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FORTY STUDIESTHAT C H A N G E DPSYCHOLOGYExplorations into the Historyof Psychological ResearchSixth EditionRoger R. Hock, Ph.D.Mendocino CollegePearson Education International

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For Diane Perin Hock and Caroline Mei Perin Hock

CONTENTSPREFACExiCHAPTER I BIOLOGY AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1READING 1: O N E BRAIN OR T W O ?1Gazzaniga, M. S. (1967). The split brain in man. Scientific American, 217(2), 24-29.READING 2: MORE EXPERIENCE BIGGER BRAIN 11Rosenzweig, M. R., Bennett, E. L., & Diamond, M. C. (1972). Brain changes inresponse to experience. Scientific American, 226(2), 2 2 - 2 9 .READING 3: ARE Y O U A "NATURAL?"19Bouchard, T., Lykken, D., McGue, M., Segal, N., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sourcesof human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart.Science, 250, 223-229.READING 4: WATCH O U T FOR THE VISUAL C L I F F ! 27Gibson, E. J . , & Walk, R. D. (1960). The "visual cliff." Scientific American, 202(4),67-71.CHAPTER IIPERCEPTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS35READING 5: TAKE A L O N G L O O K36Fantz, R. L. (1961). The origin of form perception. Scientific American, 204(May),61-72.READING 6 : T O SLEEP, N O D O U B T T O DREAM . . .42Aserinsky, E., & Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye mobilityand concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 118, 273-274.Dement, W. (1960). The effect of dream deprivation. Science, 131, 1705-1707.READING 7: U N R O M A N C I N G THE DREAM49Hobson, J. A., & McCarley, R. W. (1977). The brain as a dream-state generator:An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1335-1348.READING 8: A C T I N G AS IF Y O U ARE H Y P N O T I Z E D56Spanos, N. R (1982). Hypnotic behavior: A cognitive, social, psychological perspective. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior, 7, 199-213.vii

viiiContentsCHAPTER III LEARNING AND CONDITIONING 65READING 9: IT'S NOT JUST A B O U T SALIVATING D O G S !65Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.READING 10: LITTLE EMOTIONAL ALBERT 72Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional responses. Journal ofExperimental Psychology, 3, 1-14.READING 11: K N O C K W O O D !78Skinner, B. F. (1948). Superstition in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168-172.READING 12: SEE A G G R E S S I O N . . . D O A G G R E S S I O N ! 8 5Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.CHAPTER IVINTELLIGENCE, COGNITION, AND MEMORY93READING 13: WHAT Y O U EXPECT IS WHAT Y O U G E T 93Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1966). Teachers' expectancies: Determinates ofpupils' IQ gains. Psychological Reports, 19, 115-118.R E A D I N G 14: JUST H O W ARE Y O U INTELLIGENT?100Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. NewYork: Basic Books.READING 15: MAPS IN Y O U R MIND110Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55,189-208.READING 16: THANKS FOR THE MEMORIES!11 7Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading questions and the eyewitness report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 560-572.CHAPTER V HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 126READING 17: D I S C O V E R I N G L O V E126Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673-685.READING 18: O U T OF SIGHT, BUT N O T O U T OF MIND1 34Piaget, J. (1954). The development of object concept. In J. Piaget, The construction of reality in the child (pp. 3 - 9 6 ) . New York: Basic Books.READING 19: H O W MORAL ARE Y O U ?143Kohlberg, L. (1963). The development of children's orientations toward a moralorder: Sequence in the development of moral thought. Vita Humana, 6, 11-33.READING 20: IN C O N T R O L A N D G L A D OF IT!150Langer, E. J . , & Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personalresponsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191-198.

