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Review of British Standard Referencesin Technical Guidance Documentsfor Migration to Eurocodesand UK National AnnexesGEO Report No. 299Halcrow China LimitedGeotechnical Engineering OfficeCivil Engineering and Development DepartmentThe Government of the Hong KongSpecial Administrative Region

Table of ContentsReview of British Standard Referencesin Technical Guidance Documentsfor Migration to Eurocodesand UK National AnnexesTable of ContentsGEO Report No. 299Halcrow China LimitedTable of ContentsTable of ContentsThis report was originally produced by Halcrow China Limited inFebruary 2014 under Consultancy Agreement No. CE 26/2012 (GE)for the sole and specific use of the Governmentof the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

2 The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionPrepared by:Geotechnical Engineering Office,Civil Engineering and Development Department,Civil Engineering and Development Building,101 Princess Margaret Road,Homantin, Kowloon,Hong Kong.Table of ContentsFirst published, July 2014Table of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of Contents

3Table of ContentsPrefaceTable of ContentsIn keeping with our policy of releasing informationwhich may be of general interest to the geotechnicalprofession and the public, we make available selected internalreports in a series of publications termed the GEO Reportseries. The GEO Reports can be downloaded from thewebsite of the Civil Engineering and Development Department(http://www.cedd.gov.hk) on the Internet. Printed copies arealso available for some GEO Reports. For printed copies, acharge is made to cover the cost of printing.The Geotechnical Engineering Office also producesdocuments specifically for publication in print. These includeguidance documents and results of comprehensive reviews.They can also be downloaded from the above website.Table of ContentsThese publications and the printed GEO Reports may beobtained from the Government’s Information ServicesDepartment. Information on how to purchase these documentsis given on the second last page of this report.H.N. WongHead, Geotechnical Engineering OfficeJuly 2014Table of Contents

4Table of ContentsForewordTable of ContentsGreg McGuire of Halcrow China Limited and ChrisDanilewicz of the Halcrow Group Limited prepared this reportwith the kind assistance of Ms Florence Ko, Dr Mark Chan andMr Frankie Lo of Standards & Testing Division of GEO. Allcontributions are gratefully acknowledged.Table of ContentsThis Report presents the findings of a study to review theexisting technical guidance documents for migration toEurocodes for geotechnical works in Hong Kong. Althoughthe technical guidance documents are based on local experienceand best practice, they may also make reference to some of theBritish Standards. Many of the British Standards have eitherbeen withdrawn or superceded as a result of the introduction ofEurocodes and UK National Annexes, and relatedinternational/European standards. The study recommends thenecessary amendments to the technical guidance documents forthe migration from British Standards to Eurocodes.Gerry DaughtonProject DirectorHalcrow China LimitedTable of Contents

5Table of ContentsAbstractTable of ContentsBased on the findings of this study, amendments to thetechnical guidance documents are recommended andpromulgated in GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 41.Proposed amendments to Section 7 of General Specification forCivil Engineering Works (2006 Edition) (GS) have beenforwarded to CGE/LPM3, the Subject Officer for update of theGS, for necessary action.Table of ContentsThis Report presents the findings of a study to review theexisting technical guidance documents for migration toEurocodes for geotechnical works in Hong Kong. Althoughthe technical guidance documents are based on local experienceand best practice, they may also make reference to some of theBritish Standards. Many of the British Standards have eitherbeen withdrawn or superceded as a result of the introduction ofEurocodes and UK National Annexes, and relatedinternational/European standards. This report recommends thenecessary amendments to the technical guidance documents forthe migration from British Standards to Eurocodes.Table of Contents

6ContentsPageNo.Title Page1Preface3Foreword4Abstract5Contents6List of Tables91Introduction102Objectives of the Study103Approach and Methodology for Review1043.1Main Tasks of the Study103.2Technical Guidance Documents Reviewed113.3Approach and Methodology123.3.1References to British Standards123.3.2Review of Eurocodes and UK National Annexes12Key Findings for GEO Technical Guidance Documents144.1Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (2nd Edition)154.2Geoguide 1 (2nd Edition): Guide to Retaining Wall164.3Design Geoguide 2: Guide to Site Investigation194.4Geoguide 3: Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions224.5Geoguide 4: Guide to Cavern Engineering234.6Geoguide 6: Guide to Reinforced Fill Structure andSlope DesignGeoguide 7: Guide to Soil Nail Design and Construction234.74.8GCO Publication No.1/90: Review of Design Methods forExcavation2627

7PageNo.4.94.10GCO Publication No. 2/90: Foundation Properties of Marbleand Other Rocks in the Yuen Long - Tuen Mun AreaGEO Publication No. 1/93: Review of Granular andGeotextile Filters28284.11GEO Publication No. 1/2006: Foundation Design andConstruction284.12GEO Publication No. 1/2007: Engineering GeologicalPractice in Hong Kong304.13GEO Publication No. 1/2009: Prescriptive Measures forMan-made Slopes and Retaining Walls314.14Current Technical Guidance Notes (TGNs)314.15Section 7 of the General Specification for Civil EngineeringWorks314.16Geospec 1: Model Specification for Prestressed GroundAnchors324.17Geospec 3: Model Specification for Soil Testing355Discussion366Recommendations for Amendment377References37Appendix A: Explanatory Notes for Definitions, Classifications and Scopeof Updating38Appendix B: Summaries for Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (2nd Edition)43Appendix C: Summaries for Geoguide 1 (2nd Edition): Guide to RetainingWall Design60Appendix D: Summaries for Geoguide 2: Guide to Site Investigation72Appendix E: Summaries for Geoguide 3: Guide to Rock and SoilDescriptions106Appendix F: Summaries for Geoguide 4: Guide to Cavern Engineering116Appendix G: Summaries for Geoguide 6: Guide to Reinforced Fill Structureand Slope Design121

8PageNo.Appendix H: Summaries for Geoguide 7: Guide to Soil Nail Design andConstruction140Appendix I:Summaries for GCO Publication No. 1/90: Review of DesignMethods for Excavation146Appendix J:Summaries for GCO Publication No. 2/90: FoundationProperties of Marble and Other Rocks in the YuenLong - Tuen Mun Area152Appendix K: Summaries for GEO Publication No. 1/93: Review ofGranular and Geotextile Filters157Appendix L: Summaries for GEO Publication No. 1/2006: FoundationDesign and Construction162Appendix M: Summaries for GEO Publication No. 1/2007: EngineeringGeological Practice in Hong Kong184Appendix N: Summaries for GEO Publication No. 1/2009: PrescriptiveMeasures for Man-made Slopes and Retaining Walls194Appendix O: Summaries for Current Technical Guidance Notes199Appendix P: Summaries for Section 7 of the General Specification forCivil Engineering Works204Appendix Q: Summaries for Geospec 1: Model Specification forPrestressed Ground Anchors226Appendix R: Summaries for Geospec 3: Model Specification for SoilTesting243

9List of TablesPageNo.2.1Categories of Updating134.1Summary of Updating Required for Technical14Table of ContentsTableNo.Guidance Documents5.1Summary of Category of Updating Required36Table of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of Contents

101 IntroductionTable of ContentsHalcrow China Limited has been commissioned by the Geotechnical EngineeringOffice, Civil Engineering and Development Department to undertake Consultancy AgreementNo. CE 26/2012 (GE) "Landslip Prevention and Mitigation Programme, 2012, Package C,Landslip Prevention and Mitigation Works - Investigation, Design and Construction". TheMemorandum of Agreement for CE 26/2012 (GE) was signed by GEO and Halcrow on7 February 2013, which was also the date of commencement.The title of this special task is "Study to Review Technical Guidance Documents forMigration to Eurocodes for Geotechnical Works in Hong Kong".The primary outcome of the study was the preparation of a Technical Guidance Note(TGN) to promulgate the recommended changes to existing technical guidance documentsresulting from the findings of the study.Table of ContentsThis study was undertaken to review the existing technical guidance documents formigration to Eurocodes for geotechnical works in Hong Kong. British Standards (BS) arecommonly quoted in the existing technical guidance documents. However, following theintroduction of Eurocodes (EC) and UK National Annexes (UK NA) and relatedinternational/European standards, many of the BS that are referenced in the current technicalguidance documents have become obsolete or have been superceded. This study hasreviewed and made the necessary recommendations for amendment.2 Objectives of the StudyThe primary objective is to review the BS references in the existing technicalguidance documents and make recommendations to bring the BS references up-to-date, eitherto their latest version of the standards or to the current EC/UK NA and relatedinternational/European standards, where appropriate.Table of ContentsWith the withdrawal of the old BS, to which many of the current technical guidancedocuments refer, it is necessary to review a number of the existing technical guidancedocuments so that, where relevant, these capture the new design clauses in the currentEC/UK NA and related international/European standards.3 Approach and Methodology for Review3.1 Main Tasks of the Study(a) Compile summaries of the BS currently referenced in thetechnical guidance documents to be reviewed;Table of ContentsThe major tasks of the study are set out in Items (i) and (ii) of Clause 6.2(vi)(p) of theBrief, and are summarised as follows:

