Food Preparation, Food Safety & SanitationNOTE: This presentation is about food safety& sanitation practices in general.It does not relate specificallyto the specific food safety& sanitation requirementsof the Cottage Food LawPhoto: National Presto Industries“Partially funded by a CaliforniaDepartment of Food and AgricultureSpecialty Crop Block Grant"
Is Food Safety Important?Safe food practices: Minimizes the risk of foodborne illness Less risk for your businessand Improved customerrelations
Is Foodborne Illness Common?In the United States, during 2011it was estimated that 48 million people were affectedby foodborne illness. 128,000 people werehospitalized. 3,000 people died.Source: Centers for Disease Control, 2011
Sources of MicroorganismsAirWaterSoilFood HandlersPackaging MaterialRaw IngredientsInsectsSurfacesAnimals
People at Higher Risk of Foodborne Illness: Infants Young children and older adults Pregnant women People with impaired immune systems People with some chronic diseases
May Cause More Severe Conditions such asMeningitisDehydration(sometimes severe)Paralysis
Foodborne Illness Symptoms? Upset stomach Diarrhea Fever Vomiting
Food Contaminationfrom farm to the table
Sources of Food ContaminationPhysical:Chemical:Biological: Toothpicks Cleaning solutions Metal shavings Insecticides Bacteria, Glass fragments naturally occurring Bandages Hairtoxins Viruses Parasites
Biological ContaminationBacteria and VirusesParasitesMolds and ToxinsAllergens
Foodborne Illness: SourcesPathogenSourcesNorovirusProduce, shellfish, ready-to-eat foods touched by infected food workers (salads, sandwiches, ice,cookies, fruit), or any other foods contaminated with vomit or feces from an infected personSalmonellaFood: Contaminated eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese, contaminated rawfruits and vegetables (alfalfa sprouts, melons), spices, and nuts.Animals and their environment: Particularly reptiles (snakes, turtles, lizards), amphibians (frogs),birds (baby chicks) and pet food and treats.Clostridium PerfringensBeef, poultry, gravyCampylobacterRaw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water.StaphylococcusFoods that are made with hand contact and require no additional cooking, such as:Salads, such as ham, egg, tuna, chicken, potato, and macaroni; bakery products, such as creamfilled pastries, cream pies, and chocolate éclairs; and sandwiches.Other sources include milk and dairy products, as well as meat, poultry, eggs, and related products.Source: tml
You can’t rely on your sight, smell, or taste . . .Even if tasting wouldtell.why risk getting sick? Even a tiny taste can makeyou sick As few as 10 bacteria cancause foodborne illness!
Four Steps to Prevent Foodborne IllnessUSDA Dietary Guidelinesgive four steps to preventfoodborne illness.
First Step in Food Safety
Personal hygiene is essential for foodhandlersThis includes: Wearing clean clothes. Tying hair back or wearing ahat or hair net. Not smoking or eating in foodpreparation and washingareas. Not wearing jewelry. Proper handwashing.
Wash Your hands!Handwashing is the most effective way to stopthe spread of illness
Know how to wash hands: Wet hands with warm waterApply soapRub hands for 20 secondsRub between fingers, nailsRub forearms; then rinseUse single use towel to dryTurn off water with towelDiscard towel
Do not prepare, cook or serve food if you have a: Cold Cough Sore throat Symptoms ofintestinal illness(vomiting, diarrhea, fever)
Clean and Disinfect Equipment & SurfacesCleaning Removes soil from thesurfaces of equipment andutensils.Disinfecting Reduces the number ofdisease-causing organismson equipment andutensils.
Recipe for Disinfecting SolutionMix together:4 cups of waterDisinfectingsolution!1 Tablespoonliquid of bleach Make a new batch daily as it loses its disinfecting properties
Recipe for Sanitizing SolutionMake a new batch daily as it loses its sanitizing propertiesMix together:1 Tablespoonliquid of bleach1 gallon water 16 cupsSanitizingsolution
Clean Fruits & Vegetables Wash with cold, running water. If there is a firm surface, such as on apples orpotatoes, the surface can be scrubbed with aCLEAN brush. Do NOT use soap or other cleaners.
