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Music: Content And Instruction Study Companion

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The Praxis Study CompanionMusic:Content and Instruction5114www.ets.org/praxis

Welcome to the Praxis Study CompanionWelcome to the Praxis Study CompanionPrepare to Show What You KnowYou have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you areready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis test.Using the Praxis Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day.This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time.The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including: An overview of the Praxis tests Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking A template study plan Study topics Practice questions and explanations of correct answers Test-taking tips and strategies Frequently asked questions Links to more detailed informationSo where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you needto revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needsand how much time you have before test day.Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for yourtest. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energyearly in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop theapproach that works best for you.Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck!Know What to ExpectWhich tests should I take?Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take forthe teaching area you wish to pursue.Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agency’s testing requirements at www.ets.org/praxis/states.How are the Praxis tests given?Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (seepage 50).The Praxis Study Companion2

Welcome to the Praxis Study CompanionWhat should I expect when taking the test on computer?When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the testcenter. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how toanswer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing timebegins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like.Where and when are the Praxis tests offered?You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through aninternational network of test centers, which includes Prometric Testing Centers, some universities, and otherlocations throughout the world.Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis web site for more detailed test registration information at www.ets.org/praxis/register.The Praxis Study Companion3

Table of ContentsTable of ContentsThe Praxis Study Companion guides you through the steps to success1. Learn About Your Test.5Learn about the specific test you will be taking2. F amiliarize Yourself with Test Questions. 13Become comfortable with the types of questions you’ll find on the Praxis tests3. Practice with Sample Test Questions. 17Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers4. Determine Your Strategy for Success. 30Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient5. Develop Your Study Plan. 33Develop a personalized study plan and schedule6. Review Study Topics. 37Detailed study topics with questions for discussion7. Review Smart Tips for Success. 48Follow test-taking tips developed by experts8. Check on Testing Accommodations. 50See if you qualify for accommodations to take the Praxis test9. Do Your Best on Test Day. 51Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident10. Understand Your Scores. 53Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scoresAppendix: Other Questions You May Have . 55The Praxis Study Companion4

Step 1: Learn About Your Test1. Learn About Your TestLearn about the specific test you will be takingMusic: Content and Instruction (5114)Test at a GlanceTest NameMusic: Content and InstructionTest Code5114Time2 hours, divided into a 25-minute listening section (Section 1) and a 95-minutenon-listening section (Section 2)Number of Questions84 selected response and 3 constructed responseFormatSelected-response questions and constructed-response questions. This test willinclude questions with an audio component.Test DeliveryComputer deliveredContent CategoriesIVIApproximateNumber ofQuestionsApproximatePercentage ofExaminationI.Music History and Theory3229%II.Performance2421%2825%325%III. Instruction, Professional Issues, andIIIIITechnologyIV. Instructional Activities (constructed response)Pacing andSpecial TipsThe questions in Section I are based on recorded musical excerpts with narrationthat are played individually for each question or set of questions. Section I takesapproximately 25 minutes to complete. Within Section I, you may proceed fromquestion to question within the time allotted, but after time expires, the computerwill automatically advance to Section II. You will not be able to return to Section Iafter Section II begins.You will then have approximately 95 minutes to answer the remaining62 selected-response questions and the three constructed-response questionsin Section 2. The suggested time is 65 minutes for completing the 62 multiplechoice questions and 30 minutes for completing the three constructedresponse questions.About This TestThe Music: Content and Instruction test measures indicators of the beginning educator’s professional readinessto teach K-12 music in each of the three major music education specialties: general, instrumental, and vocalmusic education. Such knowledge is typically obtained in undergraduate music education programs. Materialsappearing on the test reflect the instructional and cultural diversity and inclusiveness of modern musiceducation settings. These materials also reflect instrumental (woodwinds, brass, percussion, and strings),vocal, jazz, and general music instruction specialties across the K–12 grade range. Examinees taking this testThe Praxis Study Companion5

