022001037923871 .01–dc21isbn 0 521 77281 8 hardbackisbn 0 521 77528 0 paperbackCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

CONTENTSList of illustrationsList of contributorsPrefaceIntroductionphilip hardiepage xxiixvi1Part 1: Contexts and history1 Ovid and ancient literary historyrichard tarrant132 Ovid and early imperial literaturephilip hardie343 Ovid and empirethomas habinek464 Ovid and the professional discourses of scholarship,religion, rhetoricalessandro schiesaro62Part 2: Themes and works5 Ovid and genre: evolutions of an elegiststephen harrison796 Gender and sexualityalison sharrock95viiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Contents7 Myth in Ovidfritz graf8 Landscape with figures: aesthetics of place in theMetamorphoses and its traditionstephen hinds9 Ovid and the discourses of love: the amatory worksalison sharrock10812215010 Metamorphosis in the Metamorphosesandrew feldherr16311180Narrative technique and narratology in the Metamorphosesalessandro barchiesi12 Mandati memores: political and poetic authorityin the Fasticarole newlands20013 Epistolarity: the Heroidesduncan f. kennedy21714 Ovid’s exile poetry: Tristia, Epistulae ex Ponto and Ibisgareth williams233Part 3: Reception15 Ovid in English translationraphael lyne24916264Ovid in the Middle Ages: authority and poetryjeremy dimmick17 Love and exile after Ovidraphael lyne28818 Re-embodying Ovid: Renaissance afterlivescolin burrow301viiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Contents19 Recent receptions of Ovidduncan f. kennedy32020 Ovid and artchristopher allen336DatelineWorks citedIndex368371399ixCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

ILLUSTRATIONS1. Titian, Diana and Actaeon.Duke of Sutherland Collection, on loan to the NationalGallery of 1432. Titian, Diana and CallistoDuke of Sutherland Collection, on loan to the NationalGallery of Scotland.1443. Pollaiuolo, Apollo and Daphne. C National Gallery, London.3424. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Apollo and Daphne.Rome, Villa Borghese. Photo Alinari.3445. Nicolas Poussin, Acis and Galatea.Reproduction courtesy of the National Galleryof Ireland.3456. Titian, Diana and Actaeon. C National Gallery, London.3467. Aurora and Tithonus, plate for M. de Marolles,Tableaux du temple des muses (1655).By permission of the Syndics of Cambridge UniversityLibrary.3488. George Frederick Watts, The Minotaur.Tate, London 2000.3499. Peter Paul Rubens, Lycaon changed into a wolf.Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Rochefort.350xCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Illustrations10. Plate for Book iii of George Sandys (ed.), Ovid’sMetamorphoses Englished, Mythologiz’d andRepresented in Figures.By permission of the Syndics of CambridgeUniversity Library.11.Nicolas Poussin, Polyphemus, Acis and Galatea. Drawingmade for Marino.C 2000, Her MajestyWindsor, The Royal Collection Queen Elizabeth II.35235312. Botticelli, Pallas and the Centaur.Florence, Uffizi. Photo Alinari.35613. Marcantonio Raimondi, engraving of The Judgementof Paris after Raphael. C Copyright The British Museum.35714. Annibale Carracci, Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.Rome, Farnese Gallery. Photo Alinari.35915. Nicolas Poussin, Orpheus in Hades. Drawing madefor Marino.C 2000, Her MajestyWindsor, The Royal Collection Queen Elizabeth II.36116. Nicolas Poussin, Orpheus and Eurydice.C Photo RMN – Arnaudet.Paris, Louvre. 36217. Nicolas Poussin, The infant Bacchus entrusted to thenymphs of Nysa; the death of Echo and Narcissus.Courtesy of the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard UniversityArt Museums, Gift of Mrs. Samuel Sachs in memoryof her husband, Samuel Sachs. Photo: Rick Stafford; C President and Fellows of Harvard College,Harvard University.36318. Nicolas Poussin, Numa Pompilius and the nymph Egeria.C Photo RMN – Harry Bréjat.Chantilly, Musée Condé. 364xiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

