Unofficial Answer Key To Weingreen’s Hebrew Grammar

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Unofficial Answer Key to Weingreen’s Hebrew GrammarJason Hare – The Hebrew Caféwww.thehebrewcafe.comIntroductionJacob Weingreen’s A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew, first published in 1955, served forhalf a century as the standard text used in seminaries and colleges to introduce students to thelanguage of the Hebrew Bible. Though it has since been replaced by more modern approaches tolanguage instruction, it still serves as a beloved beginners textbook, and people are still takingadvantage of its thorough treatment of the language as a springboard from which to learn biblicalHebrew. No official key to the text was ever published, and given the fact that many today usethis grammar for self-study rather than for in-class instruction, the need for a key is greater nowthan ever. My goal in preparing this key is to offer direction to those who are learning on theirown and need some help to understand what’s happening in a given exercise. It should be clearthat these answers are my personal approach to the exercises and that others are possible.Specifically with regard to word order (see below), but also with regard to the attachment ofobject suffixes to verb forms. It is equivalent to write ְל ָקחֹו and ָל ַקחֹ אֹתֹו for “he took him/it.”As long as your answer is grammatically feasible, you shouldn’t think that the answers providedhere are necessarily better. I have not always indicated when more than one answer is possible.Just a couple of notes before getting into the meat of the text.First, it will be noticed that in the English translations, I have rendered theTetragrammaton ( )יהוה with Yahweh in English. This is a compromise intended to remindstudents that this is an instance of the actual name used for God in the Bible and not simply atitle. Similarly, in Hebrew I have written the name as with the vowel points sheva-kamats as יְ הוָ ה – the way it is found pointed in the Aleppo and Leningrad Codices. I personally think that theproposed יַ ְהוֶ ה or יַ ֲהוֶ ה represents how the name was pronounced in antiquity, but we cannot becertain of this question. For that reason, I have remained with the Hebrew pointing tradition,even though I have rendered it in English as indicated. The traditional Jewish approach is to read יהוה as “ ֲאד ֹנָ י the Lord” except in the combinations ֲאד ֹנָ יֹיְ הוִֹ ה and הֹאד ֹנָ י ֲ ִֹ יְ הו , in which יְֹהוִֹֹה isread as ֹלהים ִֹ ֱא to avoid saying ʾăḏōnāy ʾăḏōnāy. In these instances, the ḥirik under the vavrepresents the ḥirik in ֹלהים ִֹ ֱא , telling us that this is the word to be substituted for theTetragrammaton (whereas the kamaṣ under the vav in the normal form is the kamaṣ of ) ֲאד ֹנָ י .It should be remembered that the form יְ הוָ ה is arrived at by copying the vowels of ֲאדנָ ֹי in the same way that יְ הוִֹ ה copies the vowels of ֹלהים ִֹ ֱא . By this principle, composite shevas areboth rendered as a simple sheva when copied (ֱֹ יְֹ א and ֲֹ )יְֹ א , and the ḥolam is normally notwritten on ֲאד ֹנָ י in the Aleppo Codex when it is used of God—hence, the ḥolam that is missingfrom the Tetragrammaton. Just as we do not think that יְ הוִֹ ה should be read Yəhōvih, so do weresist those who say that יְ הוָ ה should be read as Yəhōvâ.Second, I have followed the subject-verb (SV) word order in sentences that have nocontext and are not part of a vayyiqṭōl chain (narrative past). Inversion has been used aftergrammar words such as ִֹכי and ֹ ֲא ֶשר as well as in other situations pointed out in articles writtenSend any corrections to 13-Dec-21

by John Cook and Robert Holmstedt in their work on Hebrew word order. Students should takeinto account that most grammars (including Weingreen’s) teach that Hebrew has a natural verbsubject (VS) word order, yet that is in contention. Although Weingreen’s Hebrew-to-Englishexercises exhibit this word order, and it “feels right” to those who spend a lot of time reading theBible (because the majority of sentences begin with a vav-consecutive), it has been welldemonstrated that this is not the natural order with unmarked sentences—that is, sentences thatdo not have some kind of inversion trigger. This sets this key out among others that might beproduced, but I believe that it is the right way to approach Hebrew syntax, and I believe thatfurther research in the field will bear this out.Additionally, any word that appears at the end of the line in brackets just behind thesame word with an alternate pointing, it is due