Chapter 24 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep The West (1789-1900)

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Chapter 24Nationalist RevolutionsSweep the West (1789-1900)

Latin America Colonial society withcastes Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Enslaved Africans Native AmericanIndians

Latin AmericanRevolutions Enlightenment Ideas Locke Paine Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau Jefferson Franklin US Independence French Revolution

Revolutions 18001824 Haiti ToussaintL’Ouverture Dessalines African vs. French First Black Republic Attempted toexport racialrevolution failsRevolution in Haiti The French colony called SaintDomingue was the first Latin American territory tofree itself from European rule. The colony, nowknown as Haiti, occupied the western third of theisland of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Nearly500,000 enslaved Africans worked on Frenchplantations, and they outnumbered their mastersdramatically. White masters used brutal methodsto terrorize them and keep them powerless.

Revolutions 1800-1824 South America French influence during Napoleon BolivarColumbia/Venezuela/Ecuador Martin-Argentina/Chile O’Higgins-Peru Mexico Hidalgo-commoners-failed Morelos-commoners-failed Iturbide-creoles wins United Provinces of CentralAmerica Independence but fragments Brazil-Portuguese Dom Pedro-peaceful


European Revolutions Philosophies Conservative Rich monarchies Liberal Middle class Representative democracy Radical All class-democracy to allpeople Liberty, equality,brotherhood French revolution

European Nationalism Loyalty to a people Unite common groupsinto nations Examples Greece Balkans Belgium Germans Hungarians Resistance Conservatives Metternich Ottomans Russians

French Nationalism1848 Liberal reforms Factions splinterFrance Napoleon III Liberal Prosperity Industrialization Russia Crimean War Russia vs. Ottomans,British, French Liberal Romanovs Nicholas I Alexander II Assassinated Alexander IIIFrance Accepts a Strong Ruler In December 1848, Louis-Napoleon, thenephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won the presidential election. Four yearslater, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte took the title of Emperor Napoleon III. Amajority of French voters accepted this action without complaint. TheFrench were weary of instability. They welcomed a strong ruler whowould bring peace to France.As France’s emperor, Louis-Napoleon built railroads, encouragedindustrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works.Gradually, because of Louis-Napoleon’s policies, unemployment decreasedin France, and the country experienced real prosperity.Reform and Reaction The first and boldest of Alexander’s reforms was adecree freeing the serfs in 1861. The abolition of serfdom, however, wentonly halfway. Peasant communities— rather than individual peasants—received about half the farmland in the country. Nobles kept the otherhalf. The government paid the nobles for their land. Each peasantcommunity, on the other hand, had 49 years to pay the government forthe land it had received. So, while the serfs were legally free, the debt stilltied them to the land.

Nationalism Unification Separation State Building Empires shake Austria Austria-Hungary Duel Kingdom Russia Romanovs tighten control Ottoman Balkans break offThe Russian Empire Crumbles Nationalismalso helped break up the 370-year old empireof the czars in Russia. In addition to theRussians themselves, the czar ruled over 22million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, andsmaller numbers of Lithuanians, Latvians,Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians,Armenians, Turks, and others. Each group hadits own culture.


Italy Piedmont-Sardinia Cavour King VictorEmmanuel Napoleon III Two Sicilies Garibaldi Red-Shirts Papal States Vatican City

Germany Bismarck Realpolitik Prussia Junkers Wars 1864-1870 Prussia vs. DenmarkPrussia vs. AustriaPrussia vs. FranceGermany Unified Great Powers von Bismarck 1815–1898To some Germans, Bismarck was the greatest and noblest ofGermany’s statesmen. They say he almost singlehandedly unified thenation and raised it to greatness. To others, he was nothing but adevious politician who abused his powers and led Germany intodictatorship. His speeches, letters, and memoirs show him to be bothcrafty and deeply religious. At one moment, he could declare, “It isthe destiny of the weak to be devoured by the strong.” At anothermoment he might claim, “We Germans shall never wage aggressivewar, ambitious war, a war of conquest.”


Revolutions in the Arts Romanticism WordsworthByronShelleyKeatsVon GoetheBrothers GrimmHugo Gothic Horror Shelley’s Frankenstein Music BeethovenSchumannChopinWagner emphasized inner feelings, emotions, andimagination focused on the mysterious, the supernatural, andthe exotic,grotesque, or horrifying loved the beauties of untamed nature idealized the past as a simpler and nobler time glorified heroes and heroic actions cherished folk traditions, music, and stories valued the common people and the individual promoted radical change and democracy

Realism Life as it is Photographers Daguerreotypes Writers Balzac Zola Dickens Impressionists A moment in time Color Positive images MonetDegasRenoirdebussey

Chapter 24 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West (1789-1900) Latin America Colonial society with . Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Enslaved Africans Native American Indians Latin American Revolutions Enlightenment Ideas Locke Paine Voltaire Montesquieu . Chapter 24 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West .File Size: 1MB

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