CONTRIBUTORSchristopher allen is an art historian and writer who lives in Sydneyand teaches at the National Art School. He held two postdoctoral appointments at the Collège de France between 1994 and 1996, and hasrecently finished writing a volume on French Seventeenth-Century Paintingfor Thames and Hudson (World of Art). He is also the author, in thesame series, of Art in Australia: From Colonization to Postmodernism. Heis currently co-editing an edition with commentary of Charles-AlphonseDufresnoy’s Latin didactic poem on the art of painting, De arte graphica(1668).alessandro barchiesi is Professor of Latin at the University of Sienaat Arezzo. His research focuses in particular on Augustan poetry and onthe interaction between classics and contemporary criticism and theory.He has published a commentary on Ovid’s Heroides 1–3 (1992), a bookon Virgil and papers on Horace and Petronius. His recent books includeThe Poet and the Prince (1997) and Speaking Volumes (2001), and he hasco-edited Ovidian Transformations (1999) and Iambic Ideas (2001). He isthe general editor of a complete commentary on Ovid’s Metamorphosesto be published by the Fondazione Valla. He has been a Nellie WallaceLecturer in Oxford (1998), a Gray Lecturer in Cambridge (2001) andis currently working on his 2002 Jerome Lectures for the University ofMichigan and the American Academy in Rome.colin burrow is a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of English at the University of Cambridge, and a Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College.He has published extensively on relations between classical and Europeanliteratures in the Renaissance. His publications include Epic Romance:Homer to Milton (1993), Edmund Spenser (1996), and The CompleteSonnets and Poems for the Oxford Shakespeare (2002).xiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Contributorsjeremy dimmick is a College Lecturer in English at St Catherine’s College,Oxford, having previously been a Junior Research Fellow of Gonvilleand Caius College, Cambridge. He works on Gower and Lydgate, andis writing a book on Ovid in the Middle Ages.andrew feldherr is Assistant Professor of Classics at Princeton University. He has published Spectacle and Society in Livy’s History (1998)and articles on Virgil, Ovid and Catullus. He is currently working ona book-length study of the Metamorphoses, focusing specifically on therelationship between politics and narratology in the poem.fritz graf is the Andrew Fleming West Professor in the Department ofClassics at Princeton University, having previously held the chair of LatinPhilology and Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean at the University ofBasel. His publications include Nordionische Kulte (1985), GreekMythology (1985; English translation 1993), Magic in the Ancient World(1997) and Der Lauf des rollenden Jahres. Zeit und Kalender in Rom(1997). He is currently working on a study of Greek and Roman festivalsin the eastern half of the Roman empire, also the topic of his 2000 GrayLectures at the University of Cambridge.thomas habinek is Professor of Classics at the University of SouthernCalifornia. He is the author of The Politics of Latin Literature (1998) andco-editor of The Roman Cultural Revolution (1997). His research considers the social and political dimensions of classical Latin poetry and prose.philip hardie is Reader in Latin Literature at the University of Cambridge,and a Fellow of New Hall. He is the author of Virgil’s Aeneid: Cosmosand Imperium (1986), The Epic Successors of Virgil (1993), an edition ofVirgil’s Aeneid Book ix in the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series(1994) and Ovid’s Poetics of Illusion (2002), and co-editor of OvidianTransformations (1999). He is currently contributing to the complete commentary on Ovid’s Metamorphoses to be published by the FondazioneValla. He is a General Editor of the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classicsseries and a Fellow of the British Academy.stephen harrison is Fellow and Tutor in Classics at Corpus ChristiCollege, Oxford, and Reader in Classical Languages and Literature at theUniversity of Oxford. He is the author of a commentary on Virgil’s Aeneid10 (1991) and of Apuleius: A Latin Sophist (2000), and is completing abook on genre in Augustan poetry.xiiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Contributorsstephen hinds is Professor and Chair of Classics at the Universityof Washington, Seattle. He is the author of The Metamorphosis ofPersephone: Ovid and the Self-Conscious Muse (1987) and Allusion andIntertext: Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry (1998), and coeditor of Ovidian Transformations (1999). He is also co-editor (with DenisFeeney) of the Roman Literature and its Contexts series published byCambridge University Press. He is currently preparing a commentary onOvid’s Tristia Book i for the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series.duncan f. kennedy is Reader in Latin Literature and the Theory ofCriticism at the University of Bristol. He is the author of The Arts ofLove: Five Studies in the Discourse of Roman Love Elegy (1993) andRethinking Reality: Lucretius and the Textualization of Nature (2001).raphael lyne is a Newton Trust Lecturer at the University of Cambridge,and a Fellow of New Hall. He is the author of Ovid’s Changing Worlds:English Metamorphoses 1567–1632 (2001) and of articles on Renaissanceliterature and classical imitation.carole newlands is Professor and Chair of Classics at the University ofWisconsin, Madison. She has published Playing with Time: Ovid and theFasti (1995) and Statius’ Silvae and the Poetics of Empire (2002) and hasgeneral research interests in Roman studies and imperial and late Antiquepoetry.alessandro schiesaro has taught at the University of Wisconsin,Madison and Princeton University and is currently Professor of Latin atKing’s College, London. He has written on didactic poetry, and is theauthor of Simulacrum et imago: gli argomenti analogici nel De rerumnatura (1990); he has also published on Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Apuleiusand Leopardi. He has co-edited Mega Nepios (1993) and The RomanCultural Revolution (1997), and has recently completed a monograph onSeneca’s Thyestes.alison sharrock is Reader in Classics at the University of Manchester.Her research interests cover a range of topics in Latin literature, aroundthe epicentre of Ovid’s amatory poetry. Previous books include Seductionand Repetition in Ovid’s Ars Amatoria II (1994) and (co-edited with HelenMorales) Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations (2000). Abook entitled Fifty Key Classical Authors (co-authored with RhiannonAsh) is forthcoming with Routledge. In preparation is a book-length revision of her 1999 W. B. Stanford Memorial Lectures entitled FabulousArtifice: Poetics and Playfulness in Roman Comedy.xivCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Contributorsrichard tarrant has taught at the University of Toronto and at HarvardUniversity, where he is currently Pope Professor of the Latin Language andLiterature and Harvard College Professor. He has published commentarieson Seneca’s Agamemnon (1976) and Thyestes (1985), and is one of theco-authors of Texts and Transmissions: A Guide to the Latin Classics(1983). He has recently completed an Oxford Classical Text of Ovid’sMetamorphoses, and his next project is a commentary on Virgil’s AeneidBook xii for the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series. He is a GeneralEditor of the Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries series.gareth williams is Associate Professor of Classics at Columbia University. He has published Banished Voices: Readings in Ovid’s Exile Poetry(1994) and is currently producing an edition of selected dialogues of Senecafor the Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics series.xvCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

PREFACEOvid is arguably the single most important author from classical antiquity forthe post-classical western tradition. This Companion aims to locate Ovid’sdazzling œuvre within the history of ancient Roman culture and literature,and also to illustrate some of the many ways in which

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