to pause. For example, ] םֹ[מ ְצ ַ ָ֫ריִֹ ם ִִֹֹ ִֹמ ְצ ָ ָ֫רי indicatesthat the first form would appear at the end of a verse with sof pasuk ( ריִֹ םֹ׃ ֹ ָ ) ִֹמ ְצ or with other pausecreating accents (for example, ֹ ִֹמ ְצ ָ ָ֑ריִֹ ם or ) ִֹמ ְצ ָ ָ֔ריִֹ ם and the second would appear as the normal formin the Bible. This is to provide an alternative for those who are translating with pausal forms intheir work.When it comes to the transliteration, I have used Weingreen’s system for the most part,but I use the breve ( ) for composite sheva (ă for ֲֲֹ , ĕ for ֱֲֹ , and ŏ for ֲֹ ). Likewise, I use ə forvocal sheva. Thus, ֲאנָ ִֹשים is transliterated as ʾănāšîm, ֹלהים ִֹ ֱא as ʾĕlōhîm, ח ָד ִֹשים as ḥŏḏāšîm, and הּודה ָ ְ י as Yəhûḏâ. This is different from Weingreen’s system, and I’ve included it here so that youcan recognize it. Overall, the transliteration systems are the same.I would be more than happy to receive corrections as this comes out. It is a work inprogress being published online at Thank youfor any support that you might give in providing the best possible key for future students of theHebrew language who might come to this text with eagerness.Jason A. HareThe Hebrew CaféTel Aviv, IsraelMMXXI ֹ תשפ״א

Page 6šā-ma-yim wā-ʾā-reṣ wî-hî kô-ḵāḇ mî-nē-hû yā-mîm rō-me-śeṯ kā-nāp̄ ʿē-zerqēṣ bā-śār tē-ḇaṯ ḥā-mās qe-ḏem ḥā-mēš šā-nîm wā-ʿe-śer tē-lēḏ zā-ḵāryā-qūm ʿā-śû mô-ʿēḏ būṣ ḥā-ḏal yi-ḥar ʿe-reḇ bō-qer hô-ṣî-ʾēmde-leṯ šā-p̄ôṭ ʾû-ḵal ya-yin mē-ṯî rā-ʾî-ṯā mā-qôm yē-ʿā-śû ʾē-šeṯba-ʿal yî-raš ta-ḥaṯ ʾa-yil yē-ʾā-mēr yēš mi-ḥûṣ lā-ʿîr śā-ḏē-hûgā-māl lā-ḇānֹ מותי ָלמּות ָשם יום ֵהןֹ ַא ֹל ַע ֹל גַ ד ִֹ מות ֹ ָפ ִֹרים ִֹלי לּוז ֵכן וָ נָ ד קּום ַטל ִֹשים נָ זִֹ יד ֹ יוסף ָאנ ִֹֹכיֹ ָר ֵח ֹל ַפ ַעם ָל ֶכם ַעם ֵ ּתור ֹ קולי ָפרות וָ א ַֹמר ִֹ ָה ָא ָדם ֵלוִֹ י ּבורֹ ֶפ ֶר ֹץ ֹ ב לֹו יָ ִֹדי ֵכנִֹ ים ָח ַלם ֹ נָ בון ֶש ֶבר ָה ִֹשי ֹ ָה ַרג יָ ָדם ֶכ ֶסף ֶע ֶבד ִֹאּתֹו ֶע ֶשר נֶ ֶפש סּוסיםֹ ַּתם ִֹ יתי ֶל ֶחם ִֹ ִֹ ָהבּו נָ ַתן ָקנ Page 11dəḇar dōḇərê yardēn ʾištô mamlếḵeṯ bārûḵ miḏbār ʿăḇāḏîmʾĕlōhîm ʾăḇî môšəḇôṯ miṣráyim yišbərû ʿaḇdəḵā mahărûbərîṯəḵā ʾaḇrāhām yiṣḥāq yaʿăqōḇ halləḇānôn yulləḏû kōhănîm məlōḵʿamməḵā hišḥîṯ ʾep̄ráyim ʿinnəbê malkəḵem vəʾāmartā ʾălêhembəṯôḵ laʿăḇōr ʾeṣləḵā ʾănáḥnû ḥarbô ḥăsāḏîm miššəmûʾēlgulgṓleṯ məyalləḏôṯ ʿelyôn ḥălôm nəšêhem ʾĕḏôm śámtîpəlištîm tôləḏôṯֹ יאים ִֹ ְּבנות ְד ָב ִֹרים ֶח ְבר ֹן ִֹּבנְ יָ ִֹמין ֲא ָדמות נְ ִֹב ֹ נִֹ ְש ְמרּו ִֹה ְש ִֹכים ְק ַט ְל ֶּתם ֱאמֹר ַּת ֲעבֹד ַד ְר ְכך ֹ ִֹמ ְצ ִֹרים ז ְֹב ֵחיֹ ֶּב ֱא ֶמת יַ ְב ֵדל מ ְֹתרות נַ ְפ ִֹשי ֹ ֻא ְמ ַל ֹל ְל ַמ ְל ִֹכי יִֹ ְת ַה ְלכּון ִֹּת ְש ְמ ֵרם ִֹמ ְש ְפ ִֹטי יִֹ ְכ ְרעּו ֹ ַּב ְקשּו ִֹמ ְש ֲאלות Pages 13–14wayyā́moṯ ʿormâ ʾĕmor-nāʾ ḥoḵmāṯô dəbārəḵā qoḏqōḏ šāmā́rtî bāqārʿonyēḵ šəmartām šomʿô yāroḇʿām moṯnáyim nāp̄əlâ kəḏorlāʿṓmer dāməḵālā́ylâ goḏləḵā miryām yiḵtoḇ-šām ʾoznêhem yəḇārəḵû miḏbār lārəʾûḇēnîkəṯop̄śəḵem rāʿāḇ gop̄rîṯ kol-hāʾā́reṣ šəmor-lî piryām koṯnôṯheḥāḵām

Page 26 — Exercise 11.a king, the king2.a day, the day13.a night, the night14.light, the light5.a city, the city6.a head, the head7.darkness, the darkness8.a palace, the palace9.dust, the dust10.the day and the night11.the light and the darkness12.a king and a man, the king and the and dust, the land and the dust14.a city and a palace, the city and the palace15.God created a man from the ground.16.The king came from the temple.17.God said to the man.18.And the king came unto the city.19.God created light from the darkness.ֹ ַה ַָֹ֫ליְ ָלה ,ֹ ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ַהּיום , יום ה ָא ָדם ֹ ָ , ָא ָדם ֹלהים ִֹ ה ֱא ֹ ָ , ֹלהים ִֹ ֱא ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֹ ָ , ֲא ָד ָמה יכ ֹל ָ ה ֵה ֹ ַ , יכל ָ ֵה חֹ ֶשך ָֹ֫ ַה ,ֹ חֹ ֶשך ָֹֹ֫ ֶהֹ ָע ָפר ,ֹ ָע ָפר ֹ ֹלהים וְ ַה ֶמ ֶלך ִֹ ֱא יכ ֹל וְ ָה ִֹעיר ָ ה ֵה ַֹ ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֹ ָ ְ ה ָא ָדם ו ָֹ חֹ ֶשךֹ וְ ָהאור ָֹ֫ ַה 2 ן־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֹ ָ ָּב ָראֹ [יָ ַצר] ָא ָדםֹ ִֹמ ל־ה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלך ַ ֹלהים ָא ַמר ֶא ִֹ ֱא expression הַֹּיוֹם hayyôm can also be rendered “today,” and הַֹלַֹיְֹלָֹה halláylâ in the second exercise can berendered “tonight.” This will be understood from the context. The same can happen with ַהּבֹֹ ֶקר habbṓqer “thismorning” and ָה ָ֫ ֶע ֶרב hāʿéreḇ “this evening.”2Both ָּב ָרא bārāʾ and יָֹצַֹר yāṣar can be used for “he created.” It is sometimes said, though not necessarily cor-rectly, that ּב ָֹרא ָֹ refers to creatio ex nihilo and that יָ ַצר yāṣar refers to fashioning out of something that already existed.