11(c) Describe each BS reference in connection to the design,specification or testing of geotechnical works;(d) Identify the relevant parts of the EC and UK NA whichsupercede or replace the BS reference (with extracts of therelevant EC and/or UK NA for reference);Table of Contents(b) Provide extracts of the relevant sections of each BS clausefor ease of reference;(e) Compare and discuss the effects of the differences that mayresult in the design, specification or testing of geotechnicalworks due to the migration to EC; and3.2 Technical Guidance Documents ReviewedThe technical guidance documents reviewed under this Study were:Table of Contents(f) Recommend amendments, where needed, to the technicalguidance documents.(a) Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (2nd Edition);(b) Geoguide 1 (2nd Edition): Guide to Retaining Wall Design;(c) Geoguide 2: Guide to Site Investigation;(e) Geoguide 4: Guide to Cavern Engineering;(f) Geoguide 6: Guide to Reinforced Fill Structure and SlopeDesign;Table of Contents(d) Geoguide 3: Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions;(g) Geoguide 7: Guide to Soil Nail Design and Construction;(h) GCO Publication No. 1/90: Review of Design Methods forExcavation;(j) GEO Publication No. 1/93: Review of Granular andGeotextile Filters;(k) GEO Publication No. 1/2006: Foundation Design andConstruction;Table of Contents(i) GCO Publication No. 2/90: Foundation Properties ofMarble and Other Rocks in the Yuen Long - Tuen MunArea;

12(m) GEO Publication No. 1/2009: Prescriptive Measures forMan-made Slopes and Retaining Walls;(n) All current GEO TGNs;Table of Contents(l) GEO Publication No. 1/2007: Engineering GeologicalPractice in Hong Kong;(o) Section 7 of General Specification for Civil EngineeringWorks;(p) Geospec 1: Model Specification for Prestressed GroundAnchors; and(q) Geospec 3: Model Specification for Soil Testing.3.3.1 References to British StandardsEach of the technical guidance documents in Section 3.2 was thoroughly reviewed andall existing references to BS were recorded. Initially this was carried out using key wordsearches, with a further round of reference checks carried out manually to ensure that allreferences to existing BS were sourced for review.A unique citation ID No. was assigned to each of the citations of BS and other relevantreference documents in the technical guidance documents for identification purpose.Table of ContentsFor each technical guidance document, a summary was prepared, showing all BSdocuments referenced within, the current status of those BS, extracts of the relevant sectionsor clauses of the BS, where practical or where specific sections were referenced, and adescription of each BS quotation in connection with the design, specification and/or testing ofthe geotechnical related works. Cross reference(s) to the BS clause(s) and page numbers inthe technical guidance document was also given.Table of Contents3.3 Approach and Methodology3.3.2 Review of Eurocodes and UK National AnnexesThe existing BS references were reviewed against the relevant parts of the EC/UK NAor related international/European standards, if any, and categorised according to the requiredTable of ContentsFor each BS referenced, the relevant parts of the EC/UK NA or relatedinternational/European standards which have superseded or replaced the BS were identified.Where local guidance documents exist, e.g. Geospec 3, these have taken precedence overupdating to the EC/UK NA or related international/European standards. Description andextracts of relevant parts of the EC/UK NA or related international/European standards wereadded to the summaries where practical, although in a majority of cases general referenceswere found to be to the whole, rather than specific portions, of the referenced standards.

13Table 2.1 Categories of UpdatingCategory ofUpdatingUpdates Required1No change to reference or citation is required.2Citation or reference to be deleted with no other action required.3Reference document has been updated. Citation to be updated to the appropriateupdated reference document, using one of the following sub-categories:b) Update of the reference document; some re-drafting of the affected clause isalso required.4Reference document has been superseded or withdrawn. Citation is to beupdated to the appropriate replacement reference document, using one of thefollowing sub-categories:Table of Contentsa) Direct update of the reference document; no re-drafting of the affected clauseis required.Table of Contentsscope of updating of the technical guidance document using the categories given in Table 2.1below:a) Direct replacement with a new reference document; no amendment of the affectedclause required.b) Replacement with a new reference document; some amendment to the affectedclause is also required.Direct replacement of a reference is difficult and requires particular attention, forexample the original reference has been withdrawn with no replacement, or therelevant content is not addressed in a replacement document (or replaced bymultiple citations to parts of various documents), or the adoption of thereplacement document may affect existing local practice.Further explanatory notes on the scope of updating, definitions and classification ofreferences and citations used during this study are given in Appendix A. Examples ofapplications in the above categories are given in Table A1 of Appendix A.Table of ContentsThe above categories allowed the level of updating required to be determined for eachtechnical guidance document and also focused attention on the more onerous updates in thevarious BS references. It should be noted that the Categories 1, 2, 3a and 4a referencesrequired little or no updating, whilst Categories 3b and 4b references required updating ofreferences with some additional re-wording of existing clauses in technical guidancedocuments. Category 5 references required more substantial revisions to existing guidancein addition to updating of references in the technical guidance documents. A summary ofthe changes required are given in Table 4.1.Table of Contents5

