A Level Psychology H567/02 Psychological Themes Through .

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H567/02Mark schemePractice 1Practice Paper 1 – Set 1A Level PsychologyH567/02 Psychological themes through core studiesMARK SCHEMEDuration: 2 hoursMAXIMUM MARK105FinalLast updated: 27/04/2016This document consists of 24 pages1

H567/02Mark schemePractice 1LEVELS OF RESPONSE – LEVEL DESCRIPTORSGoodReasonableLimitedBasicA01Response demonstrates goodrelevant knowledge andunderstanding. Accurate anddetailed description.A02Response demonstrates goodapplication of psychological knowledgeand understanding. Application will bemainly explicit, accurate and relevant.Response demonstratesreasonable relevantknowledge andunderstanding. Generallyaccurate description lackingsome detail.Response demonstrateslimited relevant knowledgeand understanding. Limiteddescription lacking in detail.Response demonstrates reasonableapplication of psychological knowledgeand understanding. Application will bepartially explicit, accurate and relevant.Response demonstrates basicknowledge and understandingthat is only partially relevant.Basic description with nodetail.Response demonstrates limitedapplication of psychological knowledgeand understanding. Application may berelated to the general topic area ratherthan the specific question.Response demonstrates basicapplication of psychological knowledgeand understanding. Responses will begeneralised lacking focus on thequestion.2A03Response demonstrates good analysis,interpretation and/or evaluation that is mainlyrelevant to the demand of the question. Validconclusions that effectively summarise issues andargument is highly skilled and shows goodunderstanding.Response demonstrates reasonable analysis,interpretation and/or evaluation that is partiallyrelevant to the demand of the question. Validconclusions that effectively summarise issues andargument are competent and understanding isreasonable.Response demonstrates limited analysis,interpretation and/or evaluation that may be relatedto topic area. Some valid conclusions thatsummarise issues and arguments.Response demonstrates basic analysis,interpretation and/or evaluation that is not relatedto the question. Basic or no valid conclusions thatattempt to summarise issues. No evidence ofarguments.

H567/02Mark schemePractice 1Section AQuestion1aAnswerFrom Milgram’s study of obedience:Describe how obedience was measuredMarks2 Observers noted down the maximum shock a participantadministered before they refused to go any further or thestudy ended The experimenter and observers watched and noted thehighest shock level (between 15 – 450 volts) given byeach participantbOutline one problem with measuring obedience in this way.Guidance2 marks – Clear description of how obedience wasmeasured as detailed1 mark – Partial or vague answer e.g. how far participantsshocked0 marks – No creditworthy response22 marks – An accurate outline of a problem in context of theoriginal study as detailedLikely problems to be identified: Observers may ‘see’ what they expect/want tosee/observer bias lowering the validity of the findings Observers may miss behaviours If the participant knows they are being observed theybehave in a way they think the researchers want them tobehave/respond to demand characteristics so they willnot show genuine/natural behaviour If the participant knows they are being observed theyrespond in a socially desirable way rather than showingtheir usual/normal behaviourExample Answer The participants knew they were being observed so theirbehaviour may not be as it normally would be. Forexample, the participants in Milgram’s study may haveadministered more electric shocks because they knewthey were being observed in a psychological study31 mark – Partial or vague outline of a problemOR answer not linked to study e.g. May have been subject toobserver bias0 marks – No creditworthy responseThe question requires candidates to contextualise theirresponseAny appropriate problem of the way obedience wasmeasured can be credited but it must be fully contextualisedin relation to Milgram’s study to gain 2 marksAnswers must clearly be outlining a problem of the wayobedience was measured not the study in general