ל־ה ִֹעיר ָ ה ָא ָדם ָּבאֹ ֶא ָֹ חֹ ֶשך ָֹ֫ ָּבאֹ ַה ַָֹ֫ליְ ָלה וְ ַה ֹלהים ִֹ ל־ה ָא ָדםֹ ָא ַמרֹ ֱא ֹ ָ וְ ֶא ן־ה ִֹעיר ָ מ ֶלךֹ ָּבא ִֹמ ֶָֹ֫ ַה ֹ ל־הֹ ָע ָפר ֶ ֶא יכל ָ ן־ה ֵה ֹ ַ ִֹמ . 30–31 — Exercise 21.a king, to a king, from a king; the king, to the king, from the king2.a man, like a man, from a man; the man, like the man, from the man3.the palace, in the palace, from the palace4.the darkness, to the darkness, as the darkness5.dust, from dust; the dust, in the dust, from the dust6.God, like God, from God; the God, like the God, from the God7.Yahweh, to Yahweh, from Yahweh38.ground, like ground; the ground, like the ground9.Samuel, to Samuel, like Samuel, from Samuel10.God called the light day, and the darkness he called night.11.The people walked in darkness and did not see a light.12.Samuel gave the people a king.413.Yahweh saw from the heavens.14.God created a man out of dust and a woman out of the man.15.Samuel said to the people: “The king has come unto the city.”16.God called to Samuel at night.17.God gave the man a wife.18.Yahweh ]is[ king in heaven.19.The king went to the palace at night.20.God gave light to the man and to the woman.21.The king did not say anything to Samuel.522.Samuel called out to Yahweh.23.Yahweh did not give light to the people.24.Samuel walked in the city.25.Yahweh saw in Samuel a leader for the people.63Traditionally, יְ הוָ ה is rendered as “the LORD” (with small capital letters) in English translations or as “GOD”when in the combinations ֲא ֹד ֹנָ יֹיְ הוִֹ ה ʾăḏōnāy ʾĕlōhîm and הֹאד ֹנָ י ֲ ִֹ יְ הו ʾĕlōhîm ʾăḏōnāy. I’ve chosen to render it as if pointed יַ ְהוֶ ה Yahveh while retaining the traditional spelling that has come into English scholarship (with the w).4Or, “a king to the people.” The direct object in English may appear after the verb without a preposition orafter the direct object paired with the preposition “to” or “for.”5Just as we see that ָד ָבר dāḇār may refer to a “word” or a “thing,” so the expression “not say a word” may alsobe translated “not say a thing” or “say nothing.”6Or, “head for the people.”

]ֹ ן־הּיום ַ ֵמ ַהּיום [ ִֹמ , ַּבּיום ,ֹ ִֹמּיוםֹ; ַהּיום ,ֹ ְּביום , יום ] ן־ה ִֹא ָשה ָ ֵמ ָה ִֹא ָשה [ ִֹמ ,ֹ ָל ִֹא ָשה ,ֹ ן־א ָשה]; ָה ִֹא ָשה ִֹ ֵמ ִֹא ָשה [ ָמ , ְל ִֹא ָשה , ִֹא ָשה ] ן־ה ִֹעיר ָ ֵמ ָה ִֹעירֹ [ ִֹמ , ָכ ִֹעיר , ן־עיר]; ָה ִֹעיר ִֹ ֵמ ִֹעירֹ [ ִֹמ , ְכ ִֹעיר ,ֹ ִֹעיר ] ן־ה ָ֫חֹ ֶשך ַ ֵמ ַה ָ֫חֹ ֶשך [ ִֹמ ,ֹ ַּב ָ֫חֹ ֶשך ,ֹ ַה ָ֫חֹ ֶשך ] ֹלהים ִֹ ן־הֹ ֱא ָ ֹלהים [ ִֹמ ִֹ ה ֱא ֹ ָ ֵמ , ֹלהים ִֹ ָֹל ֱא , ֹלהים ִֹ ה ֱא ָֹ]ֹ ן־הרֹאש ָ מ ָהר ֹאשֹ [ ִֹמ ֹ ֵ , ָּברֹאש , ָהרֹאש ] ן־ה ָע ָפר [מֵ ֶֽה ָעפָר ֶ ִֹמ , ֶכ ָע ָפר ,ֹ ֶה ָע ָפר ֹ] מּואל ֵ ן־ש ְ לֹ[מ ִֹ ֵֹ ִֹמ ְשמּוא , מּואל ֵ ִֹּב ְש , מּואל ֵ ְש 8ֹ] [ל ָש ַָ֫מיִֹ ם ַ ֹ ֹ יְ הוָ ה נָ ַתן אור ַל ָש ָָ֫מיִֹֹם ן־ה ָא ָדם ָ ן־ה ָע ָפרֹ וְ ָה ִֹא ָשה ִֹמ ֶ ה ָא ָדם ָּבאֹ ִֹמ ָֹ8ֹ] [ּב ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ַ ֹ ל־ה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ַּב ָ֫ ָליְ ָֹלה ַ ֹלהים ָק ָראֹ ֶא ִֹ ֱא ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָה ַלך ָּב ִֹעירֹ וְ לֹאֹ ָר ָאה ֹ ֹלהים נָ ַתן אור ָל ָעם ָּב ִֹעיר ִֹ ֱא מּואל ל ֹא ָה ַלך ֵ ּוש ְ מּוא ֹל ֵ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָק ָראֹ ִֹל ְש ֹ ָה ָעם ָק ָרא אֶֹל־ֹיְ הוָ ה ַּב ָ֫חֹ ֶשך ֹלהים ָּב ָראֹ ָא ָדםֹ וְ ִֹא ָשה ִֹ ֱא 8ֹ]ֹ מּואל ַּב ָ֫ ָליְ ָֹלה ֹ[ֹ ַּב ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ֵ ל־ש ְ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָּבא ֶא מּואל ֵ יְ הוָ ה ָא ַמרֹ ִֹל ְש יכל ָ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָר ָאה ִֹא ָשה ַּב ֵה ages 34–35 — Exercise 31.a good king, the good king, the king is good2.a good woman, the good woman, the woman is good3.a bad word, the bad word, the word is evil land, the evil land, the land is evil5.a wise man, the wise man, the man is wise6.a large palace, the large palace, the palace is large7.The light is good, and the darkness bad.8.The people cried out with a loud voice, “Yahweh is God in heaven and upon the earth.9.The woman called out to the wise king, “Yahweh is good to the people.”10.A great darkness ]was[9 upon the earth.11.God saw that the light that he had created ]was[9 good.12.Moses was a great man in the land.13.The king saw that a great darkness ]was[9 upon the evil city.14.The woman came to Samuel.7Since the preposition ִֹמן min may either attach with a ַמ ָקף maqqāp̄ ( )־ or directly to the word it precedes, thereare two options for these exercises.8This is a pausal form. Pausal forms will be used at the end of lines with the non-pausal form in brackets, ifthere is a difference in vocalization.9The verb “was” (or “is”) must be supplied here and any time in which it is herein placed in brackets. said, “The land which Yahweh has given to the people ]is[ good.”God created land and sky.The temple in the city is big.The man was like God.There was no man in the land as wise as Samuel.The woman said, “The word that the wise man said to the people ]is[ good.”Light in the day, darkness at night. גָ דו ֹל ָה ָעם , ָה ָעם ַהגָ דו ֹל , ַעם גָ דול טובה ָה ִֹעיר ָ , ּטובה ָ ָה ִֹעירֹ ַה ,ֹ טובה ָ ֹ ִֹעיר ַרע ַהּיום , ַהּיום ָה ַרע , יום ַרע ָח ָכםֹ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלך ,ֹ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלך ֶה ָח ָכם ,ֹ ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָח ָכם ָר ָעהֹ ָה ָ֫ ַעיִֹ ן , ָה ָ֫ ַעיִֹ ן ָה ָר ָעה , ָ֫ ַעיִֹ ן ָר ָעה ל־ה ָָ֫א ֶר ֹץ ָ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָר ָאה ִֹכי גָ דו ֹל ַה ָ֫חֹ ֶשךֹ ַע ַּבּיוםֹ ָה ַרע לֹאֹ ָהיָ ה אורֹ ָּב ִֹעיר וְ ל ֹא ָר ָאה ָה ָעם ב יְ הוָ ה ָל ָעם ֹ טו ב ָּב ִֹעירֹ ָה ָר ָעה ֹ לֹאֹ ָהיָ ה ִֹאיש טו ּב ָאה ָָֹ֫ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָק ָראֹ ָל ִֹא ָשה וְ ִֹהיאֹ ל ֹא א ֶר ֹץ ֲא ֶשרֹ נָ ַתן ָָֹ֫לנּו יְ הוָ ה ָָֹ֫ טובה ָה ָ ֹ לֹא , ָה ָעם ָא ַמרֹ ְלמ ֶֹשה א ֶרץ ָָֹ֫ ָֹ מיִֹֹםֹ וְ ַעל־ה ַָֹ֫ ש ָֹ ַֹ יְ הוָ ה הּוא ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלךֹ ּב ,ֹ ל־ה ָעם ָ מּואל ָא ַמרֹ ֶא ֵ ְש מ ֶֹשה ָהיָ ה ְלר ֹאשֹ ַע ֹל־ ָה ָעם ל־ה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלךֹ ְּבקו ֹל גָ דו ֹל ַ ה ִֹא ָשה ָקֹ ְר ָאהֹ ֶא ָֹ מּוא ֹל ֵ ל־ש ְ ַה ָד ָברֹ ֲא ֶשר ָא ַמרֹ יְ הוָ הֹ ֶא יכ ֹל ֲא ֶשר ָּב ִֹעיר ָ ל־ה ֵה ֹ ַ ה ְל ָכה ֶא ֹ ָ ֹ ּטובה ָ ה ִֹא ָשה ַה ָֹ ּטובה לֹאֹ ָהיָ ה אורֹ ַכּיום ָ ָל ִֹעיר ַה א ֶרץ ָָֹ֫ לֹאֹ ָהיָ ה ְכמ ֶֹשה ִֹאישֹ גָ דול ָּב Pages 38–40 — Exercise 41.a good horse, good horses; a good mare, good mares2.a holy prophet, holy prophets; a holy prophetess, holy prophetesses3.a wise man, wise men; a wise woman, wise women4.a big tree, big trees5.the big palace, the big palaces6.Yahweh gave Israel a large and good land.7.The king sat in the dust