144 Key Findings for GEO Technical Guidance DocumentsSummaries of the BS currently referenced in the technical guidance documents and thenecessary updates and amendments for each technical guidance document are given inAppendices B to R.Table of ContentsThe findings of the review of the technical guidance documents are summarised in thefollowing sections for each of the technical guidance documents reviewed.Table 4.1 summarises the categories of updating required for each of the technicalguidance documents reviewed under this Study.Number of BS or BS EN References byCategory of Updating Required (1)Technical GuidanceDocument3a3b4a4b5TotalGeotechnical Manual forSlopes (2nd Edition)19-1125-28Geoguide 1 (2nd Edition)5-1-52316Geoguide 212101881123284Geoguide 313-1-71-22Geoguide 4----1--1Geoguide 69-29-102151Geoguide 71-1---13GCO Publication No. 1/902-----13GCO Publication 2/905------5GEO Publication 1/933----2-5GEO Publication No. 1/20061445-21329GEO Publication No. 1/20075----7-12GEO Publication No. 1/20091------1Current GEO TGNs (2)--1----1Table of Contents2Table of Contents1Table of ContentsTable 4.1 Summary of Updating Required for Technical Guidance Documents(Sheet 1 of 2)

15Number of BS or BS EN References byCategory of Updating Required (1)Technical GuidanceDocumentNotes:123a3b4a4b5TotalGeospec 1711-143228Geospec 320---4--24Total116155895646133134.1 Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (2nd Edition)Of the remaining BS references:One is a recommended Category 3a change, whereby theexisting reference is simply updated to a later version of thesame standard. One is a recommended Category 3b change, whereby theexisting reference is updated to a later version of the samestandard, with some minor re-drafting of the existing clausein the GMS. Two are recommended Category 4a changes, whereby theexisting references are simply amended to their replacementstandards containing the same or similar guidance. Five are recommended Category 4b changes, whereby theexisting references are amended to their replacementstandards containing the same guidance, with some minorre-drafting of the existing clauses in the GMS.Table of Contents Table of ContentsThe Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (GMS) contains a total of 28 BS references, ofwhich 19 are Category 1 references relating to BS 5930:1981, BS 1377:1975 andBS 882:1983 and which are either referred to in Chapters 1 and 2 or Section 4.6 of the GMS,which have been superceded by later publications, or are related to Phase 1 tests inBS 1377:1975 which have been replaced by Geospec 3. These changes are already noted inthe Addendum to the GMS. As these Chapters and Section of the GMS are obsolete there isno need to update the references contained therein.Table of Contents(1) Categories of Updating are defined in Table 2.1 and further details givenin Appendix A.(2) Only TGN No. 25 contains references to BS which require updating.Table of ContentsTable 4.1 Summary of Updating Required for Technical Guidance Documents(Sheet 2 of 2)

16As a result of the above changes, the following additional or updated References are tobe included in the GMS:BSI (1990a).Methods of Test for Soils for CivilEngineering Purposes - Part 2: Classification Tests (BS1377-2: 1990). British Standards Institution, London, 64 p.b)BSI (1990b).Methods of Test for Soils for CivilEngineering Purposes - Part 9: In-situ Tests (BS 1377-9:1990). British Standards Institution, London, 70 p.c)GCO (1988).Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions(Geoguide 3). Geotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong,186 p. (Reprinted in 2000)d)GEO (2001). Model Specification for Soil Testing (Geospec3). Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong, 340 p.Table of Contentsa)Table of ContentsThere are no substantial changes, or changes to current design practice in Hong Kong,as a result of the recommended updates for the GMS.4.2 Geoguide 1

Appendix B: Summaries for Geotechnical Manual for Slopes (2nd Edition) 43 Appendix C: Summaries for Geoguide 1 (2nd Edition): Guide to Retaining 60 Wall Design Appendix D: Summaries for Geoguide 2: Guide to Site Investigation 72 Appendix E: Summaries for Geoguide 3: Guide to Rock and Soil 106 Descriptions

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