H567/022aMark schemeFrom Piliavin et al.’s ‘Subway Samaritan’ study: Explain onereason why “diffusion of responsibility” was not found inthis study.2 As participants were not able to leave the New Yorksubway train, (it was a continual 7 ½ minute journeyfrom 59th street to 125th street) they were not able toescape the situation therefore felt more obliged to helpthe collapsed victim irrelevant of how many other peoplewere present on the carriage (larger the group the morequickly help was received). When escape is not possible and bystanders are face-toface with a victim, help is likely to be forthcoming even ifthe number of bystanders present is high Participants may have perceived the costs of helping to below because many others were around to help as welleven if something did go wrong Other appropriate responsebIn Levine et al.’s study into cultural altruism, there werethree different conditions:Describe how helping behaviour was recorded in one ofthese conditions. In the dropped pen condition responses to the confederatein need of help were recorded by noting down ifparticipants called back to the experimenter that he haddropped the pen and/or picked up the pen and brought itto the experimenter In the hurt leg condition helping was recorded by notingdown participants that offered to help and/or those whobegan to help without offering In the helping a blind person across the street conditionhelping was recorded by noting down if participants, at aminimum, informed the experimenter that the light wasgreen.4Practice 12 marks – Response demonstrates good relevantknowledge and understanding. Good application ofpsychological knowledge to Piliavin study1 mark – Response demonstrates relevant knowledge andunderstanding but may lack clarity. Attempt at application ofpsychological knowledge to Piliavin study OR Responsedemonstrates relevant knowledge and understanding butknowledge is not applied to the Piliavin study0 marks – No credit worthy informationAs diffusion of responsibility refers to responsibility forbehaviour being shared between those present - candidatesmust make reference to the other passengers/other potentialhelpers/group size to obtain full marks22 marks – An accurate and detailed outline of one wayhelping responses were recorded1 mark – Partial or vague answer that may also not becontextualised “If participants stopped to help the personwho dropped a pen”0 marks – No credit worthy information

H567/02cMark schemeTo what extent does the study by Levine et al. change ourunderstanding of responses to people in need?3Possible answer: Levine et al. aimed to investigate cross cultural differencesin helping behaviour. They claimed explaining whystrangers are more likely to receive help in some citiesthan in others requires investigating the cities’personalities beyond the size of their population. Norelationship was found between population size andhelping behaviour, which similarly to Piliavin, challengesthe diffusion of responsibility theory (the larger thepopulation did not correlate with less help). HoweverLevine et al. did find that countries that had higher percapita purchasing power tended to be less helpful overall(which research had not shown before) so to an extentour understanding of people in need has changed. Other appropriate responsePractice 13 marks – Response demonstrates good analysis that ismainly relevant to the demand of the question. Validconclusions that effectively summarise issues and argumentis highly skilled and shows good understanding.2 marks – Response demonstrates reasonable analysis thatis partially relevant to the demand of the question. Validconclusions that effectively summarise issues and argumentare competent and understanding is reasonable.1 mark – Response demonstrates limited analysis that maybe related to topic area. Some valid conclusions thatsummarise issues and arguments.0 marks – No creditworthy responseThe question asks to what extent so candidates can arguethat it does OR does not change our understanding. Somecontemporary studies change our understanding more thanothers hence the command “to what extent”Top band answers would make a judgement about theextent to which a change of understanding has occurred andsupport their argument with supporting evidence from thenamed study33Outline how Grant et al.’s study on context-dependentmemory links to the cognitive area of psychology.Possible Answer: Internal mental processes such as memory are importantfeatures influencing human behaviour. Grant et al. aimedto investigate whether memory can be enhanced wheninformation is recalled in the same environment in whichthe information is originally studied. This shows thatGrant et al. is linked to the cognitive area as memory forinformation is a process of the mind.53 marks – Response demonstrates good analysis andinterpretation that is relevant to the demand of the question.Valid links are made between the study and the cognitivearea that are highly skilled and show good understanding2 marks – Response demonstrates reasonable analysis andinterpretation that is partially relevant. Some valid links aremade between the study and the cognitive area that arecompetent and understanding is reasonable1 mark – Response demonstrates limited analysis and

