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Routing TCP/IP, Volume IICCIE Professional Development, Second EditionJeff DoyleCisco Press800 East 96th StreetIndianapolis, IN 46240

iiRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIRouting TCP/IP, Volume IICCIE Professional Development, Second EditionJeff DoyleCopyright 2017 Cisco Systems, Inc.Published by:Cisco Press800 East 96th StreetIndianapolis, IN 46240 USAAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion ofbrief quotations in a review.Printed in the United States of AmericaFirst Printing August 2016Library of Congress Control Number: 2016936742ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-470-9ISBN-10: 1-58705-470-1Warning and DisclaimerThis book is designed to provide information about routing TCP/IP. Every effort has been made tomake this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied.The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc.shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programsthat may accompany it.The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of CiscoSystems, Inc.Trademark AcknowledgmentsAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have beenappropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of thisinformation. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of anytrademark or service mark.Special SalesFor information about buying this title in bulk quantities, or for special sales opportunities (whichmay include electronic versions; custom cover designs; and content particular to your business,training goals, marketing focus, or branding interests), please contact our corporate sales department at or (800) 382-3419.For government sales inquiries, please contact questions about sales outside the U.S., please contact

iiiFeedback InformationAt Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Eachbook is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the uniqueexpertise of members from the professional technical community.Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regardinghow we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, youcan contact us through email at Please make sure to include the booktitle and ISBN in your message.We greatly appreciate your assistance.Editor-in-Chief: Mark TaubProduct Line Manager: Brett BartowAlliances Manager, Cisco Press: Ron FliggeManaging Editor: Sandra SchroederDevelopment Editor: Christopher ClevelandProject Editor: Deadline Driven PublishingCopy Editor: Deadline Driven PublishingTechnical Editors: Darien Hirotsu, Pete MoyerEditorial Assistant: Vanessa EvansCover Designer: Chuti PrasertsithComposition: Patricia RatcliffIndexer: Angie MartinProofreader: Deadline Driven Publishing

ivRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIAbout the AuthorJeff Doyle, CCIE No. 1919, is vice president of research at Fishtech Labs. Specializingin IP routing protocols, SDN/NFV, data center fabrics, MPLS, and IPv6, Jeff hasdesigned or assisted in the design of large-scale IP service provider and enterprise networks in 26 countries over 6 continents. He worked with early IPv6 adopters in Japan,China, and South Korea, and has advised service providers, government agencies, military contractors, equipment manufacturers, and large enterprises on best-practice IPv6deployment. He now advises large enterprises on evolving data center infrastructures,SDN, and SD-WAN.Jeff is the author of CCIE Professional Development: Routing TCP/IP, Volumes I andII and OSPF and IS-IS: Choosing an IGP for Large-Scale Networks; a co-author ofSoftware Defined Networking: Anatomy of OpenFlow; and an editor and contributing author of Juniper Networks Routers: The Complete Reference. He also writes forForbes and blogs for both Network World and Network Computing. Jeff is one of thefounders of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force, is an IPv6 Forum Fellow, and serveson the executive board of the Colorado chapter of the Internet Society (ISOC).Jeff lives in Westminster, Colorado, with his wife Sara and a Sheltie named Max, theForrest Gump of the dog world. Jeff and Sara count themselves especially fortunate thattheir four grown children and a growing herd of grandchildren all live within a few miles.About the Contributing AuthorsKhaled W. Abuelenain, CCIE No. 27401, is currently the consulting director forAcuative, a Cisco Certified Managed Services Master Partner, at the company’s EMEAoffice in Saudi Arabia. He is a certified double CCIE (R&S, SP), holds a B.Sc. degree inelectronics and communication engineering from Ain Shams University, Egypt, and isan IEEE member since 1997. Khaled has been designing, operating, or optimizing largescale networks for more than 14 years throughout the Middle East, typically for serviceproviders and mobile operators with multinational presence, banks, and governmentagencies. He has extensive experience in routing, BGP, MPLS, and IPv6. Khaled is also anexpert on data center technologies and network programmability, with a special interestin Python programming for SDN solutions. He is an active member of both the CloudComputing and SDN IEEE societies.Nicolas Michel, dual CCIE No. 29410 R/S and DC, is a network architect with 10 yearsof experience in several fields: routing switching, data center, and unified communications. Nicolas is a former Sergeant in the French Air Force and started to work as a network engineer during the time he was serving. He has worked on several NATO-relatedprojects.He decided to move to Switzerland in 2011, to work for the local leading networkingconsulting company.He was the principal UC architect for the UEFA EURO 2016 football tournament.