all day and did not eat.8.The prophetess sat under the tree.9.The men who dwelt in the big city were evil.10.Samuel the prophet did not take fruit from the garden.11.The woman took from the fruit that ]was[ in the garden and also gave ]some[ to theman.12.The man and the woman took from the tree and also ate from the fruit. the things which the holy prophets said came upon the evil city.The land did not give fruit because the people were evil.Moses said to all Israel, “This day is holy to Yahweh.”There were large and good trees in the garden.The prophets did not eat in the temple, for they were holy to Yahweh.The people saw that the fruit which the people took from the trees that ]were[ in theland that Yahweh gave to Israel was good.The words that the wise prophet said to the people who were in the temple were wiseand good.The prophets cried out in a loud voice, “Samuel is a prophet of Yahweh.”Yahweh ]is[ good to the good and to the evil.19.20.21.ֹ נָ ִֹשיםֹ גְ דולות , דולה ָ ְ דולים; ִֹא ָשה ג ִֹ ְ ֲאנָ ִֹשיםֹ ג , ִֹאיש גָ דול נְ ִֹביאותֹ ְקדושות ,ֹ דושה ָ יאהֹ ְק ָ דושים; נְ ִֹב ִֹ יאים ְק ִֹ נְ ִֹב ,ֹ נָ ִֹביאֹ ָקדוש טובים ִֹ ְד ָב ִֹרים , ָד ָברֹ טוב ֹ דולים ִֹ ְ יכ ִֹלים ג ָ ה ֹ ֵ , יכל גָ דול ַ ֵה 10ֹ וְ גַ ם ַה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלך , יכ ֹל ֲא ֶשרֹ ָּב ִֹעיר ָ ּב ֵה ֹ ַ ֹ מּוא ֹל ַהנָ ִֹביא ֵ דושה ִֹכי ָאֹ ְמרּו ְש ָ ל־ה ִֹעירֹ ַה ְק ָ ה ְלכּו ֶא ֹ ָ ֹ יאים ִֹ ַהנְ ִֹב ל־ה ָעם ָ וְ ָכ ֹ ל־הּיוםֹ ַּת ַחת ָהֹ ֵע ִֹצים ֲא ֶשר ַּבגָֹן ַ ָֹ דושים ָהיּו ָה ֲאנָ ִֹשיםֹ ֲא ֶשרֹ יָ ְשבּו כ ִֹ ְק ּטובה ֲא ֶשר נָ ַתןֹ יְ הוָ הֹ ְליִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ָ א ֶר ֹץ ַה ָָֹ֫ ָה ָעם יָ ַשב ָּב ן־ה ְפ ִֹרי ֲא ֶשרֹ ָּב ֵע ֹץ ַּבגָֹן ַהגָ דול ַ א ְכלּו ִֹמ ֹ ָ ֹ ה ִֹא ָשה ֹ ָ ְ ָה ִֹאיש ו א ֶרץ ָָֹ֫ ל־ה ָ גָ דו ֹל יְ הוָ ה ַּב ָש ַמָֹ֫יִֹ ם וְֹגָֹדֹו ֹל יִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ַע טוב ַה ְפ ִֹריֹ ֲא ֶשר ָּב ָאָֹ֫ ֶרץ , א ְמרּו ֹ ָ ֹ ּבאּו וְ גַ ם ָָֹ֫ ֹ ל־ה ָעם ָ ן־ה ְפ ִֹרי וְ ֶא ַ ל־ה ָאָֹ֫ ֶרץ וְ גַ ם ָֹל ְקחּוֹ ִֹמ ָ ּבאּוֹ ֶא ָָֹ֫ ָה ֲאנָ ִֹשים א ֶר ֹץ ְליִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ָָֹ֫ טובה ָה ָ ֹ א ְמרּו ִֹכי לֹא ֹ ָ ֹ ה ֲאנָ ִֹשים ֲא ֶשר ֹ ָ ֹלהים ָא ַמר ֶאל־מ ֶֹשהֹ ָר ִֹעים ִֹ ֱא ֹ דושים ַליהוָ ה ִֹ יאיםֹ ָֹי ְשבּו ָּב ִֹעיר ָהֹ ָר ָעהֹ ִֹכיֹ ָהיּו ְק ִֹ ַהנְ ִֹב ֹ ל־ה ָעם ָ מ ֶלךֹ ָר ָאה ִֹכי ֲח ָכ ִֹמים ַה ְד ָב ִֹריםֹ ֲא ֶשרֹ ָא ַמר ַהנָ ִֹביאֹ ַה ָקדוש ֶא ֶָֹ֫ ַה א ֶרץ ָָֹ֫ יאיםֹ ֲח ָכ ִֹמיםֹ ָּב ִֹ מּואל נְ ִֹב ֵ לֹאֹ ָהיּו ִֹכ ְש ֹ] ֹלֹה ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ַ ל־ה ָָֹ֫ליְ ָלהֹ[וְ כ ַ ל־הּיום וְ ָכ ַ ן־ה ְפ ִֹרי וְ ל ֹא ָאֹ ְכ ָלהֹ ָכ ַ יאה ָֹל ְק ָחהֹ ִֹמ ָ ַהנְ ִֹב . 42–43 — Exercise 51.the heavens, and the heavens; in the heavens, and in the heavens2.the land, and the land; in the land, and in the land3.a day, and a day; from a day, and from a day4.I, and I; a ground, and a ground5.Moses, and Moses; to Moses, and to Moses6.Samuel, and Samuel; to Samuel, and to Samuel7.God, and God; Yahweh, and Yahweh10The normal way that we find “the holy city” expressed in the Bible is as ירֹה ָ֫קֹ ֶדש ַ ִֹע ʿîr haqqṓḏeš “the city ofholiness.” You should translate ירֹק ְד ְשך ָ ִֹע ʿîr qoḏšəḵā “the city of your holiness” as “your holy city.” Compare this tohow we translate ֹה ָ֫קֹ ֶדש ַ רּוח ַ rûaḥ haqqṓḏeš “the spirit of holiness” as “the holy spirit.”