Step 1: Learn About Your Testwill typically have completed, or will have nearlycompleted, an undergraduate music educationprogram. The material in the test, therefore, is notappropriate for those hired in an adjunct capacity toteach a single element of the curriculum (e.g., thosehired to teach only individual lessons or classes on asingle instrument).The test assesses knowledge and skills from a varietyof perspectives. Approximately 50 percent of thetest assesses content related to teaching music. Theother 50 percent covers music content knowledgefoundational to professional practice and indicativeof the training expected by the field. The majorityof the 84 selected-response questions emphasizeknowledge and skills common to all music educationspecialties, such as history, theory, classroom practices,professional issues, and applied technology.This test may contain some questions that will notcount toward your score.Test SpecificationsTest specifications in this chapter describe theknowledge and skills measured by the test. Studytopics to help you prepare to answer test questionscan be found in page 37. The nature anddistribution of specifications included on the testare based on the results of a national survey given tomusic educators. Some of the resources consulted indeveloping the survey include: National Association of School Music 2007–2008Handbook, http://nasm.arts-accredit.org/ Syllabi for Music Methods Courses, 2nd Edition 2002 MENC–The National Association for MusicEducation, Barbara Lewis, University of NorthDakota, ed. College Music Society,http://www.music.org/cgi-bin/showpage.pl Society for Music Teacher Educationhttp://smte.us/ Interstate New Teacher Assessment and SupportConsortium Strategies for Teaching Technology, Carolynn A.Lindeman, ed. 2001 The National Association forMusic Education Performance Standards for Music, Grades PreK–12,Paul R. Lehman, chair. 1996 Music EducatorsNational ConferenceThe Praxis Study CompanionA nationally representative panel of music educatorswas convened to study the survey results and assistETS’s professional assessment staff in determiningthe distribution of topics on the test. Each ETSassessment specialist working on this test hasextensive experience in music education. Additionally,ETS assessment specialists consult regularly withmusic teachers and music education professors fromthroughout the country to ensure the appropriatenessof individual test questions and the validity of eachnew test edition.The following is an outline of the topics covered onthe test. Question content is based specifically onpractitioners’ judgments of what a new music teachershould know in order to begin a career as a musiceducation professional. The phrases and lists includedbelow are examples of representative questioncontent one may see on the test. Additional topicsmay also be included as appropriate.I. Music History and Theory1. Understands the history of majordevelopments in musical style and thesignificant characteristics of important musicalstyles and historical periodsa. styles and historical periods represented lRomanticImpressionismEarly 20th CenturyMid 20th Century to presentJazz, rock, folk, and other popular genresb. characteristics of music related to style ––––––melodyharmonyrhythm and metertempi, dynamics, and other expressiveelementstexturetheory and compositional organizationforms and genreshistorical contextsrepresentative composersrepresentative ensembles and performers6

Step 1: Learn About Your Test2. Is familiar with the style of a variety of worldmusics and their function in the culture oforigina. North Americab. South Americac. Europed. Africae. Australia and the Pacificf. Asia3. Understands and analyzes music in aural andwritten forms and demonstrates aural skillsthrough recognition of melody, harmony, andrhythma. pitch organization and harmony–– chords, progressions, ornamentation–– modes, scales, tone rows, etc.b. theme and melody–– contour and motivec. rhythm, meter, and tempod. form and structuree. texture4. Knows and applies basic music theoryconcepts when composing, orchestrating, andarranging instrumental and vocal partsa. chords and voice leadingb. ranges and alskeysclefsinstrumentsvoicesc. balanced. instrumentation and voicing of ensemblese. functions of instruments and voices withina scoref. expressive elements5. Understands how musical sounds varya. timbre of instruments and voicesb. dynamics6. Knows various sources of printed andelectronic information on music history andliteraturea. booksb. journals and periodicalsc. Web resourcesThe Praxis Study CompanionII.Performance1. Demonstrates critical listening skills byidentifying errorsa. pitchb. intonation of instruments and voices–– tuning students on individual instruments–– tuning between two or more performers–– vowel uniformityc.d.e.f.g.rhythmperforming as a unified section/ensemblebalance and blendarticulationsdynamics2. Understands basic conducting techniquesa. beat patternsb. use of the baton and freehand techniquec. eye contact and facial expressionsd. tempo and tempo changese. attacks, holds, and releasesf. dynamics and expressive gesturesg. cueing3. Understands the interpretation of notation andexpressive elements for performance inrelation to score markings and style periodsa. interpreting musical symbols used for pitchb. interpreting musical symbols used forrhythmc. dynamic markingsd. articulation markingse. tempo markingsf. composers’ written commentsg. timbre4. Knows a variety of strategies on how toprepare a musical score for rehearsal andperformancea. score studyb. score researchc. interpretive decisionsd. score marking5. Understands basic accompanimenttechniques (e.g., on piano, guitar, voice)a. appropriate harmonies to accompany tonalmelodiesb. basic accompanying patterns (e.g.,arpeggiation, block chords, ostinato)7

