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The Cambridge Companion to ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge is one of the most influential, as well as one of themost enigmatic, of all Romantic figures. The possessor of a precocious talent, hedazzled contemporaries with his poetry, journalism, philosophy and oratorywithout ever quite living up to his early promise, or overcoming problemsof dependency and drug addiction. The Cambridge Companion to Coleridgedoes full justice to the many facets of Coleridge’s life, thought and writing.Specially commissioned essays focus on his major poems, including ‘The Rimeof the Ancient Mariner’ and ‘Christabel’, his Notebooks, and his major workof non-fiction, the Biographia Literaria. Attention is given to his role as talker,journalist, critic and philosopher; to his politics, his religion, and his reputationin his own times and afterwards. A chronology and guides to further readingcomplete the volume, making this an indispensable guide to Coleridge and hiswork.lucy newlyn is Fellow and Tutor in English at St Edmund Hall, Oxford.She is an authority on Coleridge and Wordsworth, and has published extensively on English Romanticism. Her publications include Coleridge, Wordsworth and the Language of Allusion (1986), ‘Paradise Lost’ and the RomanticReader (1993), and Reading, Writing and Romanticism: The Anxiety ofReception (2000), all with Oxford University Press.Cambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Cambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

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THE CAMBRIDGECOMPANION TOCOLERIDGEEDITED BYLUCY NEWLYNSt Edmund Hall, OxfordCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridgeThe Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdomcambridge university pressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru, uk40 West 20th Street, New York, ny 10011-4211, usa477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, vic 3207, AustraliaRuiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, SpainDock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa CCambridge University Press 2002This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2002Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, CambridgeTypeface Sabon 10/13 ptSystem LATEX 2ε [TB]A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Libraryisbn 0 521 65071 2 hardbackisbn 0 521 65909 4 paperbackCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

CONTENTSList of contributorsList of nlucy newlynpart 1page ixxxiiixv1texts and contexts1Coleridge’s lifekelvin everest172The ‘Conversation’ poemspaul magnuson323Slavery and superstition in the supernatural poemstim fulford454Biographia Literariajames engell595The Notebooksjosie dixon756The later poetryj. c. c. mays89part 27discursive modesThe talkerseamus perry103viiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

list of contents8The journalistdeirdre coleman9 The criticangela esterhammer12614210 Political thinkerpeter j. kitson15611 The philosopherpaul hamilton17012 Religious thinkermary anne perkins187part 3 themes and topics13 Genderjulie carlson20314 Symboljames c. m c kusick21715 Coleridge’s afterlifejohn beer231Guide to further readingIndexviiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006245262

CONTRIBUTORSjohn beer, Peterhouse, Cambridgejulie carlson, University of California, Santa Barbaradeirdre coleman, University of Sydney, Australiajosie dixon, Palgrave, Macmillanjames engell, Harvard Universityangela esterhammer, University of Western Ontariokelvin everest, University of Liverpooltim fulford, Nottingham Trent Universitypaul hamilton, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Londonpeter j. kitson, University of Wales, Bangorjames c. m c kusick, University of Maryland, Baltimore Countypaul magnuson, New York Universityj. c. c. mays, University College, Dublinlucy newlyn, St Edmund Hall, Oxfordmary anne perkins, Birkbeck College, University of Londonseamus perry, University of GlasgowixCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

ABBREVIATIONSAll quotations from Coleridge’s prose refer to The Collected Works of SamuelTaylor Coleridge, general editor Kathleen Coburn, Bollingen Series (PrincetonUniversity Press, 1971– ). Individual volumes in the series have their ownabbreviations, which are offered below. Unless it is otherwise stated, allquotations from Coleridge’s poetry refer to The Complete Poetical Worksof Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. Ernest Hartley Coleridge (2 vols., Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1975).This volume was already in press when the latest additions to the CollectedColeridge were published; I was unable, therefore, to incorporate referencesto Jim Mays’s fine edition of Coleridge’s Poems, or to bring references to theNotebooks up-to-date.ARAids to Reflection, ed. John Beer, Bollingen Series 75(Princeton University Press, 1993).BLBiographia Literaria, ed. James Engell and W. JacksonBate, Bollingen Series 75, 2 vols. (Princeton UniversityPress, 1983).Church and State On the Constitution of the Church and State, ed. JohnColmer, Bollingen Series 75 (Princeton UniversityPress, 1976).CLThe Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed.Earl Leslie Griggs, 6 vols. (Oxford University Press,1956–71).C. LectsLectures 1808–1819 On Literature, ed. R. A. Foakes,Bollingen Series 75, 2 vols. (Princeton University Press,1987).CMMarginalia, 5 parts to date, ed. George Whalley andH. J. Jackson (Princeton University Press, 1980– ).xCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

