Electric Vehicle ChargingMicro-Climate Planfor the Greater Houston AreaDisclaimersElectric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areai
DisclaimersThis document establishes the foundation for the initial deployment of Electric Vehicle Supplyequipment (EVSE) in the greater Houston area. Neither The City of Houston, nor any of its affiliates:(a) represents, guarantees, or warrants to any third party, either expressly or by implication: (i)the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of; (ii) the intellectual or other property rights of anyperson or party in; or (iii) the merchantability, safety, or fitness for purpose of; any information,product, or process disclosed, described, or recommended in this document,(b) assumes any liability of any kind arising in any way out of the use by a third party of anyinformation, product, or process disclosed, described, or recommended in this document, or anyliability arising out of reliance by a third party upon any information, statements, orrecommendations contained in this document.Should third parties use or rely on any information, product, or process disclosed, described, orrecommended in this document, they do so entirely at their own risk.This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Clinton Foundation. Neither the Cityof Houston, Clinton Foundation nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes anywarranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or representsthat its use would not infringe privately-owned rights.Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement orrecommendation by the City of Houston. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do notnecessarily state or reflect those of the City of HoustonNo part of the contents of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans without the express written permission of The City of Houston.Microsoft and MapPoint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.EV Microclimate is a trademark of Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation.SAE J1772 is a trademark of SAE International .Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areaii
AcknowledgmentsThe City of Houston and the Clinton Foundation would like to thank the followingorganizations for their participation and contribution to this Greater HoustonArea Long Range Plan:.Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areaiii
Table of ContentsExecutive Summary . 112Introduction . 41.1Deployment Guidelines.51.2Long Range Plan .51.3EV Micro-Climate Plan .5Electric Vehicles and EV Charging Station Background . 72.1Electric Vehicle Types.72.2EV Batteries .72.3Electric Vehicle Charging Stations .72.4Level 1 and Level 2 Charging .82.5Fast Charging.92.6Charging Station Locations . 102.6.1Residential . 102.6.2Fleet. 122.6.3Commercial EVSE . 122.6.4Public EVSE . 132.6.5Employer . 132.6.6EVSE Requirements . 153Two-Year Planning Horizon: the EV Micro-Climate Plan . 163.1Process Overview . 173.2Density and Distribution Mapping for EVSE . 173.2.1Employment Data . 183.2.2Travel Patterns . 193.2.3Nissan Registrants Compared to Population Distribution . 203.2.4Stakeholder Input for Locating EVSE . 204EV Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Area. 214.1Houston Venues . 214.2Public Input. 224.3Methodology. 224.3.1Level 2 Locations - EVSE Commercial and Public . 224.3.2DC Fast Charging . 234.3.3Level 2 - EVSE Optimization Model 1 . 234.3.4Category 1: Around homes with PEVs . 234.3.5Category 2: Between PEV home and work, around work and along route . 24Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areaiv
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168Category 3: Regional Attractions . 24Level 2 - EVSE and/or DC Fast Charger Location Optimization (Sample) Model 2. 25National Accounts . 26ECOtality EV Project EVSE located on Public Property . 265DC Fast Charge Plan . 276Results – Quarter Mile Radius Maps . 296.17Level 2 EVSE Densities. 29Summary & Conclusions . 33Federal Policies . 34State and Local EV/EVSE Initiatives. 35State Initiatives . 35Local Initiatives . 36Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areav
Table of FiguresFigure 2-1 J1772 Connector . 8Figure 2-2 J1772 Inlet (right side) . 8Figure 2-3 Blink DC Fast Charge Station. 9Figure 2-4 Preferences for Home Charging Duration . 11Figure 3-1 Houston Metro Area Long-Range EV Plan Area (based on ZIP codes) . 16Figure 6-1 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Density - Downtown . 29Figure 6-2 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Location Density - North . 30Figure 6-3 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Location Density - Central . 30Figure 6-4 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Location Density – South . 30Figure 6-5 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Location Density – Southeast 31Figure 6-6 Greater Houston Area Level 2 Location Density – Southwest .31Figure 6-7 Greater Houston Area L2 Density - High, Medium and Low Traffic Flows 32Figure 6-8 Greater Houston Area L2 Density – Bachelor’s Degree and above .32Table of TablesTable 2-1: EV Charge Times. 9Table 2-2: Miles Achieved per Charge Time . 10Table 4-1 Houston Venues for EVSE Deployment. 21Table 5-1 DC Fast Charger Projections for Greater Houston Area . 27Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areavi