ContentsCHAPTER VIEMOTION AND MOTIVATIONix158READING 21: A SEXUAL MOTIVATION . . .158Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. (1966). Human sexual response. Boston: Little,Brown.READING 22:1 C A N SEE IT ALL OVER Y O U R FACE!1 68Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face andemotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124—129.READING 23: LIFE, C H A N G E , A N D STRESS1 75Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11,213-218.READING 24: T H O U G H T S O U T O F T U N E183Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210.CHAPTER VIIPERSONALITY191READING 25: ARE Y O U THE MASTER OF Y O U R FATE?192Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus externalcontrol of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28.READING 26: MASCULINE O R FEMININE . . . O R B O T H ?199Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal ofConsulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.READING 27: RACING AGAINST Y O U R HEART210Friedman, M., & Rosenman, R. H. (1959). Association of specific overt behaviorpattern with blood and cardiovascular findings. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 169, 1286-1296.READING 28: THE O N E , THE MANY217Triandis, H., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualismand collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 54, 323-338.CHAPTER VIII PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 2 2 7READING 29: W H O ' S CRAZY HERE, ANYWAY?227Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250-258.READING 30: Y O U ' R E G E T T I N G DEFENSIVE A G A I N ! 2 3 5Freud, A. (1946). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. New York: InternationalUniversities Press.READING 31: LEARNING TO BE DEPRESSED 2 4 2Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1-9.

xContentsR E A D I N G 32: C R O W D I N G I N T O THE BEHAVIORAL SINK249Calhoun, J. B. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American,206(3), 139-148.CHAPTER IXPSYCHOTHERAPY258READING 33: C H O O S I N G Y O U R PSYCHOTHERAPIST258Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcomestudies. American Psychologist, 32, 752-760.R E A D I N G 34: RELAXING Y O U R FEARS AWAY264Wolpe, J. (1961). The systematic desensitization treatment of neuroses. Journal ofNervous and Mental Diseases, 132, 180-203.READING 35: PROJECTIONS O F W H O Y O U ARE271Rorschach, H. (1942). Psychodiagnostics: A diagnostic test based on perception.New York: Grune & Stratton.READING 36: PICTURE THIS!278Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality (pp. 5 3 1 - 5 4 5 ) . New York: OxfordUniversity Press.CHAPTER XSOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY286READING 37: A PRISON BY ANY OTHER NAME . . .287Zimbardo, P. G. (1972). The pathology of imprisonment. Society, 9(6), 4-8.Haney, C, Banks, W. C, & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in asimulated prison. International Journal of Criminology & Penology, 1, 69-97.R E A D I N G 38: THE POWER O F C O N F O R M I T Y295Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193(5),31-35.READING 39: T O HELP O R N O T T O HELP300Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377-383.READING 40: O B E Y AT ANY C O S T ?308Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and SocialPsychology, 67, 371-378.A U T H O R INDEXSUBJECT INDEX318322

PREFACEThe publication of this sixth edition of Forty Studies marks the 18th anniversaryof its original release. T h e majority of the studies included in this edition arethe same ones that m a d e up a large part of the first edition. This demonstrateshow these landmark studies continue to e x e r t their influence over psychological thought and research today. These original studies and the ones that havebeen added over the past 18 years provide a fascinating glimpse into the birthand growth of the science of psychology, and into the insights we have acquiredinto the complexities of human nature.Many studies of h u m a n behavior have m a d e remarkable and lasting impacts on the various disciplines that comprise the vast field of psychology.T h e findings generated from these studies have c h a n g e d o u r knowledge ofhuman behavior, a n d they have set the stage for coundess subsequent p r o jects and research programs. Even when the results of some of these pivotalstudies have later been drawn into controversy and question, their effect a n dinfluence in a historical c o n t e x t never diminish. They continue to be cited innew articles; they continue to be the topic of a c a d e m i c discussion; they continue to form the foundation for hundreds of textbook chapters; and theycontinue to hold a special place in the minds of psychologists.T h e c o n c e p t for this book originated from my many years of teachingpsychology. Psychology textbooks a r e based on key studies that have shapedthe science of psychology over its relatively brief history. Textbooks, however,seldom give the original, c o r e studies the attention they richly deserve. T h eoriginal research processes a n d findings often a r e summarized a n d diluted tothe point that little of the life and e x c i t e m e n t of the discoveries remain.Sometimes, research results a r e r e p o r t e d in ways that may even mislead ther e a d e r about the study's real impact a n d influence about what we know a n dhow we know it. This is in no way a criticism of the textbook writers who worku n d e r length constraints and must make many difficult choices about whatgets included and in how m u c h detail. T h e situation is, however, unfortunate,because the foundation of all of psychology is scientific research, a n dthrough over a century of ingenious a n d elegant studies o u r knowledge a n dunderstanding of h u m a n behavior have been e x p a n d e d a n d refined to theadvanced level of sophistication that exists today.This book is an attempt to fill the gap between the psychology textbooks and the research that m a d e them possible. It is a j o u r n e y through thexi