Don’t wash/rinse meat or poultry!Bacteria in raw meat and poultryjuices can be spread to otherfoods, utensils, and surfaces if itis washed or rinsed.
Separate to Prevent Cross ContaminationKeep raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foodsseparate when shopping, preparing or storingfoods.Separating foods prevents the transfer ofharmful substances from one food toanother.
Prevent Cross ContaminationUse separate cutting boards for: fresh produce raw meat poultry seafood BreadUse clean knives: Designate a knife for meatand poultry and another onefor vegetables and fruit.
Clean & SanitizeUtensils & Surfaces After working with raw foods. Before working with ready-to-eatfoods. Use a clean dish towel. Wash dish towels on the hot cycle inwasher. Wash plastic cutting boards in thedishwasher.
Avoid Cross Contamination Keep raw foodsseparate from ready-toeat and cooked foods. Store raw foods belowready-to-eat andcooked foods.
Cook to a Safe Temperature Whole poultry 165 F Chicken breasts165 F Egg dishes160 F Ground beef160 F Pork145 F Fish145 F Steaks/roasts145 FALWAYS USE A FOOD THERMOMETER
Factors Influencing Microorganism GrowthHigh moistureProteinLow-acid
Bacterial Foodborne Illness4% Use of leftovers7% Improper cleaning7% Cross contamination11% Contaminated raw food12% Inadequate reheating16% Improper hot storage16% Inadequate cooking20% Infected persons touching food21% Time between preparing and serving40% Improper cooling of foods
What is the “Danger Zone?”The danger zone is the temperature range between 41 F -135 F Bacteria multiply rapidly betweenthese temperatures. Viruses do not grow, but they survivein food at these temperatures. Freezing food slows growth, but hightemperatures kill bacteria and viruses. Cook foods to a safe temperature tokill bacteria and viruses.
Keep Foods out of theDANGER ZONE Hot foods should be cooled and reheated only onetime. Cold foods should be kept on ice or in a cooler. Discard food that has been at room temperature ofless than 90 F for over two hours. If the room temperature is 90 F or more, discard afterone hour.
Bacteria MultiplicationBacteria numbers can double every 20 minutes!How many bacteria will result if1 BACTERIUM is left at roomtemperature for 7 hours?
Answer: 2,097,152!Refrigerate perishable foods quickly!
Keep Cut Fruits and VeggiesOut of the Danger ZoneCut fruits and vegetables can grow bacteriaDo not leave out for more than 2 hours
Thaw Frozen Foods SafelyFollow the “Thaw Law!”Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator.
Chill Hot Foods Quickly
Refrigerate! Refrigerate! Refrigerate! Refrigerate foods within 2 hours. Over 90ºF, refrigerate within 1 hour. Chill foods down quickly. Cool foods in shallow containers. Stir to speed up cooling. Ok to refrigerate foods while they'restill warm. Do not overstuff your fridge.
Refrigerator & Freezer Temperatures Set refrigerator at 40o F or lower. Set freezer at 0o F or lower. Use thermometers in refrigeratorsand freezers. Place thermometers in an easy toread location. Check temperatures weekly.
When Transporting Food, Remember to Be sure food is tightly wrapped. Pre-portion and pre-package food inclean containers. Transport in clean vehicles. Do not transport pets or livestockwith the food.
Food Handlers can Contaminate Food Many enteric organisms Staphylococcus aureus Viruses Hepatitus A Norwalk Virus
Cottage Food Kitchens When Cottage food preparation, packaging, orhandling occurs in the home kitchen, no otherhousehold activities such as family mealpreparation, kitchen cleaning, etc. can take placeat the same time. No infants, small children or pets may be in thehome kitchen during any part of cottage foodpreparation and packaging.
Cottage Food Kitchens A sink must be available for handwashing withsoap, hot and cold water and clean towels (singleuse towels are most sanitary). Kitchen equipment used to prepare, package andhandle cottage foods must be clean andmaintained in a good state of repair. When ill, stop preparing and selling cottage foodproducts.