vNicolas is also an eager reader about emerging network technologies (SDN, Automation/Network programmability). He blogs at and is also a president for anongovernmental organization that helps children with autism.He participates in an open source network simulation project: is actually trying to relocate to the United States.From Nicolas: I would like to dedicate the work I have done on this book to my wonderful wife who has supported me throughout my career and helps me become a betterengineer and a better man. I wouldn’t be the same man without her.Also I would like to dedicate this work to my kids and my parents, who taught me tonever give up and to enjoy every moment.Finally, I would express my heartfelt thanks to Jeff Doyle for giving me the opportunityto work on this project. I learned so many things and I still can’t believe how lucky I was.About the Technical ReviewersDarien Hirotsu is a networking professional who has been in the industry for nearly adecade working on service provider, data center, and enterprise networks. He earned amaster’s degree in network engineering from UC Santa Cruz and a bachelor’s degree inelectrical engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. He also holds multiple expert levelcertifications, and is equally passionate about both the software and networking partsof SDN.Darien would like to send extra special thanks to his fiancé Rebecca Nguyen. Editing thisbook was both rewarding and time consuming. During the whole process and throughthe long weekends, Rebecca’s love, support, and patience never wavered, and for that, hewill always be grateful. Thank you for everything you do, Rebecca!Pete Moyer is an old-timer IP/MPLS consulting engineer who has turned his focustoward SDN in recent years. He has multivendor experience in IP networking, havingearned the first awarded JNCIE in the early 2000s and his CCIE in the late 1990s. Heis a co-author and technical editor of several networking books on IP and SDN andhas authored many articles and blogs on various networking topics. His current focusis on large-scale data center and service provider networks, including the Research& Education Network (REN) market. He also holds a B.S. degree in CMIS from theUniversity of Maryland.

viRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIDedicationsThis book is dedicated to my wife Sara; my children, Anna, Carol, James, andKatherine; and my grandchildren, Claire, Caroline, and Sam. They are my refuge, andthey keep me sane, humble, and happy.

viiAcknowledgmentsAn author of a technical book is just a front for a small army of brilliant, dedicatedpeople. This book is no exception. At the risk of sounding like I’m making an AcademyAward acceptance speech, I would like to thank a number of those people.I would like to thank Khaled Abu El Enian and Nicolas Michel, who contributed manynew end-of-chapter configuration and troubleshooting exercises. Khaled also helped meout in a time crunch and wrote most sections in “Scaling BGP Functions” in Chapter 5,“Scaling BGP.” I hope we can collaborate even closer on a future book or two.I would also like to thank Pete Moyer, my longtime friend and associate, who has been atechnical reviewer for every book I’ve written alone and has been a co-author on severalother books. Pete has had a profound influence on my life beyond this and other bookprojects, and I will always be indebted to him.Darien Hirotsu is the other technical reviewer on this book, and it’s the first time wehave worked together on a book project, although we have been associates across multiple companies and engineering projects. Darien is astoundingly detail-oriented andcaught countless tiny errors throughout my manuscript.My gratitude goes to Chris Cleveland for his expert guidance as development editor.We have collaborated on multiple books, and he has made each one a better book andme a better writer.Thanks to Brett Bartow and all the folks at Cisco Press. Brett has shown superhumanpatience with me as the book schedule constantly fell victim to “day job” priorities. Hehas continued to show me great kindness throughout the project when I’m sure he wouldhave preferred to bash me on the head with a copy of Volume I.I would like to thank my wife Sara, who has lived with me juggling multiple writing projects over many years. She long ago learned what it means when she notices me staringblankly at nothing, and says, “You’re writing in your head again, aren’t you?”Finally, I would like to thank you, good reader, for making the two volumes of RoutingTCP/IP such a success and for waiting so patiently for me to finish this new edition. Ihope the book proves to be worth your wait.

viiiRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIContents at a GlanceIntroductionxxiChapter 1Inter-Domain Routing Concepts 1Chapter 2Introduction to BGP 71Chapter 3BGP and NLRI 155Chapter 4BGP and Routing Policies 237Chapter 5Scaling BGP 401Chapter 6Multiprotocol BGP 615Chapter 7Introduction to IP Multicast Routing 713Chapter 8Protocol Independent Multicast 771Chapter 9Scaling IP Multicast Routing 881Chapter 10IPv4 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT44) 931Chapter 11IPv6 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT64) 995Appendix AAnswers to Review Questions 1047Index1079Appendix B (online) Answers to Configuration ExercisesAppendix C (online) Answers to Troubleshooting Exercises

ixContentsIntroduction xxiChapter 1Inter-Domain Routing Concepts1Early Inter-Domain Routing: The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 1Origins of EGP 2Operation of EGP 3EGP Topology Issues 3EGP Functions 5Neighbor Acquisition Protocol 6Neighbor Reachability Protocol 8Network Reachability Protocol 10Shortcomings of EGP 15The Advent of BGP 16BGP Basics 17Autonomous System Types 21External and Internal BGP 22Multihoming29Transit AS Multihoming 30Stub AS Multihoming 31Multihoming and Routing Policies 36Multihoming Issues: Load Sharing and Load Balancing 36Multihoming Issues: Traffic Control 37Multihoming Issues: Provider-Assigned Addressing 40Classless Inter-Domain Routing 41A Summarization Summary 41Classless Routing 43Summarization: The Good, the Bad, and the Asymmetric 47CIDR: Reducing Class B Address Space Depletion 50CIDR: Reducing Routing Table Explosion 50Managing and Assigning IPv4 Address Blocks 54CIDR Issues: Multihoming and Provider-Assigned Addresses 56CIDR Issues: Address Portability 58CIDR Issues: Provider-Independent Addresses 59CIDR Issues: Traffic Engineering 60CIDR Approaches Its Limits 62

xRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIIPv6 Comes of Age 66Routing Table Explosion, Again 66Looking Ahead 68Review Questions 69Chapter 2Introduction to BGP 71Who Needs BGP? 71Connecting to Untrusted Domains 71Connecting to Multiple External Neighbors 74Setting Routing Policy 79BGP Hazards 82Operation of BGP 84BGP Message Types 85Open Message85Keepalive MessageUpdate Message8686Notification Message87BGP Finite State Machine 87Idle State88Connect StateActive State8989OpenSent State89OpenConfirm State 90Established State 90Path Attributes90ORIGIN Attribute92AS PATH Attribute92NEXT HOP AttributeWeight97100BGP Decision Process 100BGP Message Formats 103Open Message 104Update Message 105Keepalive Message 108Notification Message 108