H567/02Mark scheme Other appropriate answerPractice 1interpretation that is partially related to topic area. Vague orpartial links are made / attempted between the study and thecognitive area but understanding is limited0 marks – No creditworthy responseCandidates are required to draw links between Grant et al.’sstudy and the cognitive area OR outline the cognitive areaand draw links to Grant et al.’s study4aOutline one similarity between Moray’s study on auditoryattention and Simons and Chabris’ study on visual inattention.44 marks – An appropriate similarity is identified andelaborated and appropriate evidence is given from both ofthe studies as detailed in the answer guidanceCandidates may make comparisons between the following: 3 marks – An appropriate similarity is identified andelaborated and appropriate evidence is given from one of thestudies e.g. Moray’s study and Simon and Chabris’ studyboth used standardised procedures. For example, in Simonand Chabris’ study, the members of each team passed astandard orange basketball to one another in a standardisedorder: player 1 player 2 player 3 player 1. As bothstudies use standardised procedures the research, ifreplicated, should produce consistent findings over time.Data collectedTechniques used to gather dataReliabilityValidityEnvironments / controlsSamples (WHO)Sampling technique (HOW)Bias Moray’s study and Simon and Chabris’ study both usedstandardised procedures. For example, in Moray’s 1stexperiment all participants shadowed the same prosemessage and all heard the same 35 words in therejected message. In Simon and Chabris’ study, themembers of each team passed a standard orangebasketball to one another in a standardised order: player1 player 2 player 3 player 1. As both studies usestandardised procedures the research, if replicated,should produce consistent findings over time.62 marks – An appropriate similarity is identified andelaborated but no evidence is provided for either study e.g.Moray’s study and Simon and Chabris’ study both usedstandardised procedures. As both studies use standardisedprocedures the research, if replicated, should produceconsistent findings over time.OR an appropriate similarity is identified (not elaborated) andappropriate evidence is given from one of the studies e.g.Moray’s study and Simon and Chabris’ study both usedstandardised procedures. For example, in Moray’s 1stexperiment all participants shadowed the same prosemessage and all heard the same 35 words in the rejected

H567/02Mark schemePractice 1message.1 mark – An appropriate similarity is identified but is notelaborated and no evidence is provided for either study e.g.Moray’s study and Simon and Chabris’ study both usedstandardised procedures.0 marks – No creditworthy responseElaboration means explaining the similarity in some wayrather than merely stating it, but showing an understandingof what the difference is / means.Accept reference to; method, bias, controls, the way datawas collected, samplesbTo what extent can Moray’s study on auditory attention beconsidered reliable? Reliability is the extent to which a study or method ofmeasurement can be replicated to produce consistentfindings over time. In Moray’s 1st experiment allparticipants shadowed the same prose message and allheard the same 35 words in the rejected message. Dueto the standardised measurements that have been used,it should be easier to replicate the research to seeconsistent results over time. In Moray’s study, some aspects of the study / methods ofmeasurement were not fully operationalised. Forexample, the exact recognition tasks given aftershadowing in experiment 1 are not detailed and thereforeit is not possible to use the exact recognition tests uponreplication of the study. As it may be difficult to replicatethe study in exactly the same way it’s harder to establishconsistency in the results over time Other appropriate response733 marks – Response demonstrates good evaluation that ismainly relevant to the question. Valid conclusion thateffectively assesses the reliability of Moray’s study is skilledand shows good understanding.2 marks – Response demonstrates reasonable evaluationthat is partially relevant to the question. Valid conclusion thateffectively assesses the reliability of Moray’s study iscompetent and understanding is reasonable but may lackclarity.1 mark – Response demonstrates limited/basic evaluationthat may not be relevant to the question. Limited/basicconclusion that attempts to assesses the reliability of Moray’sstudy.0 marks – No creditworthy responseCandidate must make it clear within their answer whatreliability is (many may give a generic definition but this is notneeded for full marks provided clear understanding of the

H567/02Mark schemePractice 1methodological issue is shown)5aIn Sperry’s ‘split brain’ study into the psychological effectsof hemisphere deconnection: Explain why visualinformation had to be presented for a restricted period oftime in the visual tasks.21 mark – Partial of vague answer, e.g. so that eachhemisphere did not receive the information at the same time Because if the information was shown for any longer (than1/10th a second) both visual fields would be able to seethe information at the same time which meansinformation would be passed to both the left and righthemispheres at the same time and no difficulties inidentifying objects to the left visual field would beapparent Other appropriate responsebFrom Casey et al’s study on delay gratification: Explain onestrength of the research method used in this study0 marks – No credit worthy informationAny reference to ‘EYE’ means the response is notcontextualised, the candidate must refer to VISUAL FIELD2 A strength (of using a quasi-experiment in this study) isthat it is high in ecological validity. As the independentvariable (whether the participant was a high delayer or alow delayer) was naturally occurring the performance onthe impulse control task should represent the adultsnaturally occurring/their normal impulse controlbehaviour Other appropriate response6aFrom Blakemore and Cooper’s study on the impact of earlyvisual experience: Identify the independent variable2 marks – An accurate explanation as given in context of theoriginal study2 marks – Response demonstrates good evaluation.Strength is identified and explained in context of Casey etal.’s study1 mark – Response demonstrates limited/basic evaluation.Strength is identified but not explained and not in context ofthe Casey study e.g. A strength is that it is high in ecologicalvalidity0 marks – No creditworthy response1The question requires candidates explain their response incontext of the study1 mark – Identification of the IV identified as detailed0 marks – No creditworthy response The independent variable (IV) was: whether the kittenswere reared in a horizontal or a vertical environmentbDescribe one dependent variable Blakemore and Cooper’s8Both conditions of the IV must be stated for 1 mark22 marks – An accurate and detailed description of the DV in