Step 1: Learn About Your Test6. Knows instrumental and choral/vocal warm-uptechniquesa. breathingb. physical warm-ups (e.g., stretching,posture)c. technical warm-ups (e.g., scales, arpeggios,chorales, vocalises)7. Knows instrumental and choral tuning/intonation techniquesa. instrumental techniques–– tuning students on individual instruments–– tuning between two or more performersb. choral/vocal techniques–– lifting the palate–– vowel uniformity–– breath support and body posture8. Understands concert etiquette for performersand audiences and effective techniques forcommunicating with an audience in aperformance settinga. developing program notes and educationalmaterials for specific purposes andaudiencesb. appropriate remarks in performancesituationsc. techniques of developing appropriatepublicity for the music program and forevents taking place in the music programd. appropriate etiquette for various types ofperformance venues9. Understands the practical relationshipbetween acoustics and performancea. sound productionb. tone qualityc. rehearsal and performance spaceconfigurations and setupsd. reverberation, sound reflection, refractione. frequencyf. amplitude, sound amplificationg. harmonics, partials, overtonesIII.Instruction, Professional Issues, andTechnologyA.Instruction1. Knows instructional strategies for differentclass settingsa. performance classes––––––––––full ensemble rehearsalssectional and small group rehearsalsindividual lessonsrehearsal planningrehearsal strategiesb. elementary and secondary general music–– full class–– small group–– labs and independent projects2. Incorporates local, state, and nationalstandards in planning and instructiona. recognizes importance of linking pedagogyto appropriate standardsb. ability to evaluate degree to whichinstruction links to standards3. Understands classroom managementtechniquesa. physical classroom environmentb. rules and consequencesc. appropriate actions to take for givensituationsd. legal implicationse. planning and pacingf. procedures and routinesg. principles of motivation applied to themusic classroom–– intrinsic–– extrinsic4. Understands how to plan and differentiateinstructiona. how the distinguishing characteristics ofstages of student growth and developmentaffect music learning–– physical–– cognitive–– socialb. scope and sequencec. lesson and unit planningd. student abilityThe Praxis Study Companion8

Step 1: Learn About Your Test5. Knows strategies to accommodate diverselearning styles and abilitiesa. aural learnersb. visual learnersc. kinesthetic learners6. Understands how to modify instruction toaccommodate student needsa. students with ivebehavioralemotionalb. other student needs–– culture and beliefs–– gifted students–– English-language learners7. Understands a variety of assessment strategiesthat inform the instructional processa. use of standardized tests for measuringaptitude and achievementb. portfolio assessmentc. multiple-choice testingd. assessment using scoring rubricse. assessing individual and groupperformance skillsf. appropriate classroom assignment gradingcriteriag. appropriate course grading practicesh. formative assessment–uses in guiding andevaluating students’ progressi. assessments’ role in program evaluationj. taxonomies of instructional/assessmentobjectivesk. techniques to evaluate the effectiveness ofmusic curricula–– program evaluation (e.g., goals andobjectives, scope and sequence)The Praxis Study Companion8. Knows and promotes care and maintenance ofinstruments and materialsa. care of strings (including guitar)brasspercussion and keyboardsclassroom instruments (Orff and rhythminstruments, recorders)–– electronic instrumentsb. care of materials–– printed material (books, music, scores)–– recorded material (CDs, electronic files suchas MP3s)–– risers and stands–– audiovisual and computer equipment9. Knows basic improvisational techniques andhow to teach thema. imitationb. variationc. improvisational techniques within variousstyles10. Knows basic composition and arrangingtechniques and how to teach thema. activities leading to composition (e.g.,improvisation, completion exercises)b. pitch and rhythmic organizationtechniquesc. formd. stylee. thematic constructionf. harmonization, accompaniment, andimitationg. vocal and instrumental ranges11. Knows how to teach a variety of musicalconcepts through performance literaturea. elements of music (i.e., melody, harmony,rhythm, form, timbre, texture) andexpressive elementsb. music theoryc. music historyd. music in relation to other subjectse. musical creativity and the aesthetics ofmusic9

Step 1: Learn About Your Test12. Is aware of approaches for fostering musicallyexpressive experiencesa. fostering musical expression in:8. Supports students’ learning through two-waycommunication with parents/guardiansa. formal and informal:–– performance–– improvisation–– composition–– parent-teacher conferences–– telephone–– written communications, including emailand departmental websitesb. techniques to teach aesthetics:–– guided listening–– analysis, reflection, evaluation–– modeling13. Understands how to integrate concepts usedin the fine arts and other disciplines in musicinstructiona. music integrated with other subjects in thefine artsb. music integrated with subjects outside ofthe fine artsB.Professional Issues1. Understands professional ethics and legalissues specific to teaching music (e.g.,copyright laws, confidentiality, appropriateprofessional conduct)2. Is familiar with the artistic processes andanchor standards applied to music in theNational Core Arts Standards3. Is aware of professional organizations andresources in music educationa. local, state, and national teacher and musicteacher organizationsb. mentors and colleaguesc. books, journals, and periodicalsd. reference works and Web resources4. Is aware of current trends and issues in musiceducation5. Is aware of the major contributions to thehistory and philosophy of music educationand their implications for curriculum6. Understands philosophical reasons forinclusion of and advocacy for music in thecurriculuma. utilitarian (e.g., comprehensive education)b. aesthetic (e.g., affective education)9. Understands basic administrativeresponsibilities in a music programa. budget maintenanceb. inventoryc. scheduling10. Is aware of the external influences that affectthe music program, curriculum, and studentparticipationa. schedulingb. mandatesc. budget constraintsd. advocacy groupse. student and community economics anddemographics11. Is aware of career opportunities available inmusic a

The Music: Content and Instruction test measures indicators of the beginning educator’s professional readiness to teach K-12 music in each of the three major music education specialties: general, instrumental, and vocal music education. Such knowledge is typically obtained in undergraduate music education programs. Materials