xiConfiguring and Troubleshooting BGP Peering 110Case Study: EBGP Peering 110Case Study: EBGP Peering over IPv6 114Case Study: IBGP Peering 118Case Study: Connected Check and EBGP Multihop 127Case Study: Managing and Securing BGP Connections 136Looking Ahead 142Review Questions 143Configuration Exercises 144Troubleshooting Exercises 145Chapter 3BGP and NLRI 155Configuring and Troubleshooting NLRI in BGP 155Injecting Prefixes with the network Statement 156Using the network mask Statement 160Injecting Prefixes with Redistribution162NLRI and IBGP 167Managing Prefixes in an IBGP Topology 168IBGP and IGP Synchronization 179Advertising BGP NLRI into the Local AS182Redistributing BGP NLRI into the IGP 182Case Study: Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with IBGP 184Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with Static Routes 193Advertising a Default Route to a Neighboring AS 196Advertising Aggregate Routes with BGP 198Case Study: Aggregation Using Static Routes 199Aggregation Using the aggregate-address Statement 201ATOMIC AGGREGATE and AGGREGATOR Attributes 207Using AS SET with Aggregates 210Looking Ahead 218Review Questions 218Configuration Exercises 219Troubleshooting Exercises 223Chapter 4BGP and Routing Policies 237Policy and the BGP Database 238IOS BGP Implementation 249InQ and OutQ 249

xiiRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIIOS BGP Processes251NHT, Event, and the Open ProcessesTable Versions258Managing Policy Changes267Clearing BGP Sessions268Soft ReconfiguratonRoute Refresh256269274Route Filtering TechniquesFiltering Routes by NLRI279280Case Study: Using Distribute Lists280Route Filtering with Extended ACLsCase Study: Using Prefix Lists293Filtering Routes by AS PATH304Regular Expressions292304Literals and Metacharacters 305Delineation: Matching the Start and End of Lines 306Bracketing: Matching a Set of Characters 306Negating: Matching Everything Except a Set of Characters 306Wildcard: Matching Any Single Character 307Alternation: Matching One of a Set of Characters 307Optional Characters: Matching a Character That May orMay Not Be There 307Repetition: Matching a Number of Repeating Characters 307Boundaries: Delineating Literals 308Putting It All Together: A Complex Example 308Case Study: Using AS-Path Filters 309Case Study: Setting Policy with Route Maps 314Filter Processing 322Influencing the BGP Decision Process 323Case Study: Administrative Weights 325Case Study: Using the LOCAL PREF Attribute 334Case Study: Using the MULTI EXIT DISC Attribute 343Case Study: Prepending the AS PATH 366Case Study: Administrative Distances and Backdoor Routes 372Controlling Complex Route Maps 379Continue Clauses 380Policy Lists 383

xiiiLooking Ahead 386Review Questions 386Configuration Exercises 388Troubleshooting Exercises 392Chapter 5Scaling BGP 401Scaling the Configuration 402Peer Groups 403Peer Templates 413Session TemplatesPolicy Templates414419Communities 425Well-Known Communities 426Arbitrary Communities 434Using the AA:NN Format 443Expanded Community Lists 445Adding and Deleting Communities 460Extended Community Lists 472Scaling BGP Functions 478Route Flap Dampening479Outbound Route Filters (ORF) 486Next-Hop Tracking 496Fast External Fallover 509Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) 512BGP Prefix Independent Convergence (PIC) 523ADD-PATHS Capability 528Graceful Restart 538Maximum Prefixes 540Tuning BGP CPU 552Tuning BGP Memory 556BGP Transport Optimization 563Optimizing TCP 563Optimizing BGP Update Generation 568Optimizing TCP ACK Message Receipt 568Scaling the BGP Network 569Private AS Numbers5694-Byte AS Numbers 574

xivRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIIBGP and the N-Squared Problem 575Confederations 576Route Reflectors 592Looking Ahead606Review Questions607Configuration Exercises 608Troubleshooting Exercises 612Chapter 6Multiprotocol BGP615Multiprotocol Extensions to BGP 616MBGP Support for the IPv6 Address Family 618Configuring MBGP for IPv6 619IPv4 and IPv6 Prefixes over an IPv4 TCP Session 620Upgrading IPv4 BGP Configurations to the Address Family Format 629IPv4 and IPv6 over an IPv6 TCP Connection 631Dual Stack MBGP Connection 642Multihop Dual Stack MBGP Connection 647Mixed IPv4 and IPv6 Sessions 650Multiprotocol IBGP 654Case Study: Multiprotocol Policy Configuration 666Looking Ahead 705Review Questions 705Configuration Exercises 706Question 1: 707Troubleshooting Exercises 709Chapter 7Introduction to IP Multicast RoutingRequirements for IP Multicast713716IPv4 Multicast Addresses717IPv6 Multicast Addresses721Group Membership Concepts724Joining and Leaving a Group 726Join Latency 726Leave Latency 727Group Maintenance 728Multiple Routers on a Network 728

xvInternet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 729IGMPv2 Host Functions 730IGMPv2 Router Functions 731IGMPv1733IGMPv3735IGMP Message Format 736Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) 742IGMP/MLD Snooping 745Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) 749Multicast Routing Issues 753Multicast Forwarding 754Multicast Routing 756Sparse Versus Dense Topologies 757Implicit Joins Versus Explicit Joins 758Source-Based Trees Versus Shared Trees 760Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) 761Multicast Scoping 763TTL Scoping763Administrative Scoping 765Looking Ahead 766Recommended Reading 766Review Questions 766Configuration Exercises 768Chapter 8Protocol Independent Multicast 771Introduction to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) 771Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM) 773PIM-DM Basics 773Prune Overrides 779Unicast Route Changes 782PIM-DM Designated Routers 782PIM Forwarder Election 782Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 785PIM-SM Basics 786

xviRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIFinding the Rendezvous Point 787Bootstrap Protocol 787Auto-RP Protocol 789Embedded RP Addresses 790PIM-SM and Shared Trees 793Source Registration 796PIM-SM and Shortest Path Trees 803PIMv2 Message Formats 808PIMv2 Message Header Format 809PIMv2 Hello Message Format 810PIMv2 Register Message Format 811PIMv2 Register Stop Message Format 812PIMv2 Join/Prune Message Format 812PIMv2 Bootstrap Message Format 814PIMv2 Assert Message Format 815PIMv2 Graft Message Format 816PIMv2 Graft-Ack Message Format 816Candidate-RP-Advertisement Message Format 817Configuring IP Multicast Routing817Case Study: Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-DenseMode (PIM-DM) 819Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 828Case Study: Statically Configuring the RP 829Case Study: Configuring Auto-RP 837Case Study: Configuring Sparse-Dense Mode 845Case Study: Configuring the Bootstrap Protocol 849Case Study: Multicast Load Sharing 856Troubleshooting IP Multicast Routing 863Using mrinfo 865Using mtrace and mstat 867Looking Ahead 872Recommended Reading 872Review Questions 873Configuration Exercises 873Troubleshooting Exercises 876

xviiChapter 9Scaling IP Multicast Routing881Multicast Scoping 881Case Study: Multicasting Across Non-Multicast Domains 885Connecting to DVMRP Networks 888Inter-AS Multicasting891Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP)894Operation of Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) 896MSDP Message Formats 898Source Active TLV 898Source Active Request TLV 899Source Active Response TLV 900Keepalive TLV 900Notification TLV 900Case Study: Configuring MBGP 902Case Study: Configuring MSDP 908Case Study: MSDP Mesh Groups 913Case Study: Anycast RP 917Case Study: MSDP Default Peers 923Looking Ahead 926Review Questions 926Configuration Exercise 927Chapter 10IPv4 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT44) 931Operation of NAT44 932Basic NAT Concepts 932NAT and IP Address Conservation 934NAT and ISP Migration 937NAT and Multihomed Autonomous Systems 938Port Address Translation (PAT) 940NAT and TCP Load Distribution 942NAT and Virtual Servers 944NAT Issues 944Header Checksums 945Fragmentation 945Encryption 945Security 946

xviiiRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIProtocol-Specific Issues 946ICMP947DNSFTP948951SMTP953SNMP953Routing Protocols 953Traceroute 953Configuring NAT44 955Case Study: Static NAT 955NAT44 and DNS 962Case Study: Dynamic NAT 964Case Study: A Network Merger 969Case Study: ISP Multihoming with NAT 975Port Address Translation 980Case Study: TCP Load Balancing 982Case Study: Service Distribution 984Troubleshooting NAT44 986Looking Ahead 988Review Questions 989Configuration Exercises 989Troubleshooting Exercises 991Chapter 11IPv6 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT64) 995Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT) 997IPv4/IPv6 Header Translation 999ICMP/ICMPv6 Translation 1002Fragmentation and PMTU1005Upper-Layer Header Translation 1006Network Address Translation with Port Translation (NAT-PT) 1007Operation of NAT-PT 1008Configuring NAT-PT 1010Why Is NAT-PT Obsolete? 1029Stateless NAT64 1031Operation of Stateless NAT64 1031Configuration of Stateless NAT64 1036Limitations of NAT64 1038

xixStateful NAT64 1038Operation of Stateful NAT64 1038Configuration of Stateful NAT64 1041Limitations of Stateful NAT64 1043Looking Ahead 1043Review Questions 1044Configuration Exercise 1044Configuration Exercise Premise 1045Appendix AAnswers to Review Questions 1047Index 1079Appendix B (online) Answers to Configuration ExercisesAppendix C (online) Answers to Troubleshooting Exercises

xxRouting TCP/IP, Volume IICommand Syntax ConventionsThe conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventionsused in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. Inactual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), boldfaceindicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. Vertical bars ( ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element.

xxiIntroductionSince the publication of Volume I of Routing TCP/IP, many volumes have been addedto the Cisco Press CCIE Professional Development series. And the CCIE program hasexpanded to include various areas of specialization. Yet the IP routing protocols remainthe essential foundation on which CCIE candidates must build their expertise. If thefoundation is weak, the house will tumble.I stated in the introduction to Volume I that “ as internetworks grow in size and complexity, routing issues can become at once both large and subtle.” Scalability and management of growth continues to be a central theme in this second volume, as we movebeyond the interior gateway protocols to examine both inter-autonomous system routing and more exotic routing issues such as multicasting and IPv6.My objective in this book is not only to help you walk away from the CCIE lab examwith one of those valued and valuable numbers after your name, but also to help youdevelop the knowledge and skills to live up to the CCIE title. As with the first volume, Iwant to make CCIEs, not people who can pass the CCIE lab. In this vein, you can find inthis book more information than you need to pass the lab, but certainly all the materialis important in your career as a recognized internetworking expert.When I earned my CCIE, the lab still consisted mostly of AGS routers. Certainly, thelab and the nature of the exam has changed substantially since that ancient time. If anything, the lab is more difficult now. Another addition to the CCIE program has beenthe recertification requirement. Even before I took the recertification exam for the firsttime, people told me how much Volume I helped them prepare for the test—particularlyfor IS-IS, a protocol that few outside of service provider environments are exposed to.I have therefore written this second volume with not only CCIE candidates in mind, butalso existing CCIEs who need to review for their recertification. The chapters on multicasting and IPv6 are directed to this audience.I have endeavored to follow the same structure that I followed in Volume I, in which aprotocol is introduced in generic terms, followed by examples of configuring the protocol using Cisco IOS, and finally by examples of IOS tools for troubleshooting the protocol. For BGP and IP multicast, this structure is far too lengthy for a single chapter andtherefore spans multiple chapters.I hope you learn as much from reading this book as I have writing it.Introduction to the Second EditionAlmost from the moment the first edition of this volume went to print in 2001, I’vewanted to add to it and, in some cases, change it. Some of that motivation came frommy growing experience. Between 1998 and 2010, I worked almost exclusively with service providers and carriers, and I learned something new with almost every design project, technical discussion, and seminar I led or participated in. Certainly, some of this newknowledge just filled gaps in my own experience, but not all of it. I also learned along