list of abbreviationsCNThe Notebooks of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. KathleenCoburn, 4 vols. to date, each in two parts(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957– ).CPWThe Complete Poetical Works of Samuel TaylorColeridge, ed. Ernest Hartley Coleridge, 2 vols. (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1975).CTColeridge the Talker: A Series of Contemporary Descriptionsand Comments, ed. R. W. Armour and R. F. Howes (Ithaca,NY: Cornell University Press, 1940).EOTEssays on his Times, ed. David V. Erdman, 3 vols. (Londonand Princeton, NJ, 1978).EYThe Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth: The EarlyYears, 1787–1805, ed. Ernest de Selincourt, 2nd edn, revisedChester Shaver (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).FriendThe Friend, ed. Barbara Rooke, 2 vols. (Princeton UniversityPress, 1969).HoweWilliam Hazlitt, Complete Works, ed. P. P. Howe, 21 vols.(London and Toronto: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1930–4).IRS. T. Coleridge: Interviews and Recollections, ed. SeamusPerry (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 2000).KLThe Letters of John Keats 1814–1821, ed. Hyder EdwardRollins, 2 vols. (Cambridge University Press, 1958).Lects. 1795 Lectures 1795 On Politics and Religion, ed. Lewis Pattonand Peter Mann, Bollingen Series 75 (Princeton UniversityPress, 1971).Misc. CColeridge’s Miscellaneous Criticism, ed. T. M. Raysor(Cambridge, MA: Constable & Co., 1936).MYThe Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth: TheMiddle Years, 1806–11, ed. Ernest de Selincourt, 2nd edn,revised Chester Shaver (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).Phil LectsThe Philosophical Lectures of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed.Owen Barfield and Kathleen Coburn (Princeton UniversityPress, 1949).PreludeWilliam Wordsworth, The Prelude: The Four Texts (1798,1799, 1805, 1850), ed. Jonathan Wordsworth(Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1995).Sh CShakespearian Criticism, ed. Thomas Middleton Raysor,2 vols. (London: J. M. Dent, 1960).SMThe Statesman’s Manual, Lay Sermons, ed. R. J. White,Bollingen Series 75 (Princeton University Press, 1993).xiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

list of abbreviationsSWFShorter Works and Fragments, 2 parts, ed. H. J.Jackson and J. R. de J. Jackson (Princeton UniversityPress, 1995).TTTable Talk Recorded by Henry Nelson Coleridge (andJohn Taylor Coleridge), ed. Carl C. Woodring, 2 vols.(Princeton University Press, 1990)VCL mss.Victoria College Library mss.WatchmanThe Watchman, ed. Lewis Patton, Bollingen Series 75(Princeton University Press, 1970).Wordsworth Prose The Prose Works of William Wordsworth, ed. W. J. B.Owen and J. W. Smyser, 3 vols. (Oxford: ClarendonPress, 1974).xiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

18001802180318041806Born at Ottery St Mary, Devonshire (21 October)At Christ’s Hospital School, LondonJesus College, CambridgeAttends the trial for treason of William Frend (May); enlists in thearmy under assumed identity (December)Returns to Cambridge; collaboration with Robert Southey;publishes The Fall of Robespierre; begins ‘Religious Musings’Political lectures at Bristol; marriage to Sara Fricker; publishesConciones ad PopulumTours the Midlands to sell his political journal, the Watchman;Publishes Poems on Various Subjects and moves to Nether Stowey;first son, Hartley, bornFinishes his play, Osorio; William and Dorothy Wordsworthbecome Coleridge’s neighbours; publishes Poems, to which arenow Added, Poems by Charles Lamb and Charles LloydFears in Solitude published; starts writing for the Morning Post;collaboration with Wordsworth and anonymous joint publicationof Lyrical Ballads; second son, Berkeley, born in May; visit toGermany (September)Death of Berkeley (April); return to England in July; meets SaraHutchinson (October); working for the Morning PostMoves to Greta Hall, Keswick, to be near the Wordsworths inGrasmere; second edition of Lyrical Ballads publishedMarriage starts to founder; publishes ‘Dejection’; birth of daughter, SaraPoems (1803); Scottish tour with the WordsworthsVisits Sicily; becomes Acting Public Secretary in MaltaReturns to Keswick; agrees to separate from his wifexiiiCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