Cleaning Guidelines --Safe Food Handling Water used during the preparation of cottagefood products must meet safety standards. If you have a private well or septic system,contact your Environmental Health agency . Surface sanitizing solution is 100 ppm chlorine;this is made using 1 tablespoon bleach per gallonof warm water. Or use ¾ teaspoon per 4 cups ofwarm water.
Cleaning Guidelines --Safe Food Handling Wash, rinse and sanitize all food contact surfacesevery four hours and before each use. Wash hands, nails, and arms frequently. Remove garbage regularly; wash handsafterwards.
Cottage Food Safety Points Keep all food and non-food surfaces clean. All food preparation and food and equipmentstorage areas must insect and rodent free. Smoking is prohibited in the food preparationportion of the home. All ingredients must come from an approvedsource ---registered producer or food store orfacility.
Storage Guidelines All equipment and utensils must be storedand used within the home. Keep all food ingredients separate fromnon-food (examples: pesticide and cleaningitems). All food shall be protected from dirt,vermin, droplet contamination, overheadleakage, etc. All food must be stored at least 6 inches offthe floor.
Preserved Cottage Foods Fruit Butter, Jam, Jelly, Fruit Preserves Dried Fruit and Vegetables Herb blends Vegetarian Dried Soup Mixes Granolas – Trail Mixes Vinegars -- MustardsWhy are These Allowable Cottage Foods?
pH Examples of Some FoodspH 3pH 4.6pH 7NeutralHigh acid foodspH ScaleLow acid foods
What is pH?pH is a measure of aciditypH -log (H ions)Scale ranges from 0 to 141234567891011 12 13 14High pH:Low pH:AcidicNeutralBasic/Alkaline
SPEED of Bacterial Growth is Influencedby: Properties of the FoodNutrients Moisture Acidity Properties of the EnvironmentTemperature Relative Humidity Air
Growth Factors - Nutrition Foods we find nutritious also good formicroorganisms
Water Activity (aw) Most foods greater than 0.95 allowmicroorganisms to grow C. botulinum prevented from growing aw less than 0.93 All pathogens inhibited aw less than or equal to 0.85
Salt and awC. botulinum strains are prevented fromgrowing at a salt concentration of 10%.10% salt is a water activity of about 0.93.
BOTULISM-Home Canned Food Low acid foods Vegetables Meat and fish Mixtures with lows acid food such asmeat sauce NEVER allowed as Cottage Foods For safety, preserve in PressureCanner –not a boiling water canner!!!
BOTULISM — Toxicity Causes Anaerobic conditions Water activity must be high salt has inhibitory effect on growth due to water bindingproperties pH must be high (greater than 4.6 – equals a low acid food) Nitrite - NaNO2 has inhibitory effect
Cottage Food Operators
Acknowledgements“Partially funded by a CaliforniaDepartment of Food and AgricultureSpecialty Crop Block Grant"Adapted from:Production:Make It Safe, Keep It SafeUniversity of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE)Agriculture and Natural ResourcesDeveloped 2000; updated in 2012, again in June 2014Connie Schneider, Youth, Families and Communities DirectorSusan Donohue, EFNEP Council ChairAnna Martin, Advisor, UCCE San JoaquinDorothy Smith, Advisor, UCCE Amador/Calaveras/TuolomneTammy McMurdo, Community Nutrition EducationDebbie Fetter, Student AssistantJane Chin Young, Advisor, UCCE MarinLinda J. Harris, Food Science Specialist, University of CA, DavisChristine Bruhn, Consumer Economics Specialist, University of CA, DavisOriginal authors and 2014 adaptor: Diane Metz, Emeritus AdvisorUCCE Solano/Yolo Counties
Food Preparation, Food Safety & Sanitation NOTE: This presentation is about food safety & sanitation practices in general. It does not relate specifically to the specific food safety & sanitation requirements of the Cottage Food Law Photo: National Presto Industries “Partially funded by a California Department of Food and Agriculture /p div class "b_factrow b_twofr" div class "b_vlist2col" ul li div strong File Size: /strong 2MB /div /li /ul ul li div strong Page Count: /strong 62 /div /li /ul /div /div /div