xxiiRouting TCP/IP, Volume IIwith the rest of the networking industry as BGP and multicast networks became moresophisticated, as new capabilities were added, and as best practices evolved.What’s Changed in the Industry?The following sections outline what has changed in the industry since the first edition ofthis book was published.BGPAll the core concepts of BGP were already around when the first edition of this bookwas released in 2001. It was the external gateway protocol—or inter-autonomous system routing protocol— used throughout the Internet. It had multiprotocol capabilities.Version 4 was the accepted version. Although a number of useful new features and capabilities have been added since then, the protocol itself actually hasn’t changed that much.What has changed is the industry experience with BGP. This has enhanced the way policies are used and has enhanced and in some cases changed accepted best practices. Andmultiprotocol BGP has become the workhorse of multiservice core networks, with quitea few new address families defined so that you can run a multitude of different servicesover a single shared core. I don’t cover the other essential element of multiservice networks in this book—Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)—because the subject caneasily fill one or two volumes by itself. But you can learn enough about multiprotocolBGP here to understand how it supports the various MPLS-based address families. Andyou see plenty of examples in this book of multiprotocol BGP support for both unicastand multicast address families under both IPv4 and IPv6.The first edition of this book had a chapter on EGP, the predecessor to BGP. Althoughobsolete even then, the protocol still existed in some obscure government networks.So I covered it both for that reason and just in case some devious lab proctor decidedto throw a few EGP problems at you on the CCIE exam. The protocol is now mostsincerely dead and is covered in this edition only from a historical context tointroduce BGP.Reflecting the expanded industry experience of BGP and many new features Ciscoadded to its support, the two chapters on BGP in the first edition is now six chapters inthis edition.IP MulticastIP multicast networking has probably changed more than BGP networking has. Multicastand the associated routing protocols were complicated, and the networks were difficultto manage in 2001. To some degree that is still true, but also some changes make it notquite so difficult.In 2001, the most common multicast routing protocols were DVMRP, PIM-DM,and PIM-SM. But I suspected that Core-Based Trees (CBT) and Multiprotocol OSPF

xxiii(MOSPF) might become mainstream, so I covered those protocols. However, CBT andMOSPF never found acceptance, and DVMRP has become the RIP of multicast routing protocol—obsolete but still encountered on rare occasions. As a result, CBT andMOSPF are dropped from this edition in all but passing mention, and DVMRP is covered in much less detail than it was in the first edition.PIM is now the accepted multicast routing protocol for both IPv4 and IPv6, so PIM-DMand PIM-SM, along with PIM-SSM, are covered in more depth than they were in thefirst edition.IPv6I have been advocating IPv6 since the late 1990s; although by 2001, most interest in thisnew version of IP was limited to Japan, the People’s Republic of China, and the Republicof Korea. Little interest was sho

iv Routing TCP/IP, Volume II About the Author Jeff Doyle, CCIE No. 1919, is vice president of research at Fishtech Labs. Specializing in IP routing protocols, SDN/NFV, data center fabrics, MPLS, and IPv6, Jeff has designed or assisted in the design of large-scale IP service provider and enterprise net-works in 26 countries over 6 continents.File Size: 7MBPage Count: 158Explore furtherRouting TCP/IP Volume 1 PDF Download Free 1578700418ebooks-it.orgDownload [PDF] Routing Tcp Ip Volume 1 2nd . - Usakochanwww.usakochan.netCcie Routing Tcp/ip Vol 1(2nd) And 2 Free . - Ebookeewww.ebookee.netJeff Doyle eBooks Download Free eBooks-IT.orgebooks-it.orgCCIE Professional Development Routing TCP . - Academia.eduwww.academia.eduTcp ip volume 1 jeff doyle pdf - AKZAMKOWY.ORGakzamkowy.orgRecommended to you b

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