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EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEARNUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLDFOR RELEASE FEBRUARY 5, 2015FOR FURTHER INFORMATIONON THIS REPORT:Jesse Holcomb, Senior ResearcherAmy Mitchell, Director, Journalism ResearchDana Page, Communications Manager202.419.4372www.pewresearch.orgRECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center in association with Columbia University’s Tow Center for Digital Journalism,February 5, 2015, “Investigative Journalists and Digital Security”

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR1PEW RESEARCH CENTERAbout This ReportThis report aims at understanding the attitudes of investigative journalists toward digital security,electronic surveillance and hacking. Data in this report are drawn from an online surveyconducted December 3-28, 2014, among a representative sample of 671 members of InvestigativeReporters and Editors, Inc. (IRE). The online survey was funded in part by a grant from ColumbiaUniversity’s Tow Center for Digital Journalism.This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:Principal ResearchersAmy Mitchell, Director, Journalism ResearchJesse Holcomb, Senior ResearcherKristen Purcell, Research ConsultantResearch TeamKaterina Eva Matsa, Research AssociateJeffrey Gottfried, Research AssociateKristine Lu, Research AssistantPublishingJoanna Brenner, Web ProducerAbout Pew Research CenterPew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudesand trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. It conducts publicopinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social scienceresearch. The center studies U.S. politics and policy views; media and journalism; internet andtechnology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and U.S. social and demographic trends. All of the center’s reports are available at www.pewresearch.org. Pew ResearchCenter is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Research Center 2015www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR2PEW RESEARCH CENTEROverviewAbout two-thirds of investigative journalistssurveyed (64%) believe that the U.S.government has probably collected data abouttheir phone calls, emails or onlinecommunications, and eight-in-ten believe thatbeing a journalist increases the likelihood thattheir data will be collected. Those who reporton national security, foreign affairs or thefederal government are particularly likely tobelieve the government has already collecteddata about their electronic communications(71% say this is the case), according to a newsurvey of members of Investigative Reportersand Editors (IRE) – a nonprofit memberorganization for journalists – by the PewResearch Center in association with ColumbiaUniversity’s Tow Center for DigitalJournalism.1Most Investigative Journalists Believethe U.S. Government Collected DataAbout Their Communications% of IRE journalists who believe that the government Probably collected dataTotalProbably did not collect data64Nationalgov't/security/foreign affairsOtherjournalists3471622836IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q17. Nationalgov’t/security/foreign affairs journalists (N 164). Other journalists(N 507).Thus far, concerns about surveillance andPEW RESEARCH CENTERhacking have mostly fallen short of keepingmany journalists from pursuing a story or asource; Just 14% say that in the past 12 months, such concerns have kept them from pursuing astory or reaching out to a particular source, or have led them to consider leaving investigativejournalism altogether.For the purpose of this study, members who were not based in the United States, or who did not identify themselves as practicing journalists(educators or students, for instance) were excluded from further sampling.1www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR3PEW RESEARCH CENTERStill, these concerns have led many of thesejournalists to alter their behavior in the past12 months. Nearly half (49%) say they have atleast somewhat changed the way they store orshare sensitive documents, and 29% say thesame of the way they communicate with otherreporters, editors or producers.And among the 454 respondents who identifyas reporters, 38% say that in the past year theyhave at least somewhat changed the way theycommunicate with sources.When it comes to external protection fromdigital threats like surveillance and hacking,these investigative journalists do not put muchstock in their internet service providers (referredto as ISPs). Just 2% have “a lot of confidence”their ISP can protect their data from beingaccessed by unauthorized parties, while 71%have not much or no confidence at all.Stories Still Pursued; Some Change inSecurity Practices% of IRE journalists who say concerns about electronicsurveillance and hacking led them to Not reach out to aparticular source13Not pursue a particularstory3Consider leavinginvestigative journalism2And % who say that in the past 12 months they have atleast somewhat changed the way they Store/share potentiallysensitive docs49Communicate withother reporters, editorsor producers29IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q6, Q7, Q8, Q9.PEW RESEARCH CENTERMost Investigative Journalists HaveLittle Confidence That ISPs Can ProtectTheir Data% of IRE journalists who have in their ISPA lot ofconfidence2%Someconfidence27%Not much or noconfidence at all71%IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q14. Those who did notanswer amounted to less than 1%.PEW RESEARCH CENTERwww.