chronology18071808Moves between London, Stowey and Bristol‘Lectures on the Principles of Poetry’ at the Royal Institution;moves to Allen Bank, Grasmere; begins to publish his weeklyjournal, the Friend1809–10 Publishes 28 numbers of the Friend1811Contributions to the Courier1811–12 Lectures on drama and Shakespeare in London1813Coleridge’s play, Remorse, is performed at Drury Lane1814Lectures in Bristol1815Dictates Biographia Literaria1816Publishes Christabel (three editions), The Statesman’s Manual1817Publishes Zapolya, Biographia Literaria and Sibylline Leaves;lectures on poetry and drama (January–March)1818Publishes The Friend (3-vol. edition); lectures on literature andphilosophy1819Meets Keats; occasional contributions to Blackwood’s1822Henry Nelson Coleridge begins recording Table Talk1823Begins Youth and Age1825Aids to Reflection published1828Poetical Works (3 vols.)1829On the Constitution of Church and State1834Death at HighgatexivCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMany thanks to Josie Dixon for inviting me to edit this book; and to theanonymous readers for Cambridge University Press who made suggestions inthe early stages. Thanks also to Linda Bree for her many helpful observations,to Leigh Mueller for her careful copy-editing, and to Neil de Cort for seeingthe book through the Press.I am very grateful to Phil Cardinale for giving up his own valuable time tocheck the typescript and the proofs. Any mistakes that remain are of coursemy own responsibility.My thanks to the Principal and Fellows of St Edmund Hall for a term’ssabbatical leave, during which the bulk of the work was completed.xvCambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

Cambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

LUCY NEWLYNIntroductionSince the early 1980s, major developments have occurred in the way BritishRomanticism is approached and understood. We now read the literatureof that period (1789–1832) with a greater consciousness of its political,economic and social contexts. The impact on British writers of the FrenchRevolution and ensuing political movements has been more thoroughlyinvestigated than ever before. New historicist criticism has taught us tounderstand how market-forces influenced the production and enjoyment ofliterature. Women’s writing (as well as the work of various male authorspreviously judged to be ‘minor’) has come very rapidly to the fore, involvingsignificant shifts in how we think about the canon.As a consequence of all these changes, it would be unthinkable nowadays to design a course on British Romanticism based around the work ofsix male poets, Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats and Shelley; oreven around a list expanded to include the great prose-writers of the age:Scott, Hazlitt, Lamb, Peacock and De Quincey. ‘What about Wollstonecraft,Austen, Mary Shelley?’, our students might legitimately complain if sucha course were offered. (And what about Barbauld, Edgeworth, Godwin,Burke, Paine and Thelwall, one might rejoin; for the list of writers availablefor study grows longer every year.) The ‘Big Six’ go on being of vital importance, of course. But we now want to understand and appreciate theirachievements historically and comparatively, not just according to the standards of taste which have made them classics for two centuries. This evidently entails diversification, both in the range of writers we teach, and inthe disciplines and methodologies we draw on in our teaching. But it alsocalls for a reconsideration of the central figures who at one time constitutedthe canon. For, if the meaning of the word ‘Romanticism’ has shifted to accommodate a broader spectrum of texts and approaches, then it follows thatthe contribution made by each individual Romantic writer asks also to bereappraised.1Cambridge Companions Online Cambridge University Press, 2006

lucy newlynWhat does it mean to read ‘The Ancient Mariner’ as a contribution topolitical debate in the late 1790s? What happens to our understanding of‘Frost at Midnight’ when we place it in its original context, as one of threepoems published in a quarto volume (1798) entitled F

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