5.26.27.Jerusalem, and Jerusalemlight and darknessgood and evilevening and morningday and nightfruit, and fruitWho am I, and what am I?God divided between the light and the darkness, between the day and the night.The evil men did not divide between the good and the evil.Who is like Yahweh in heaven, and who is like Israel on earth?God created heaven and earth.The things which the old prophet spoke to the king were good and wise.The man knew good and evil, because he ate from the tree which ]was[ in the garden.The woman said to the old men, “Men came from Israel at night, and they left the cityin the morning.”There was no king in Israel, and Samuel the prophet was leader of the people.And old and wise woman dwelled in the holy city.Yahweh is God and king in the heavens and on the earth.Yahweh gave Israel a good and large land, and also great and holy prophets.What is the word which God spoke to the prophet?And in all the city, there was not a good man. ּוב ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ַ , וְ ַה ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה; ַּב ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה , ַה ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ּומ ָה ֵעץ ֵ , וְ ָה ֵע ֹץ; ֵמ ָה ֵעץ , ָה ֵעץ ּוב ִֹעיר ָ ; ָּב ִֹעיר ירּוש ָ֫ ַל ִֹם ְ ּוב ִֹ , ירּוש ָ֫ ַל ִֹם ְ ירּוש ָ֫ ַל ִֹם; ִֹּב ִָֹ ו ,ֹ רּוש ָ֫ ַל ִֹם ָ ְ י ָ֫חֹ ֶשךֹ וָ אור ָ֫ ַליְ ָלהֹ וָ יום ּוליִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ְ , ְליִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ֲאנָ ִֹשיםֹ זְ ֵקנִֹ ים וַ ֲח ָכ ִֹמים ,ֹ ִֹאיש זָ ֵקןֹ וְ ָח ָכם ב ֹ ל־ה ִֹעירֹ ָּב ָ֫ ֶע ֶר ָ ּבאּו ֶא ָָֹ֫ ֹ ִֹמי ָה ֲאנָ ִֹשים ֲא ֶשר ב ֹ ַה ֶָ֫מ ֶלךֹ ָהיָ ה ָח ָכםֹ וְ טו דולים ִֹ ְ יאיםֹ ָהיּו ֲאנָ ִֹשיםֹ ֲח ָכ ִֹמים ּוג ִֹ ַהנְ ִֹב א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ ה ָר ִֹעים ֲא ֶשרֹ ָהיּו ָּב ֹ ָ ּובין ֵ ֹ ּטובים ִֹ יְ הוָ ה ִֹה ְב ִֹדיל ֵּביןֹ ַה ּבֹ ֶקר ְּב ָכל־יוםֹ ָק ָרא ַה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלךֹ אֶֹל־יְ הוָ ה ָֹ֫ ּוב ַ ָּב ֶעָֹ֫ ֶרב קֹ ֶדש ַכ ָד ָברֹ ֲא ֶשר ִֹד ֶּברֹ יְ הוָ ה ָֹ֫ רּוש ַָֹ֫ל ִֹם ִֹעירֹ ַה ָ ְ ַהנָ ִֹביאֹ יָ ָצאֹ ִֹמּי ן־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֹ ָ ָע ָפרֹ הּוא ִֹמ , ֹלהים ִֹ ה ָא ָדםֹ ֲא ֶשרֹ ָּב ָראֹ ֱא ֹ ָ ַמה־הּוא ב לְֹ ֵבין ָה ַרע ֹ מ ֶלך ֵּבין ַהּטו ֶָֹ֫ ל־ה ָעםֹ לֹאֹ ִֹה ְב ִֹדי ֹל ַה ָ ה ִֹא ָשה ָאֹ ְמ ָרה ֶא ָֹ דושים ִֹ ּוק ְ טובים ִֹ ֹ יאים ִֹ מּוא ֹל ָהיּוֹ נְ ִֹב ֵ ּוש ְ מ ֶֹשה ירּוש ַָֹ֫ל ִֹם ָ יכ ֹל ֲא ֶשרֹ ִֹּב ָ יכ ֹל ַ ֹכ ֵה ַ א ֶרץ ל ֹא ָהיָ ה ֵה ָָֹ֫ ּוב ָכל־ ָה ְ.

ן־ה ֵעץ ָאֹ ְכלּו ְפ ִֹרי ָ ּומ ִֹ ה ִֹא ָשהֹ ָהיּו ַּבגָֹן ֹ ָ ְ ָה ִֹאיש ו ֹ מיִֹ ם ַָֹ֫ ּומי ְכיִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל גוי גָ דו ֹל ַּתָֹ֫ ַחתֹ ַה ָש ִֹ.19.20Pages 48–49 — Exercise 61.I am not a prophet nor the son of a prophet.2.The king saw a very old man in the palace and did not know that he ]was[ the prophetof God.3.The word of Yahweh came to Samuel at night.4.The prophet went to the king’s palace.5.The king of Egypt called to Moses, because there was darkness in the land of Egypt butthe Israelites had light.6.The people did not obey the words of the prophets which they spoke in the name ofYahweh.7.And there were all kinds of fruit trees in the king’s garden.8.The men of the city were very evil in the eyes of God and in the eyes of man.9.From all the peoples of the land they came to Solomon king of Israel, because he wasvery wise in the eyes of all the peoples.10.Samuel dwelled upon the land as the leader11 of the prophets.1211.The Israelites went out of the land of Egypt a very great people, according to the word ofYahweh which he spoke to Moses.12.The king called to all the wise people of the land.13.The eyes of Yahweh are toward the good and not toward the evil.14.The wise men of Egypt saw that the hand of Yahweh ]was[ in the land.15.The sons of the prophets called with a loud voice, “Yahweh the Holy One of Israel is oneand the God of all the land.16.The Israelites did not obey the voice of Yahweh, and in the eyes of Moses the thing wasvery evil.17.And one woman from the wives of the prophets called to Samuel.18.The Israelites were like the dust of the ground and like the stars of the sky in the landwhich Yahweh gave to Jacob.19.The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau, for Jacob’s handswere not like Esau’s hands.20.Moses spoke to the elders of the people in accordance with all that Yahweh God of Israelhad said.11Notice again that רֹאש rōʾš may be used metaphorically to refer to a leader of people or the top of a mountain(as we saw in a previous exercise).12Just as “sons of Israel” meant “those who belong to the nation of Israel” or simply “Israelites,” so “sons of theprophets” meant “those who belong to the group called prophets” or simply “the prophets.” This does not refer tophysical descendants of the prophets. It refers to the prophets themselves, who often traveled in a company or band( יאים ִֹ ֶָ֫ח ֶבלֹנְ ִֹב ḥéḇel nəḇîʾîm as in 1 Samuel 10:5) which was referred to as יאים ִֹ יֹהנְ ִֹב ַ ֵ ְּבנ bənê hannəḇîʾîm.