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR4PEW RESEARCH CENTERNews organizations get mixed reviews for their ability toprotect the security of their employees’ communications.Among those who work for news organizations (589 of the 671journalists surveyed), half say their employer is not doingenough to protect journalists and their sources fromsurveillance and hacking, while about the same share (47%)says they are doing enough. Just 21% say their organizationhas taken steps or implemented policies in the past year toprotect journalists and their sources, while 36% say theirorganization has not, and 42% do not know. About half (54%)report getting no formal training or instruction on electronicsecurity issues from professional sources such as journalismassociations, news organizations or journalism schools.Still, other issues are more pressing for the profession thansurveillance and hacking. When asked to rank four challengesfacing journalists today, an overwhelming majority (88%) ofjournalists identify decreasing resources in newsrooms as theirtop concern. No other issue comes close. Following far behindare: legal action against journalists (5%), electronicsurveillance by governments or corporations (4%) and hackingtargeted at journalists or news organizations (1%).Furthermore, relatively few journalists (27%) have spent atleast “some time” in the past 12 months researching how toimprove their electronic security.Journalists Split on HowWell Their OrganizationsProtect Them AgainstSurveillance and HackingAmong IRE journalists who work ina news organization, % who saytheir organization is No answer2%Not doingenough toprotect themand theirsources50%Doing enoughto protectthem and theirsources47%IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014.Q10. Figures may not add to 100% becauseof rounding. N 589.PEW RESEARCH CENTEROverall, these data paint a complex picture in which investigative journalists on the whole feelvulnerable to surveillance and hacking, but not to the degree that most are changing theirjournalistic practices dramatically or investing energy into figuring out how to do so. And nearlyall of those surveyed (97%) say that for today’s journalists, the benefits of digital communicationlike email and cellphones outweigh the risks. Just 3% say the risks outweigh the benefits.About This SurveyThe analysis in this report is based on an online survey conducted from December 3-28, 2014,with a representative sample of 671 journalists who are members of Investigative Reporters andEditors, Inc. (IRE). The 671 investigative journalists include a mix of reporters, producers, editors,data specialists, photojournalists and others, and comprise a wide range of coverage areas.www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR5PEW RESEARCH CENTERThe survey was written and analyzed by Pew Research Center staff, and field work was conducted byPrinceton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI). Email invitations containingindividualized survey links to access the online study were sent to 2,723 investigative journalists inthe United States who are members of IRE. Journalists also had the option of returning a printversion of the survey through the mail. For more detailed information, see the Methodology section.www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR6PEW RESEARCH CENTERInvestigative Journalists’ Perceptions About the SurveillanceClimateAbout two-thirds of IRE journalists (64%)believe that the U.S. government probably hascollected data about their own phone calls,emails or online communications. Thisperception is especially prevalent among thosewho cover national security, foreign affairs orthe federal government. Fully 71% of thisgroup says the government has likely collectedthis data.Eight-in-ten of all journalists surveyed (80%)express the belief that being a journalistincreases the likelihood that their data will becollected by the U.S. government.Most Investigative Journalists Believethe U.S. Government Has CollectedTheir Data% of all IRE journalists who believe that YesNoGov't probably collecteddata about theircommunicationsBeing a journalistincreases likelihood theirdata will be collected byU.S. gov't64348020IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q17 & Q18.PEW RESEARCH CENTERDespite a majority believing they may beelectronically surveilled, particularly becauseof their work in journalism, open-end responses reflect wide-ranging views about the realpossibility of the government collecting data about their communications. While some journalistsclearly feel vulnerable or work under the assumption that all electronic communications can bemonitored (“I figure everything I do is tracked”), others see this monitoring as such a remotepossibility that it does not warrant much attention (“I don’t worry too much”). Many assert thatonly journalists focusing on national issues or government investigations would be monitored, andsome feel the likelihood of being monitored in the U.S. is small compared with the likelihood ofexperiencing it in other countries.www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR7PEW RESEARCH CENTERIRE journalists working for newsorganizations are evenly split on whether theiremployer is doing enough to protect them andtheir sources from things like surveillance andhacking. While 47% of these journalists saythe organization they work for is doing enoughto protect journalists and their sources, 50%say they are not doing enough.More Than a Third of InvestigativeJournalists Feel Their Organization HasNot Taken Steps Against Surveillanceand HackingAmong IRE journalists who work in a newsorganization, % who feel their organization has toprotect them from surveillance & hackingTaken steps in thepast 12 months21Not taken steps in the36past 12 monthsAbout one-in-five respondents who work for anews organization (21%) say their employerIRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q11. N 589.has taken steps or changed policies in the pastPEW RESEARCH CENTERyear to protect journalists from electronicsurveillance and hacking, while 36% say theiremployer has not done this. Another 42% are not sure if their employer has taken any steps orchanged any policies in this area.Respondents’ verbatim responses indicate that while some organizations appear to be doing a lot,others appear to be taking few, if any, steps. In a world of diminishing newsroom resources, somerespondents say the issue has not risen to a level where it can be treated as a budgetary priority.Comments also show that while some journalists view these issues as being the responsibility ofthe IT department and something they do not pay much attention to, others are activelyencouraging their organizations to improve.A majority of IRE journalists have little or noconfidence that their ISPs can protect theirdata. Just 2% of all journalists surveyed have“a lot of confidence” their ISP can protect theirdata from being accessed by unauthorizedparties, with 27% having “some confidence.”In contrast, 44% have “not much confidence,”and another 26% have “no confidence at all.”Majority of Journalists Believe ISPWould Share Their Data With the U.S.Government% of IRE journalists who believe that their ISP wouldshare their data with the U.S. government As part of standard NSAdata gatheringIf subpoenaed by theMoreover, the vast majority of respondentsgov't as part of acriminal investigation(90%) believe their ISP would share their dataIRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q15 & Q16.with the U.S. government as part of standardNational Security Agency (NSA) data gathering, PEW RESEARCH CENTERand 97% believe their ISP would share theirdata if subpoenaed by the government as part of a criminal investigation.www.pewresearch.org9097

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR8PEW RESEARCH CENTERImpact of Security Concerns on News ReportingOn the whole, few IRE journalists say concerns about surveillance and hacking have changed thestories or sources they pursue, but those who identify as reporters do feel an impact when it comesto their sources’ willingness to share information.Just 13% say concerns about surveillance and hacking have led them to not reach out to aparticular source, and even fewer say concerns have led them to not pursue a particular story (3%)or to consider leaving investigative journalism (2%). In addition, only a quarter report being very(5%) or somewhat (18%) concerned that they or the organization they work for will lose a story toa journalist or organization with more sophisticated security measures, while the majority say theyare not too (53%) or not at all (24%) concerned about this.Looking specifically at the cautions that some IRE reporters are taking provides a greater sense ofthe way communications with sources may, or may not, be changing. Roughly four-in-ten (38%)have, in the past year, at least somewhat changed the way they communicate with sources.One-third of these reporters (33%) say that over the past year, it has become harder to findsources willing to go on the record, a term that means what the source says can be