H567/02Mark schemestudy.this studyOne of the following:1 mark – Partial or vague description of the DV in this study The dependent variable (DV) was their visuomotorbehaviour once they were placed in an illuminatedenvironment Whether the horizontally raised kittens could detectvertically aligned objects Whether the vertically raised kittens could detecthorizontally aligned objects.c0 marks – No credit worthy information2From Maguire’s taxi driver study:Describe one finding that demonstrates the brain hasplasticity.2 marks – An accurate description of a finding whichdemonstrates plasticity of the brain1 mark – Partial / vague finding lacking clarity OR findingdescribed without a comparison between conditions madeOne of the following:7Practice 1 Taxi drivers had significantly increased grey matter volumein the right and left posterior hippocampi compared tocontrols. In the controls there was a relatively greater grey mattervolume in the right and left anterior hippocampicompared to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had a significantly greater posteriorhippocampal volume than controls. Controls had a significantly greater anterior righthippocampal volume than the taxi driversDescribe one finding that shows a difference in theperformance on the ‘Eyes Task’ between the conditions Participants in the Asperger’s / AS conditions wereimpaired on the Eyes Task compared to “normal” adults– scoring 16.3/25 and 20.3/25 respectively Participants in the Asperger’s / AS scored 16.3 on theEyes task, the lowest compared to all other conditions90 marks – No credit worthy informationFor full marks a comparison is needed (as this is whatdemonstrates the difference which is needed to “prove”plasticity of the brain)22 marks – A clear outline of one result supported byevidence given in the data table1 mark – Partial or vague answer OR answer not linked tostudy e.g. Asperger’s participants scored poorly on the eyestask0 marks – No creditworthy response

H567/028As detailed in Gould’s ‘a nation of morons’, Yerkes arguedthat intelligence was inherited: Outline one reason whyYerkes argument may be considered invalid.Question9Mark schemea3 His ideas are subject to his own personal bias/agenda Yerkes believed that intelligence was inherited andunaffected by environmental factors and therefore couldnot be changed (due to nature) therefore his ownpersonal beliefs may have influenced his “scientifictesting” of intelligence and skewed the results to showwhat he wanted them to show Nurture is believed to influence “intelligence” - Thescientific intelligence tests created by Yerkes were in themain testing literacy, and literacy tests assesseducation/schooling (nurture) more than they any notionof inherited intelligence The testing upon which conclusions were drawn wasflawed. For example, the Beta examination still requiredpencil work. Some of the men who scored poorly hadnever before had held a pencil in their hands but theirfailure was attributed to innate intelligence which isarguably not a valid conclusion Other appropriate responseSection BAnswerMarksDescribe two principles or concepts of the psychodynamicperspective.Two of the following: All human behaviour comes from a part of the mind thatindividuals have no direct awareness of; theunconscious. Childhood is a critical period in development of our104Practice 1A comparison to one or all other conditions must be made togain 2 marks3 marks – Detailed and accurate outl

A Level Psychology H567/02 Psychological themes through core studies MARK SCHEME Duration: 2 hours MAXIMUM MARK 105 Final Last updated: 27/04/2016 This document consists of 24 pages . H567/02 Mark scheme Practice 1 2 LEVELS OF RESPONSE – LEVEL DESCRIPTORS A01 A02 A03 .

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