21.22.Behold, the day of Yahweh is coming, a day which is darkness and not light.One of the great ones of the people came out and called with a loud voice to the peopleof the city, “Behold, the city ]is[ in the hand of the king.” ֹלהים ִֹ מ ֶֹשה ָהיָ ה ִֹאישֹ ֱא ּבשֵֹם יְ הוָ ה ְֹ ֹ יַ ֲעקֹב ָק ָרא ] א ֶרץ ִֹמ ְצ ָרָֹ֫יִֹ םֹ[ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָ֫ריִֹ ם ֶָֹ֫ ְּבנֵ י יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ָהיּו ְּב ֹלהי יִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ֵ לֹאֹ ָש ַמע ָה ָעםֹ ְּבקול ַהנָ ִֹביא ַהזָ ֵקןֹ ֲא ֶשרֹ ִֹד ֶּבר ְּב ֵשםֹ ֱא ּבאּו ֶאל־מ ֶֹשה ָָֹ֫ ֹ ָכל־זִֹ ְקנֵ י ָה ִֹעיר ֹ] א ֶרץ ִֹמ ְצ ָ ָ֫ריִֹ םֹ[ֹ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָ֫ריִֹ ם ֶָֹ֫ ש ְמעּו ִֹכי יָ ָצא יִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ֵמ ֹ ָ ָכ ֹל־ֹ ַע ֵמי־ ָה ָאָֹ֫ ֶרץ מ ֶלך ֶָֹ֫ ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֲאנִֹ י ְּב ֵעינֵ י ַה ֹ ָ ֹ וְ ַכ ֲע ַפר דוליֹ ָה ָעם ֵ ְ ֹלהים ִֹד ֶּברֹ ֶאל־ג ִֹ מּואל נְ ִֹביאֹ ֱא ֵ ְש א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ חֹ ֶשךֹ ַע ֹל־ ָה ָֹ֫ ֹ מ ֶלךֹ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָֹ֫ריִֹ ם ְּבקו ֹל ֶא ָחדֹ ִֹהנֵ ה ָּבא ֶָֹ֫ ֹ ק ְראּו ֶא ֹל־ ֹ ָ א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ ָכ ֹל־ֹ ַח ְכ ֵמיֹ ָה מ ֶלך ָהיּו ָר ִֹעים ְּב ֵעינֵ י יְ הוָ ה ֶָֹ֫ ְּבנֵ י ַה א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ ּוב ָ מיִֹ ם ַָֹ֫ קו ֹל יְ הוָ ה ַּב ָש א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ ְשֹלמֹה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלךֹ יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ָהיָ ה גָ דול ְמאֹד ְּב ֵעינֵ י ָכל־ ָה ה ָר ִֹעים ֹ ָ ּובין ֵ ּטובים ִֹ ה ָר ָעה ִֹה ְב ִֹ ָֹ֫דילּוֹ ֵּבין ַה ֹ ָ ֹ ַאנְ ֵשי ָה ִֹעיר יאהֹ ֶא ֹל־ ַה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלך ָ ַה ָד ָברֹ ֲא ֶשר ִֹד ְּב ָרהֹ ַהנְ ִֹב א ֶר ֹץ ָָֹ֫ מיִֹ םֹ וְ ַעם יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ֶא ָחדֹ ָּב ַָֹ֫ יְ הוָ ה הּוא ֶא ָחדֹ ַּב ָש ֹלהים הּוא ִֹ ִֹכי יָ ַדעֹ ִֹכיֹ ִֹאיש ֱא ,ֹ מ ֶלךֹ ָש ַמעֹ ְל ִֹד ְב ֵרי ַהנָ ִֹביאֹ וְ ל ֹא ָא ַמרֹ ָד ָבר ֶָֹ֫ ַה ֹ]ֹ מיִֹ םֹ[ֹ ַּב ָש ַָ֫מיִֹ ם ָָֹ֫ כוכ ִֹבים ַּב ָש ָ ֹלהים נָ ַתן ִֹ ֱא יַ ֲעקֹב ָר ָאהֹ וְ ִֹהנֵ הֹ ָּבא עֵֹשָֹֹו ֹ]ֹ מיִֹ םֹ[ ַה ָש ַָ֫מיִֹ ם ָָֹ֫ כוכ ֵביֹ ַה ָש ְ מ ֶלך ָהיּוֹ ְכ ֶָֹ֫ ָה ֵע ִֹצים ֲא ֶשרֹ ְּבגַ ן ַה נְ ֵשי ַה ֶמָֹ֫ ֶלךֹ ָהיּו ָרעות ְּב ֵעינֵ יֹ יְ הוָ ה ֹ] א ֶרץ ִֹמ ְצ ָ ָֹ֫ריִֹ םֹ[ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָ֫ריִֹ ם ֶָֹ֫ מהֹ ָל ַקחֹ ִֹא ָשה ֵמ ֹ ַה ֶמ ֶלךֹ ְשֹל ֹלהי ֵ א ֶר ֹץ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָֹ֫ריִֹ םֹ ִֹכיֹ ֵהםֹ ל ֹא ָיֹ ְדעּו ִֹכיֹ הּוא ִֹד ֶּברֹ ְּב ֵשם יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶָֹ֫ זִֹ ְקנֵ יֹ יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ָשֹ ְמעּו ְלקו ֹל מ ֶֹשה ְּב יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל 0.21.22Pages 53–55 — Exercise 71.God created the sky and the earth and all that ]is[ in them.2.The man and the woman heard the sound of God in the garden.3.And with his large hand Yahweh took his people Israel out of Egypt for a holy people tohimself,13 and he also gave them the good land from the river of Egypt14 unto the greatriver.15 And they did not keep his covenant which he had made with them upon themountain of God16 and did not obey his voice.13This is the Hebrew expression for taking someone as something to yourself. Wrestle with this line to try tomake sense of it. The expression is common in the biblical text.14That is, the Nile. The specific name for the Nile in Hebrew is יְ אֹר Yəʾōr.15That is, the Euphrates. The specific name for the Euphrates in Hebrew is ְפ ָרת Pərāṯ .16This mountain is called both ִֹסינַֹי Sînay and ח ֵֹרב Ḥōrēḇ, interchangeably.