reported,published or aired.There has been less impact onthe willingness of sources totalk off the record, whichmeans that what a source saysmay not be used for directpublication. About threequarters (74%) report nodifference over the past year,while 8% say it has becomeeasier, and 12% say it hasbecome harder. These off-therecord sources are commontoday. Roughly four-in-ten IREreporters (42%) use off-therecord sources in some of theirstories they produce, and 19%use them in all or most.When it comes to the specificactions journalists may or mayMeeting In Person Most Common Way to ProtectSources% of IRE reporters who Yes, started in Yes, for more No, do notpast 12 months than a yeardo thisMeet in person instead ofcommunicating by phone or emailUse encryption if communicating byemail or IMTurn off electronic devices if meetinga source in personAvoid using third party email serverslike GmailCommunicate through fake emailaccounts or anonymous usernamesUse voice encryption ifcommunicating by phone1148338776711725137359762187IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q20. N 454.PEW RESEARCH CENTERwww.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR9PEW RESEARCH CENTERnot take to protect their sources, the most common technique by far – practiced among 59% ofIRE reporters – is to meet them in person. That is followed by turning off electronic devices whenmeeting sources (18%), avoiding the use of third-party email servers when communicating withsources (17%), using email encryption (14%), using “fake” or anonymous email and onlineaccounts (14%), and using voice encryption on phones (2%).In most cases, there are more reporters who have used these techniques for more than a year thanreporters who began using them within the last year. The exceptions are email encryption andvoice encryption, which are fairly new tools and are only recently being adopted by IRE reporters.IRE reporters age 40 and older are more likely than younger reporters to say it has become harderto find sources willing to go on the record (40% say this, compared with 29% of those under age40). They are also more likely to meet sources in person (65% v. 55%), turn off electronic deviceswhen meeting a source in person (23% v. 13%), and avoid using third party email servers whencommunicating with sources (23% v. 13%).www.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR10PEW RESEARCH CENTERAdoption of Digital Security ToolsBeyond specific questions about how IRE reporters are communicating with their sources is abroader one: What kinds of steps are survey respondents taking to protect their own data, devices,and communications — not just with sources, but with each other? The survey finds that fully half(49%) of all respondents indicate that in the past year they have changed the way they share andstore sensitive documents “a lot” (17%) or “some” (32%). Three-in-ten have changed the way theycommunicate with colleagues.The survey asked about a range of practices these journalists might adopt, such as clearing theirbrowser history, and then separately about a range of tools or software they might use to protecttheir digital privacy.Half or more of all respondentssaid they engage in each of fivespecific practices asked about.The most commonly usedtechnique is the simple step ofusing different passwords fordifferent online accounts(91%), followed by changingprivacy settings on socialnetwork sites (73%) andturning off the geolocationfeature on mobile devices(67%). Most respondents whoreport using these approachessay they have done so for morethan a year.Using Different Passwords for Different OnlineAccounts Most Common Practice to Protect DigitalPrivacy% of IRE journalists who Disable or turn off cookiesRegularly clear your browserhistoryUse different passwords fordifferent online accountsTurn off the geolocation featureon mobile devices, apps or socialmedia platformsUse enhanced privacy settingson social media sites likeFacebook or TwitterYes, started in Yes, for more No, do not dopast 12 months than a yearthis11404913513615768184833145827IRE Journalists Survey. Dec. 3 – 28, 2014. Q13.PEW RESEARCH CENTERwww.pewresearch.org

EMBARGOED COPY – NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION UNTIL 00:00 a.m./p.m. EDT, MONTH DATE, YEAR11PEW RESEARCH CENTERUsage of specific tools and software is less common.Respondents were asked about eight different tools they couldemploy on their home or work computers, tablets orcellphones, as well as whether they had adopted them recently.While we do not list these tools individually due to concernsexpressed by those surveyed, they included everything fromturning off geolo

embargoed copy – not for publication or distribution until 00:00 a.m./p.m. edt, month date, year The survey was written and analyzed by Pew Research Center staff, and field work was conducted by Pr

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