AcronymsBEVBattery Electric Vehicle—Vehicle powered 100% by the battery energy storage systemavailable on-board the vehicle.CCIDCharge Current Interrupting Device—a device within EVSE to shut off the electricity supply ifit senses a potential problem that could result in electrical shock to the user.EVElectric VehicleEREVExtended Range Electric Vehicle—see PHEVEVSEElectric Vehicle Supply Equipment—Equipment that provides for the transfer of energybetween electric utility power and the electric vehicle.ICEInternal Combustion EnginekWKilowatts—A measurement of electric power. Used to denote the power an electrical circuitcan deliver to a battery.kWhKilowatt Hours—A measurement of total electrical energy used over time. Used to denotethe capacity of an EV battery.NECNational Electric Code—Part of the National Fire Code series established by the National FireProtection Association (NFPA) as NFPA 70. The NEC codifies the requirements for safeelectrical installations into a single, standardized source.NEMANational Electrical Mfg. Association—Group that develops standards for electrical products.PHEVPlug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle—Vehicles utilizing a battery and an internal combustionengine (ICE) powered by gasoline, diesel, or other liquid or gaseous fuels.REEVRange Extended Electric Vehicle—see PHEVRTPReal Time Pricing—a concept for future use whereby utility pricing is provided to assist acustomer in selecting the lowest cost charge.SAESociety of Automotive Engineers—standards development organization forthe engineering of powered vehicles.TOUTime of Use—an incentive-based electrical rate established by an electric utility thatBases price of electricity on the time of day.V2GVehicle to Grid—a concept of using battery storage on electric vehicles to supply power tothe electrical grid.VACVoltage Alternating Current often referred to simply as AC.Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Areavii
Executive SummaryThe Electric Vehicle Charging EV Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Area (Micro-Climate Plan)considers the first few years of the Electric Vehicle Charging Long Range Plan (Long Range Plan), alongwith available local resources to develop a specific location driven approach to the EV infrastructure. Ittakes projections from the Long Range Plan to predict the EV penetration and EVSE needs to supportthat penetration in the very near future. The objective of this Micro-Climate Plan is to narrow in tospecific geographic locations for the placement of publicly available Level 2 and DC Fast Charge EVSEinfrastructure.This process defines the roles of each stakeholder, establishes interfaces to coordinate their activities,defines value chains for each type of charge infrastructure (residential, commercial, workplace, fleet,and publicly available), documents plans for realizing the value associated with each value chain, andscopes support programs required for successful adoption of EVs within the Micro-Climate area. ThePlan is part of the City of Houston’s EV Project Community Plan. The report, Recommended ElectricVehicle Charging EV Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines for the Greater Houston Area (Guidelines),was prepared in the early part of this planning process in 2010. The Guidelines were prepared incoordination with the City of Houston, The Clinton Foundation, ECOtality North America, and theHouston EV Project Advisory Team (Advisory Team). The Guidelines and Long Range Plan help focusstakeholders and have provided a good foundation for the Micro-Climate Plan.The City of Houston is the fourth largest city in the nation with a population of 2.1 million within ametropolitan area of 5.9 million people. The area is home to the country’s largest petrochemical andrefining complex, the country’s second-largest port, and on-road travel that exceeds 140 million vehiclemiles traveled per day. Houston is also a leader in addressing the challenges of energy efficiency and airquality, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), through initiatives such as the EmissionsReduction Plan (ERP), which set forth actions for reducing three key sources of GHG emissions: buildingsand structures, waste, and mobile sources. For mobile source emissions and fuel efficiency, the City hasrestructured its fleet management and acquired one of the largest city hybrid electric fleets in thecountry. Prior to this Micro-Climate planning process, the City became part of Project Get Ready, an EVinitiative for cities, acquired funding for EVs and EV charging infrastructure, and joined the C40 CitiesClimate Leadership Group.Just like the Long Range Plan, the Micro-Climate Plan for an EV charging infrastructure is a blueprint foran accessible, effective EV network, one that provides sufficient public charging stations for the numberof EVs that need to be served. The Micro-Climate Plan addresses two key questions:(1) What are current travel characteristics relevant to electric vehiclesand charging?(2) How will charging infrastructure be deployed and implemented?Electric vehicles have fueling requirements that are unfamiliar toconsumers. Therefore, it is important to understand how vehicles are usedday-to-day, particularly the cars and trucks that most people rely on.National data show that the average vehicle trips are less than 10 miles,Nissan LEAFand most trips are even shorter. Such distances are well within theIntroduced in Texas in Houstoncapabilities of available EVs or models that will be in the market next year(80 to 120 miles). Most households have more than two vehicles providingchoices for longer trips. However, the range of travel is an important concern that must be addressed inthe Long Range Plan. To address this concern, the Micro-Climate Plan establishes a guideline for publiccharging to be available within one-mile of every point in the 1,300 square mile urbanized area.Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Area1