.Yahweh kept Jacob from all evil.God saw the light that he had created. And, behold, ]it was[ very good.Samuel cut off the head of the king in the eyes of all Israel.The peoples who came against Israel said, “Yahweh is the God of the mountains.”And the name of Abraham’s wife ]was[ Sarah.Sarah said to Abraham her husband, “Behold, I am an old woman, and God has notgiven me a son.”Moses called out in a loud voice, “Yahweh is with us, and he has also put in our handboth the city and the people that ]are[ in it.”The men of Israel were in the mountains all the day unto the night.From the top of the mountain Moses saw the land which Yahweh gave to the Israelites.The elders of the people came to the palace of the king, and dust ]was[ upon their head.God has heard my voice, for he is my light on the day of darkness.Jacob heard the dream and also kept the matter, for he said, “The dream is from God.”And in his dream, Jacob saw, and behold, a large mountain with its top in the sky.And in all the wise men of the city there was not a man who knew the matter of thedream.Yahweh made a distinction between the prophets of Egypt and his prophet Moses.The prophets dwelled on one of the mountains of the land, and at their head wasSamuel.Behold, his hand ]was[ in everything, and the hand of every man ]was[ on him.Abraham made a covenant with the king of the city.From his temple that is in heaven, Yahweh saw his people and heard our voice. ת־ה ִֹא ָשהֹ לָֹ ִֹאיש ְל ִֹא ָשה ֹ ָ ֹלהים נָ ַתן ֶא ִֹ ֱא ֹ] הֹ[ּב ָ֫ ַליְ ָלה ַ מּואל ָש ַמעֹ ֶאת־קול יְ הוָ ה ַּב ָָֹ֫ליְ ָֹל ֵ ְש ֹ] ץֹמ ְצ ָ ָ֫ריִֹ םֹ[ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָֹ֫ריִֹֹם ִֹ ל־ד ְב ֵריֹ יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־זִֹ ְקנֵ יֹ יִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ְּב ֶאָֹ֫ ֶֹר ִֹ ת־כ ָ א ֶֹ ֹ מ ֶשה ִֹד ֶּבר ֹֹ ישּה\ ַּב ֲע ָלּה ָ ת־ד ְב ֵרי ָה ִֹאיש ֲא ֶשרֹ ִֹד ֶּבר ֶאל־ ַא ְב ָר ָהםֹ ִֹא ִֹ ָש ָרה ָשֹ ְמ ָעהֹ ֶא ֹלהי ָה ָאָֹ֫ ֶר ֹץ ֵ ּובין ֱא ֵ ֹ יתיֹ וְ לֹאֹ ִֹה ְב ִֹדָֹ֫ילּו ֵּבינִֹ י ִֹ ת־ּב ִֹר ְ ש ְמרּו ְבנֵ י יִֹ ְש ָר ֵאל ֶא ֹ ָ ֹ לֹא ל־עמֹו ַ ֵעינֵ י יְ הוָ ה ֶא ּבֹ ֶקר ָֹ֫ ל־ה ַָֹ֫ליְ ָלה ַעד־אורֹ ַה ַ ת־ה ִֹאיש ִֹע ָמּהֹ ָכ ָ ה ִֹא ָשה ָשֹ ְמ ָרה ֶא ָֹ ֹלהים ִֹ ה ֱא ֹ ָ ֹ ל־הר ַ מ ֶלךֹ ָכ ַרת ְּב ִֹרית ִֹעם־ ָה ָעםֹ ַע ֶָֹ֫ ַה א ֶר ֹץ ִֹמ ְצ ַ ָֹ֫ריִֹ ם ֶָֹ֫ קולנּוֹ ְּב ֵָֹ֫ יְ הוָ ה ָש ַמע ֶאתֹ־ ל־ה ַע ִֹמים ֹ ָ ִֹה ְב ִֹדיל ֵּבין יִֹ ְש ָר ֵא ֹל ְל ֵבין ָכ ת־קולי ִֹ יכלו יְ הוָ ה ָש ַמע ֶא ָ ה ֹ ֵ ֵמ ַא ְב ָר ָהםֹ וְ ָש ָרהֹ ָהיּו זְ ֵקנִֹ יםֹ ְמאֹד וְֹיְ הוָ ה לֹאֹ נָ ַתןֹ ָל ֶהםֹ יְ ָל ִֹדים ת־ה ְפ ִֹרי [ ֵמֹ ַה ְפ ִֹרי] ְֹלאִֹֹי ָשּה ַ ה ִֹא ָשה ָֹנ ְתנָ הֹ ֶא ָֹ יננּו ֵָֹ֫ ּוב ֵ ֹ ּבינְ ך ֹ ֵ ֹ ת־ה ְּב ִֹריתֹ ֲא ֶשר ָכ ַרתֹ מ ֶֹשה ַ יאך וְ ל ֹא ָשֹ ְמרּו ֶא ֲ לֹאֹ ָש ַמע ָה ָעםֹ ְל ִֹד ְב ֵריֹ נְ ִֹב קוליֹ ֶאל־יְ הוָ ה ְּוד ָברֹו ִֹע ָמ ִֹדי\ ִֹע ִֹמי ִֹ ּבֹ ֶקר ָֹ֫ ּוב ַ ָּב ֶעָֹ֫ ֶרב יַ עֲֹקֹב יָ ַדע ִֹכי יְ הוָ ה ִֹעמֹו ֹ]ֹ ּוב ַע ְמך ְ [ֹֹ מך ֶָֹ֫ ּוב ַע ְ ֹֹ ֹלהי יִֹ

Unofficial Answer Key to Weingreen’s Hebrew Grammar Jason Hare – The Hebrew Café Introduction Jacob Weingreen’s A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew, first published in 1955, served for half a century as the standard text used in seminaries and colleges to introduce stude

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