xiiPrefaceheadline history of psychology. My h o p e is that the way the 40 chosen studiesa r e presented will bring every o n e of t h e m back to life so that you can experie n c e them for yourself. This book is intended for anyone who wishes ag r e a t e r understanding of the t r u e roots of psychology.C H O O S I N G THE STUDIEST h e studies included in this book have b e e n carefully chosen from thosefound in psychology texts a n d j o u r n a l s a n d from those suggested by leadingauthorities in the many b r a n c h e s of psychology. As the studies were selected,40 seemed to be a realistic n u m b e r both from a historical point of view a n d interms of length. T h e studies chosen are arguably the most famous, the mostimportant, or the most influential in the history of psychology. I use the wordarguably because many who r e a d this book may wish to dispute some of thechoices. O n e thing is sure: no single list of 40 studies would satisfy everyone.However, the studies included h e r e continue to be cited most frequently,stirred up the most controversy when they were published, sparked the mostsubsequent related research, o p e n e d new fields of psychological exploration,or c h a n g e d most dramatically o u r knowledge of h u m a n behavior. T h e s e studies a r e organized by c h a p t e r a c c o r d i n g to the major psychology branches intowhich they best fit: Biology a n d H u m a n Behavior; Perception a n d Consciousness; Learning; Intelligence, Cognition, a n d Memory; H u m a n Development;E m o t i o n a n d Motivation; Personality; Psychopathology; Psychotherapy; andSocial Psychology.PRESENTING THE STUDIEST h e original studies a r e n o t included in their entirety in this book. Instead, Ihave discussed a n d summarized them in a consistent f o r m a t t h r o u g h o u t thebook to p r o m o t e a clear understanding of the studies presented. E a c h reading contains the following:1. An e x a c t , readily available reference for where the original study can befound2. A brief introduction summarizing the b a c k g r o u n d in the field leadingup to the study a n d the reasons the r e s e a r c h e r c a r r i e d out the project3. T h e theoretical propositions or hypotheses on which the research rests4. A detailed a c c o u n t of the experimental design a n d m e t h o d s used toc a r r y out the research, including, where appropriate, who the participants were and how they were recruited; descriptions of any apparatusa n d materials used; a n d the actual p r o c e d u r e s followed in carrying outthe research5. A s u m m a r y of the results of the study in clear, understandable, nontechnical, nonstatistical, n o j a r g o n language6. An interpretation of the meaning of the findings based on the author'sown discussion in the original article