Electric vehicles are already available for Houston buyers, including the Nissan (LEAF) and GeneralMotors (Volt). The Ford Focus electric and other vehicles will become available late in 2011. Thecharacteristics of various types of EVs and their charging requirements are discussed in detail includingbattery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and extended range electricvehicles (EREV).EVSE systems provide for the safe transfer of energy between the electric utility power supply and theelectric vehicle. The charging process needs to be comfortable, convenient, and reliable. With thepenetration of EVs into the automotive market, a corresponding penetration of this charging equipmentwill be required. Section 2 addresses the types of EVSE: Level 1 (110/120 v), Level 2 (220/240 v), and DCFast Charge (440v), with DC Fast Chargers providing the shortest charging time, more like that of currentgasoline refueling. Level 2 and DC Fast Chargers are the key components for the public charginginfrastructure. Level 2 is also likely to be the preferred EVSE for home charging. The acceptance of EVsby the general public requires a readily available public EVSE infrastructure as part of the overall EVowner’s charging patterns, which will likely include home and possibly workplace charging.The early market launch of EVs in the Houston area is helping to create a more informed public andenhanced public awareness of EVs. Section 3 addresses the Micro-Climate Plan, which focuses on fourmajor factors for developing publicly available charging infrastructure: geographic coverage, destinationplanning, refueling stations, and readily available infrastructure. As part of the Micro-Climate planningprocess, detailed density was produced as well as distribution mapping for the greater Houston Area.This mapping will serve as a tool to guide EVSE site selection and help determine the appropriatenumber of units at the selected sites. Three types of data were gathered: special traffic generatorsand/or points of interest identified by cities, traffic volumes (state and local), and employment locationinformation by industry type. In addition employment data, traffic patterns, and Nissan hand raiser datawere used to consider possible EVSE locations.The Long Range Plan illustrated that for most drivers, a significant number of trips are for family andpersonal reasons to a variety of destinations every day of the week. These trips can be lengthy, as well.In Section 4, our review of the number of destinations in the Houston metropolitan area (approximate30-mile radius from Houston center) reveals some of the potential EVSE locations. The destinationschosen are where EV drivers will stay for 45 minutes to three hours. Such locations will be able tosupport more than two EVSE, and demand will increase the quantity of EVSE. These destinations aresome of the ideal locations for Level 2 EVSE.The distribution and density of EVSE are affected by the location, density, and intensity of activityassociated with each destination. Multipurpose activity areas are more likely to retain users for longerperiods of time, a better fit with charging needs and duration. Looking at Land Use Projections, TravelPatterns, and Employment D
Electric Vehicle Charging Micro-Climate Plan for the Greater Houston Area vii Acronyms BEV Battery Electric Vehicle—Vehicle powered 100% by the battery energy storage system available on-board the vehicle. CCID Charge Current Interrupting Device—a device within EVSE to shut off the electricity supply if
Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace 3 Level 1 Charging at Work Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. For electric vehicles typically purchased by most employees, Level 1 charging often has sufficient power to fully restore vehicle driving range during work hours.
Charging ST Layer Layer1 EV Layer Analysis layer where charging STs determine the layout autonomously according to charging demand Analysis layer where EV traffic simulation is carried out with STs Update the layout of charging STs Mapping the charging demand (location of dead EVs and warning sign on ) Charging ST moves to charging
METHODOLOGY: VCS Version 3 v3.3 1 METHODOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING SYSTEMS . Title Methodology for Electric Vehicle Charging Systems Version 1.0 Date of Issue April 2018 Type Methodology Sectoral Scope 7. Transport 1. Energy Prepared By Climate Neutral Business Network, a project of Strategic Environmental Associates Inc, on behalf of the EV Charging Carbon Coalition
B. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Technology Vehicle Charging Components J1772 Coupler Charging Station Levels Level 1 Level 2 Fast Charging SAE Standards for Fast Charging 3. Planning A. Determining Equipment Needs Appropriate Charging Level Software Requirements B. Site Assessment Power Proximity Potential Trenching Cord Management
changing electric vehicle technology and its uncertain uptake. Better electric vehicle projections, factoring in minimum compliance with regulatory frameworks, would provide much greater certainty to plan for expanding the electric vehicle fast-charging networks. This requires analysis of future year-by-year electric vehicle penetration,
BMW Charging is our all-round carefree solution for charging your BMW. With BMW Charging products and services, you have a wide range of tailor-made offers for charging available at home and on the road. This includes the charging cable for public charging (mode 3), the Flexible Fast Charger and the BMW Charging Card as standard. Worldwide, you .
The MINI Electric includes AC for easy home and public charging and DC for rapid public charging. EASY HOME CHARGING OR CHARGING ON THE GO. CHARGING TIME.2 Soucre: ZapM- ap. * Access is included with all MINI Electric models delivered from April 2021. 1 The Homecharge unit is not included with the vehicle, but you may be eligible for a free Homech
Anatomy is largely taught in the early years of the curriculum, with 133 some curricula offering spiral learning into later years (Evans and Watt, 2005). This 134 spiral learning frequently includes anatomy relating to laparoscopic, endoscopic, and . 7 .