Prefacexiii7. T h e significance of the study to the field of psychology8. A brief discussion of supportive or c o n t r a d i c t o r y follow-up r e s e a r c hfindings a n d subsequent questioning or criticism from o t h e r s in t h efield9. A sampling of r e c e n t applications a n d citations of the study in others'articles to demonstrate its continuing influence10. References for additional and updated reading relating to the studyOften, scientists speak in languages that a r e n o t easily u n d e r s t o o d(even by o t h e r scientists). T h e p r i m a r y goal of this b o o k is to m a k e thesediscoveries meaningful a n d accessible to t h e r e a d e r a n d to allow you to exp e r i e n c e the e x c i t e m e n t a n d d r a m a o f these r e m a r k a b l e a n d i m p o r t a n tdiscoveries. W h e r e possible a n d a p p r o p r i a t e , I have edited a n d simplifieds o m e o f t h e studies p r e s e n t e d h e r e for ease o f r e a d i n g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g .However, this has b e e n d o n e carefully, so that t h e m e a n i n g a n d e l e g a n c eof the work a r e p r e s e r v e d a n d the i m p a c t of t h e r e s e a r c h is distilled a n dclarified.NEW TO THE SIXTH E D I T I O NThis sixth edition of Forty Studies offers n u m e r o u s noteworthy a n d substantivechanges and additions. I have a d d e d two of the most influential studies in thehistory of psychology about how we perceive the world. T h e first is R o b e r tFantz's revolutionary discovery of an ingenious m e t h o d to allow us to studywhat very young infants "know" (from 1 9 6 1 ) . T h e second, Philip Zimbardo'sfamous Stanford Prison Study (from the early 1 9 7 0 s ) focuses on the powerfuland controlling forces some situations can e x e r t over o u r behavior.In addition, the R e c e n t Applications sections n e a r the e n d of the readings have been updated. These sections sample the n u m e r o u s r e c e n t citations of the 40 studies into the 21st century. T h e 40 studies discussed in thisbook are referred to in over 1 0 0 0 research articles every year! A small sampling of those articles is briefly summarized t h r o u g h o u t this edition to allowyou to e x p e r i e n c e the ongoing influence of these 40 studies that c h a n g e d psychology. All these recently cited studies a r e fully referenced at the e n d ofeach reading along with o t h e r relevant sources. As you r e a d through them,you will be able to appreciate the breadth a n d richness of the contributionsstill being m a d e by the 40 studies that comprise this book.Over the three years since completing the fifth edition, I have continuedto enjoy numerous conversations with, and helpful suggestions from, colleaguesin many branches of psychological research about potential changes in the selection of studies for this new edition. Two studies I have for some time considered including have been mentioned frequently by fellow researchers, so I haveadded them in this edition. E a c h of these two newly incorporated studies, in

xivPrefacetheir own significant ways, e x p a n d e d o u r p e r c e p t i o n s of two very basic aspects o f h u m a n n a t u r e a n d a d d e d t o o u r knowledge o f the complexity a n ddiversity o f the h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e .O n e of the newly a d d e d studies in this edition provided a window intothe p e r c e p t u a l a n d thinking abilities of infants. Of c o u r s e , behavioral scientists have known for d e c a d e s that infants' behaviors in relation to the worlda r o u n d t h e m c h a n g e a n d develop quickly in many ways. But just what dobabies know? How do they think? H o w skilled a r e they at perceiving a n dprocessing events in their e n v i r o n m e n t ? You c a n imagine this is a difficultr e s e a r c h challenge to o v e r c o m e because infants c a n n o t talk to you aboutwhat is going on in their brains. Instead, r e s e a r c h e r s must infer what infants perceive a n d how they think from their observable behaviors. Inessence, this was how the famous Swiss psychologist, J e a n Piaget, who is discussed in C h a p t e r V of this book, f o r m e d his theories of early cognitive dev e l o p m e n t in preverbal infants. In the early 1 9 6 0 s , R o b e r t L. Fantzdiscovered a new way of allowing us to p e e r inside the p e r c e p t i o n s of infants: looking at what they a r e looking at. It turns out that even very younginfants prefer to look at certain objects or events over others. By measuringthis behavior,

Pearson Education Canada, Inc. Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education-Japan Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Pearson Education Australia PTY, Limited PEARSON 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 ISBN-13: 17Ö-D-13-S0M507-7 ISBN-ID: G-13-5tmsa7-X . For Diane Perin Hock and Caroline Mei Perin Hock . CONTENTS PREFACE xi CHAPTER I BIOLOGY AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1 READING 1: ONE BRAIN OR TWO .

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